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Kadungon or Kadunkon was also the name an earlier Pandya king, mentioned in the Sangam literature.

Reignc. 590–620 CE
SuccessorMaravarman Avanisulamani
IssueMaravarman Avanisulamani
Pandya dynasty
Early Pandya polity
Koon Pandiyan
Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi
Nedunjeliyan I
Nedunjeliyan II
Nan Maran
Nedunjeliyan III
Maran Valudi
Kadalan Valuthi
Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan
Ukkirap Peruvaludi
Early Medieval Pandyas
Kadungon (c. 590–620)/(c. 560–590)
Maravarman Avanichulamani (c. 620–645)/(c. 590–620)
Cheliyan Chendan (c. 654–670)/(c. 620–650)
Arikesari Maravarman
(c. 670–700)/(c. 650–700)
Ko Chadaiyan Ranadhira (c. 700–730)
Maravarman Rajasimha I (c. 730–765)/(c. 730–768)
Jatila Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan/
Varaguna I (c. 756–815)/(c. 768–815)
Srimara Srivallabha (c. 815–862)
Varaguna II (c. 862–880)/(c. 862–885)
Parantaka Viranarayana (c. 880–900)/(c. 860–905)
Maravarman Rajasimha II (c. 900–920)/(c. 905–920)

Kadungon (r. c. 590–620 CE) was a Pandya king of early historic south India. He is chiefly remembered for reviving the Pandya dynastic power in south India. Along with the Pallava king Simhavishnu (r. c. 560–80/555–90 CE), he is credited with ending the Kalabhra rule, marking the beginning of a new era in south India.[1]

Kadungon's title was "Pandyadhiraja",[2] and his capital was Madurai. He was succeeded by his son Maravarman Avanisulamani.[3]


Most historians, including R. C. Majumdar, state the period of Kadungon rule as 590–620 CE.[4][5][6][7]

Velvikudi Grant[edit]

The Sangam literature mentions the early Pandya dynasty, which is believed to have gone into obscurity during the Kalabhra interregnum. The last known king of this dynasty was Ugrapperuvaludi.[12]

Kadungon is the next known Pandyan king.[12] Not much information is available about him.[13] Most of the knowledge about him comes from the Velvikudi inscription of the Pandya king Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (also Nedunjadaiyan or Nedunchezhiyan). According to this inscription, Kadungon defeated several petty chieftains and destroyed "the bright cities of unbending foes".[3][14] It describes him as the one who liberated the Pandya country from the Kalabhras and emerged as a "resplendent sun from the dark clouds of the Kalabhras".[15] His defeat of Kalabhras (who were probably Jains or Buddhists) was hailed as the triumph of Brahmanism.[16]


  1. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1987) [1968]. Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 395. ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4. OCLC 3756513.
  2. ^ Sastri, K A Nilakanta (1964). The Culture and History of the Tamils. K.L. Mukhopadhyay. p. 20. OCLC 17907908.
  3. ^ a b Chopra, Pran Nath; T.K. Ravindran; N. Subrahmanian (2003) [1979]. History of South India. S. Chand & Company Ltd. p. 79. ISBN 81-219-0153-7. OCLC 6357526.
  4. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 45-46. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  5. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Achut Dattatraya Pusalker; Asoke Kumar Majumdar (1977). The History and Culture of the Indian People. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 267. OCLC 59089562.
  6. ^ Perera, L. H. Horace; M Ratnasabapathy (1954). Ceylon & Indian history from early times to 1505 A.D. Colombo: W.M.A. Wahid. p. 161. OCLC 12935788.
  7. ^ Pollock, Sheldon Ivan (2003). Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 306. ISBN 978-0-520-22821-4. OCLC 46828947.
  8. ^ K. A. Nilakanta Sastri 1929, p. 41.
  9. ^ K. A. Nilakanta Sastri 1958, p. 165.
  10. ^ Noburu Karashima 2014, pp. 370.
  11. ^ Noburu Karashima 2014, pp. 86.
  12. ^ a b N. Subrahmanian 1962, p. 115.
  13. ^ Tripathi, Rama Shankar (1999) [1942]. History of Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 483. ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2. OCLC 43890119.
  14. ^ Rao Bahadur H. Krishna Sastri, ed. (1983) [1924]. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XVII. Archaeological Survey of India. pp. 291–309.
  15. ^ Padmaja, T. (2002). Temple of Krishna in South India: History, Art and Traditions in Tamilnadu. Abhinav Publications. p. 44. ISBN 978-81-7017-398-4. OCLC 52039112.
  16. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (1997). Walking Naked: Women, Society, Spirituality in South India. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. p. 69. ISBN 978-81-85952-39-0. OCLC 37442864.