Kaffir lime

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Citrus hystrix
Citrus hystrix dsc07772.jpg
Citrus hystrix on sale
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. hystrix
Binomial name
Citrus hystrix
DC.[1]
Synonyms[2]
  • Citrus auraria Michel
  • Citrus balincolong (Yu.Tanaka) Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus boholensis (Wester) Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus celebica Koord.
  • Citrus combara Raf.
  • Citrus echinata St.-Lag. nom. illeg.
  • Citrus hyalopulpa Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus kerrii (Swingle) Tanaka
  • Citrus kerrii (Swingle) Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus latipes Hook.f. & Thomson ex Hook.f.
  • Citrus macroptera Montrouz.
  • Citrus micrantha Wester
  • Citrus papeda Miq.
  • Citrus papuana F.M.Bailey
  • Citrus southwickii Wester
  • Citrus torosa Blanco
  • Citrus tuberoides J.W.Benn.
  • Citrus ventricosa Michel
  • Citrus vitiensis Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus westeri Yu.Tanaka
  • Fortunella sagittifolia K.M.Feng & P.Y.Mao
  • Papeda rumphii Hassk.

The kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), sometimes referred to in English as the makrut lime[3] or Mauritius papeda,[4] is a citrus fruit native to tropical Asia, including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines.

Its fruit and leaves are used in Southeast Asian cuisine and its essential oil is used in perfumery.[5]

Common names[edit]

In English it is known as kaffir lime (also transliterated "kieffer lime") or makrut lime (magrood lime). The Oxford Companion to Food [6] recommends that the term "makrut lime" be favored over "kaffir lime" because Kaffir is an offensive term in some cultures.

However, the etymology of the name "kaffir lime" is uncertain and, according to lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, "It seems very likely that it comes from that particular strand.” Furthermore, the earliest written use comes from Sri Lanka, the home of an ethnic group that proudly as call themselves the Kaffirs.[7] According to lexicographer John Ayto, the term kaffir lime does not appear to be linked to other southern African terms like kaffir cattle, kaffir orange, and kaffir plum, which makes sense given that the fruit is not from Africa. [8]

Description[edit]

Large tree
Illustration of Citrus torusa (C. hystrix) by Francisco Manuel Blanco

Citrus hystrix is a thorny bush, 6 to 35 feet (1.8 to 10.7 m) tall, with aromatic and distinctively shaped "double" leaves.[9][10] These hourglass-shaped leaves comprise the leaf blade plus a flattened, leaf-like stalk (or petiole). The fruit is rough and green; it is distinguished by its bumpy exterior and its small size, approximately 4 cm (2 in) wide.[10]

Uses[edit]

Kaffir/Makrut lime leaves are used in some South East Asian cuisines such as Indonesian, Lao, Cambodian, and Thailand (มะกรูด).

Cuisine[edit]

The leaves are the most frequently used part of the plant, fresh, dried, or frozen. The leaves are widely used in Thai[11] and Lao cuisine (for dishes such as tom yum), and Cambodian cuisine (for the base paste "krueng"). Kaffir/Makrut lime leaves are used in Vietnamese cuisine to add fragrance to chicken dishes and to decrease the pungent odor when steaming snails. The leaves are used in Indonesian cuisine (especially Balinese cuisine and Javanese cuisine), for foods such as soto ayam, and are used along with Indonesian bay leaf for chicken and fish. They are also found in Malaysian and Burmese cuisines.[12] In South Indian cuisine it is used widely.

The rind (peel) is commonly used in Lao and Thai curry paste, adding an aromatic, astringent flavor.[11] The zest of the fruit referred to as combava is used in creole cuisine to impart flavor in "arranged" (infused) rums and rougails in Martinique, Réunion and Madagascar. In Cambodia, the entire fruit is crystallized/candied for eating.[13]

Medicinal[edit]

The juice and rinds are used in traditional medicine in some Asian countries; the fruit's juice is often used in shampoo and is believed to kill head lice.[10]

Other uses[edit]

The juice finds use as a cleanser for clothing and hair in Thailand and very occasionally in Cambodia. Lustral water mixed with slices of the fruit is used in religious ceremonies in Cambodia.

Cultivation[edit]

Citrus hystrix is grown worldwide in suitable climates as a garden shrub for home fruit production. It is well suited to container gardens and for large garden pots on patios, terraces, and in conservatories.

Main constituents[edit]

The compound responsible for the characteristic aroma was identified as (–)-(S)-citronellal, which is contained in the leaf oil up to 80%; minor components include citronellol (10%), nerol and limonene.

From a stereochemical point of view, it is remarkable that kaffir/makrut lime leaves contain only the (S) stereoisomer of citronellal, whereas its enantiomer, (+)-(R)-citronellal, is found in both lemon balm and (to a lesser degree) lemon grass, (note, however, that citronellal is only a trace component in the latter's essential oil).

Kaffir/Makrut lime fruit peel contains an essential oil comparable to lime fruit peel oil; its main components are limonene and β-pinene.[5][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "TPL, treatment of Citrus hystrix DC.". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  2. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 3 October 2015 
  3. ^ D.J. Mabberley (1997), "A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae)" (PDF), Telopea, 7 (2): 167–172 
  4. ^ GRIN. "Citrus hystrix DC.". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Ng, D.S.H.; Rose, L.C.; Suhaimi, H.; Mohamad, H.; Rozaini, M.Z.H.; Taib, M. (2011). "Preliminary evaluation on the antibacterial activities of Citrus hystrix oil emulsions stabilized by TWEEN 80 and SPAN 80" (PDF). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 3 (Suppl. 2). 
  6. ^ (ISBN 0-19-211579-0)
  7. ^ L.V. Anderson, "Is the Name Kaffir Lime Racist?", National Geographic, retrieved 7 June 2016 
  8. ^ John Layto, The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-4397-0818-4 
  9. ^ Kuntal Kumar (1 January 2008). The Original Organics Cookbook: recipes for healthy living. TERI Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-81-7993-155-4. 
  10. ^ a b c George Staples; Michael S. Kristiansen (1 January 1999). Ethnic Culinary Herbs: A Guide to Identification and Cultivation in Hawaiʻi. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 27–29. ISBN 978-0-8248-2094-7. 
  11. ^ a b Loha-unchit, Kasma. "Kaffir Lime –Magrood". Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  12. ^ Wendy Hutton, Wendy; Cassio, Alberto. Handy Pocket Guide to Asian Herbs & Spices. Singapore: Periplus Editions. p. 40. ISBN 0-7946-0190-1. 
  13. ^ Dy Phon Pauline, 2000, Plants Used In Cambodia, printed by Imprimerie Olympic, Phnom Penh
  14. ^ Kasuan, Nurhani (2013). "Extraction of Citrus hystrix D.C. (Kaffir Lime) Essential Oil Using Automated Steam Distillation Process: Analysis of Volatile Compounds" (PDF). Malyasian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 17 (3): 359–369.