Kaffir (racial term)
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Kaffir (alternatively kaffer; originally cafri) is an ethnic slur used to refer to a black person. In the form of cafri, it evolved during the pre-colonial period as an equivalent of "negro". In Southern Africa, the term was later used as an exonym for Bantu peoples. The designation came to be considered a pejorative by the 20th century.
In South Africa, the word was loosely used to refer to native South Africans. It was adopted as a derogatory term after 1948 when the Apartheid system was established. Under crimen injuria, the epithet kaffir has been actionable in the justice system of South Africa since 1976. In 2000, the South African parliament also enacted the Promotion of Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, which has among its primary objectives the prevention of hate speech terms such as kaffir. When describing the term, the euphemism the K-word is now often used instead of kaffir.
Kaffir has also been used to refer to an ethnic group in Sri Lanka, the Sri Lanka Kaffirs, who are partially descended from 16th-century Portuguese traders and the slaves that they brought from their colonies in Africa to work as labourers and soldiers. Unlike in South Africa, the Sri Lankan Kaffirs do not consider the term offensive.
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The word kāfir is the active participle of the Semitic root K-F-R "to cover". As a pre-Islamic term, it described farmers burying seeds in the ground, covering them with soil while planting. Thus, the word kāfir implies the meaning "a person who hides or covers". In Islamic parlance, a kāfir is a person who rejects Islamic faith, i.e. "hides or covers [viz., the truth]".
"Kaffir" is derived from the Arabic word (Arabic: كافر kāfir) that is usually translated into English as "disbeliever" or "non-believer", i.e. a non-Muslim or "one without religion". The word was originally applied to non-Muslims in general, and therefore to non Muslim black peoples encountered along the Swahili coast by Arab traders. The Portuguese who arrived on the East African coast in 1498, encountered the usage of the term by the coastal Arabs, but not the Swahili who used the term Washenzi (meaning "uncivilized") to describe the non-Islamic people of the African interior. The poet Camões used the plural form of the term (cafres) in the fifth canto of his 1572 poem Os Lusíadas. This interpretation was probably passed on to other Europeans in succession, the Spanish, English, Dutch and French. From the Portuguese the term was passed onto their Asian possessions and exists in several Asian languages including Konkani in India as "Khapri" and in Sinhalese as "Kaapiri". The terms are descriptive of the pagan natives of Cafreria, but are not considered offensive in either Western India or in Sri Lanka.
Arab traders adopted the term to refer to non-Muslim people. Variations of the word were used in English, Dutch, and, later, in Afrikaans, from the 17th century to the early 20th century as a general term for several different people of Southern Africa. In Portuguese, in French and in Spanish, the equivalent cafre was used. The term acquired a distinctly derogatory meaning in the context of South African history, especially during the Apartheid era. In Afrikaans, the term is more commonly spelled kaffer.
The word "Kaffir" is the Arabic word for an unbeliever, i.e. non-Muslim, and was used by Arab slavers to refer to the indigenous black people of East, Central and West Africa, whence they acquired their slaves. It thence became a common word used by early European settlers to refer to the same people. Through time "Kaffir" tended, in mid-20th century Southern Africa, to be used as a derogatory term for black people, and in South Africa today, the term is regarded as highly racially offensive, in the same way as nigger in the United States and other English-speaking countries. Use of the word has been actionable in South African courts since at least 1976 under the offense of crimen injuria: "the unlawful, intentional and serious violation of the dignity of another".
The 16th century explorer Leo Africanus described the Cafri as pagan "negroes", and one of five principal population groups in Africa. According to him, they were "as blacke as pitch, and of a mightie stature, and (as some thinke) descended of the Jews; but now they are idolators." Leo Africanus identified the Cafri's geographical heartland as being located in remote southern Africa, an area which he designated as Cafraria.
Following Leo Africanus, the works of Richard Hakluyt designate this population as Cafars and Gawars (Ilitterate), which is, infidels or disbelievers". Hakluyt refers to slaves ("slaves called Cafari") and certain inhabitants of Ethiopia ("and they use to go in small shippes, and trade with the Cafars") by two different but similar names. The word is also used in allusion to a portion of the coast of Africa ("land of Cafraria"). On early European maps of the 16th and 17th centuries, southern Africa was likewise called by cartographers Cafreria.
The word was used to describe all black people in the region, including the San and Khoi Khoi, at the time of Europeans' first contact with them. This included many ethnic groups, such as the Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Tswana and others. The term was also used by early Boer trek farmers to describe a person not converted to Christianity, similar to the Arabic meaning.
The word was used officially in this way, without derogatory connotations, during the Dutch and British colonial periods until the early twentieth century. It appears in many historical accounts by anthropologists, missionaries and other observers, as well as in academic writings. For example, the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford originally labeled many African artifacts as "Kaffir" in origin. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica made frequent use of the term, to the extent of having an article of that title.
The late nineteenth–early twentieth century novelist, H. Rider Haggard, frequently used the term "kaffir" in his novels of dark Africa, especially those of the great white hunter, Allan Quatermain. Haggard, who was a contemporary of Robert Louis Stevenson and Rudyard Kipling, never used the term with any derogatory intent. It just referred to native blacks. In fact, Haggard stands as one of the primary tellers of native African culture, religion and superstition, often giving them the upper hand in terms of cleverness and spirituality to whites.
Apartheid-era South Africa
In the case of Butana Almond Nofomela, while working as an undercover policeman during the early 1980s, Nofomela stabbed to death a Brits farmer, Lourens. Nofomela had only intended to rob the wealthy tiller, but Lourens confronted him with a firearm and called him kaffir. This enraged Nofomela, who then killed the farmer.
The Afrikaans term Kaffir-boetie (English: Kafir brother) was also often used to describe a white person who fraternised with or sympathized with the cause of the black community. This would be similar to "negro lover" and similar expressions used by white racists in English-speaking countries.
During the South African general election in 1948, those who supported the establishment of an apartheid regime campaigned under the slogan "Die kaffer op sy plek" ("The Kaffir in his place").
Kaffir in the Namibian context was a derogatory term which mainly referred to blacks in general but more particularly to black workers as people who do not have any rights and who should also not expect any benefits except favours which bosses ('baas') could show at their own discretion.
Post-apartheid South Africa
In 2000, the parliament of South Africa enacted the Promotion of Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act. The Act's primary objectives include the prevention of hate speech terms, such as kaffir:
- To promote equality
- To prohibit and prevent unfair discrimination (either on the basis of age, race, sex, disability, language, religion, culture, etc.)
- To prevent hate speech (e.g. calling people names such as kaffir, koelies, hotnot, etc.)
- To prevent harassment
Notwithstanding the end of Apartheid and the above-mentioned Act, usage of the word in South Africa continues today.
In February 2008 there was huge media and public outcry in South Africa after Irvin Khoza, then chairperson of the 2010 FIFA World Cup organizing committee, used the term during a press briefing in reference to a journalist.
A statement made during the March 5, 2008 sitting of the South African Parliament shows how the usage of the word is seen today:
We should take care not to use derogatory words that were used to demean black persons in this country. Words such as Kaffir, coolie, Boesman, hotnot and many others have negative connotations and remain offensive as they were used to degrade, undermine and strip South Africans of their humanity and dignity.
In July 2014, the Supreme Court of Appeal upheld a 2012 conviction for offences of crimen injuria and assault relating to an argument about parking in which a man used the word. The judgement states:
The word kaffir is racially abusive and offensive and was used in its injurious sense ... in this country, its use is not only prohibited but is actionable as well. In our racist past it was used to hurt, humiliate, denigrate and dehumanise Africans. This obnoxious word caused untold sorrow and pain to the feelings and dignity of the African people of this country.
In March 2018, Vicki Momberg became the first woman to be convicted of racist language for using the term over 40 times at two South African police officers.
Some indicative examples:
- Mahatma Gandhi: "The latest papers received from South Africa, unfortunately for the Natal Government, lend additional weight to my statement that the Indian is cruelly persecuted being in South Africa ... A picnic party of European children used Indian and Kaffir boys as targets and shot bullets into their faces, hurting several inoffensive children." – Letter to the editor of Times of India, Oct 17th, 1896.
- Winston Churchill, during the Boer War, wrote of his "irritation that Kaffirs should be allowed to fire on white men".
- John Philip Sousa's 1914 concert suite "Tales of a Traveler", composed after his band's tour to South Africa, contains a movement titled "The Kaffir on the Karoo".
- At the start of the 1946 Sherlock Holmes film Terror by Night, the narrator speaks of a famous diamond "First touched by the fingers of the humble kaffir..." while a black man is shown picking up a stone from the ground.
- Kaffir is the title of a 1995 hit song by the black Johannesburg Kwaito artist Arthur Mafokate. The lyrics say, "don't call me a kaffir". This song is considered one of the very first hits of the Kwaito genre, and is said to have set precedent for the post-apartheid generation struggle of combining dance music with the new phenomenon of freedom of expression in South Africa.
- Kaffir Boy is the title of Mark Mathabane's autobiography, who grew up in the township of Alexandra, travelled to the United States on a tennis scholarship, and became a successful author in his adoptive homeland.
- In the film Lethal Weapon 2, South African criminal Arjen Rudd (played by Joss Ackland), his colleague Pieter Vorstedt (played by Derrick O'Connor) and their followers frequently refer to Danny Glover's character Roger Murtaugh, who is African American, as a "kaffir". His partner Detective Martin Riggs (Mel Gibson) is referred to as a "kaffir-lover". At the end of the movie when Riggs and Murtaugh kill off the bad guys (who were smuggling illicit drugs hidden in coffee), Murtaugh says they were "de-kaffirnated".
- South African cricket players complained that they were racially abused by some spectators during a December 2005 Test match against host country Australia held in Perth. Makhaya Ntini, a black player in the team, was taunted with the word "kaffir". Other white players such as Shaun Pollock, Justin Kemp, Garnett Kruger were subjected to shouts of kaffirboetie, an Afrikaans term which means "brother of a kaffir".
- Australian tennis player Brydan Klein was fined $16,000 following a qualifying match at the Eastbourne International, June 2009, for unsportsmanlike conduct after allegedly calling his South African opponent, Raven Klaasen, a "kaffir".
- In the film Blood Diamond (2006), Leonardo DiCaprio's character Danny Archer refers to Djimon Hounsou's character Solomon Vandy as a kaffir, which triggers the start of a vicious fistfight.
"Kaffir lime" is one of the names of a citrus fruit native to tropical countries in South and South East Asia. Its etymology is uncertain, but most likely was originally used by Muslims as a reference to the location the plant grew, which was in countries populated by non-Muslims (Hindus and Buddhists). Under this interpretation, the plant name shares an origin with the South African term, both ultimately derived from kafir, the Arabic word for "non-believer". The fruit name as such never had any offensive connotations, but due to the present negative connotations of "Kaffir" The Oxford Companion to Food recommends that the alternative term "makrut lime" be favored when speaking of this fruit.
- W.A. Joubert, 1981; The Law of South Africa, VI, p251-254
- "Press Statement: Public awareness campaign on Equality Courts" (PDF). Department of Justice and Constitutional Development, Republic of South Africa. 2004-11-27. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
- Onishi, Norimitsu (27 October 2016). "Jail Time for Using South Africa's Worst Racial Slur?" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Where 'kaffir' is no insult". The Telegraph. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Harper, Douglas (2001–2010). "Kaffir". Online Etymological Dictionary.
- Africanus, Leo (1526). The History and Description of Africa. Hakluyt Society. pp. 20, 41, 53, 65 & 68. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- Works by Richard Hakluyt at Project Gutenberg
- "Kaffirs". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. 1911. pp. 627–629.
- "FORMER VLAKPLAAS MAN KILLED FARMER WHO CALLED HIM A KAFFIR". South African Press Association. 1997-01-22. Archived from the original on 2009-09-01. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- "HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS - CASE: EC131/96 - MDANTSANE". Truth and Reconciliation Commission. 1997-06-11. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- "CASE NO: CT/00001". Truth and Reconciliation Commission. 1996-04-24. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- "Promoting Worker Rights and Labour Standards: The Case of Namibia" (PDF). Labour Resource and Research Institute. November 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- Makatile, Don. "Kollapen battles for equality". Sowetan. Archived from the original on 2009-09-07. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- Mabaso, Thabo (2008-02-26). "Khoza's k-word opens a can of worms". Independent Online. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- "We will take K-word Khoza to court, says HRC". Independent Online. 2008-02-23. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- "Apologise for using the k-word or else: SAHRC". Independent Online. 2008-02-22. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- "Statement on Cabinet Meeting of 5 March 2008". South African Department of Foreign Affairs. 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- Erasmus, Jonathan (16 March 2012). "Fine for racist insult". The Witness. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- Grobler, Andre (15 July 2014). "Man loses appeal over k-word". SAPA. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- Johann Hari (October 27, 2010). "Not his finest hour: The dark side of Winston Churchill". The Independent. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Tales of a Traveler: (a) The Kaffir on the Karoo". memory.loc.gov. 29 March 2018.
- Mhlambi, Thokozani. "'Kwaitofabulous': The study of a South African urban genre". Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa, vol 1 (2004): 116–127.
- "Call for life bans after Kaffir slurs - Cricket - Sport - smh.com.au". www.smh.com.au.
- Pearce, Linda (5 October 2010). "Klein stripped of coaching support". The Age. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Blood Diamond (2006)" – via www.imdb.com.
- (ISBN 0-19-211579-0)
- Kaffirs in Sri Lanka: Descendants of enslaved Africans
- The transcripts of the Human Rights Violations Hearings & Submissions of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission contains a large number of references to the use of the word kaffir during the South African Apartheid era.
- The Provenance of the term ‘Kafir’ in South Africa and the notion of Beginning[permanent dead link] by Gabeba Baderoon
- A Dictionary of South African English on historical principles. Oxford University Press, in Association with the Dictionary Unit for South African English. 1996. ISBN 0-19-863153-7. OCLC 35662626.
- 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article using the term as its title
- Mark Mathabane (1998). Kaffir Boy. Sagebrush Education Resources. ISBN 0-8335-0211-5.
- Historical definition of the term from the Nutall Encyclopedia, 1907