Marash

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Kahramanmaraş
A view of the city center
A view of the city center
Kahramanmaraş is located in Turkey
Kahramanmaraş
Kahramanmaraş
Location of Kahramanmaraş within Turkey.
Coordinates: 37°35′N 36°56′E / 37.583°N 36.933°E / 37.583; 36.933Coordinates: 37°35′N 36°56′E / 37.583°N 36.933°E / 37.583; 36.933
CountryTurkey
RegionMediterranean
ProvinceKahramanmaraş
Area
 • District3,017.45 km2 (1,165.04 sq mi)
Elevation
568 m (1,864 ft)
Population
 (2021)[2]
 • Total
1,168,163
 • Total density390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Area code0344
Licence plate46

Kahramanmaraş (Turkish pronunciation: [kahɾaˈmanmaɾaʃ]), historically known as Germanicea (Greek: Γερμανίκεια), is a city in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province. Before 1973, Kahramanmaraş was officially named Maraş, and later, it attained the prefix "kahraman" (meaning "hero" in Turkish) to commemorate Battle of Marash. The city lies on a plain at the foot of the Ahir Dağı (Ahir Mountain).The region is best known for its distinctive ice cream, and its production of salep, a powder made from dried orchid tubers. Kahramanmaraş Airport has flights to İstanbul and Ankara.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

A statue in Kahramanmaraş Archeology Museum
A statue in Kahramanmaraş Archeology Museum
Trabzon street, Kahramanmaraş city center

In the early Iron Age (late 11th century BC to ca. 711 BC[3]), Maraş was the capital city of the Syro-Hittite state Gurgum (Hieroglyphic Luwian Kurkuma). It was known as "the Kurkumaean city" to its Luwian inhabitants and as Marqas to the Assyrians.[4] In 711 BC, the land of Gurgum was annexed as an Assyrian province and renamed Marqas after its capital.[5]

Maraş was called Germanicia Caesarea (Ancient Greek: Γερμανίκεια, Germanikeia) in the time of the Roman and Byzantine empires, probably after Germanicus Julius Caesar rather than the German people. According to a 2010 Cumhuriyet article, the first ruins of Germanicia have already been unearthed in the Dulkadiroğulları quarters of the city.[6]

Germanikeia was captured by Baldwin I of Jerusalem in 1098, during the First Crusade, and made part of the County of Edessa, becoming an important center during Crusader rule. According to the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, it was destroyed by an earthquake and 10,000 people were killed, which is probably an exaggeration. In 1100, it was captured by the Danishmends, followed by the Seljuks in 1103. In 1107, Crusaders led by Tancred retook it with aid from Toros I of Little Armenia. In 1135, the Danishmends besieged Germanikeia unsuccessfully, but captured it the next year. However, the Crusaders retook it in 1137.[7]

Panorama view (c1875)

Kaykhusraw I, Sultan of Rum captured Marash in 1208. Seljuk rule lasted to 1258, when Maraş was captured by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, following the war with the Ilkhanate. Served by an Armenian Apostolic Church Archbishop, it became for a very short period of time, the seat of the Catholicossate of the Great House of Cilicia. Marash was captured by Al-Ashraf Khalil, Mamluk Sultan, in 1292. It was recaptured by Hethum II, King of Cilician Armenia, in 1299. Marash was finally taken by the Mamluks in 1304.[citation needed]

Marash was ruled by Dulkadirs as vassals of the Mamluks from 1337–1515 before being annexed to the Ottoman Empire. In the early days of Ottoman rule (1525–6) there were 1,557 adult males (total population 7,500); at this time all the inhabitants were Muslims,[8] but later a substantial number of non-Muslims migrated to the city, mainly in the 19th century.[9]

Modern period[edit]

During Ottoman rule, the city was initially the centre of Eyalet of Dulkadir (also called Eyalet of Zûlkâdiriyye) and then an administrative centre of a sanjak in the Vilayet of Aleppo.

After the First World War, Marash was controlled by British troops between 22 February 1919 and 30 October 1919, then by French troops, after the Armistice of Mudros. It was taken over by the Turkish National Movement after the Battle of Marash on 13 February 1920. Afterward a massacre of Armenian civilians took place.[10] Roving Turkish bands threw kerosene-doused rags on Armenian homes and laid a constant barrage upon the American relief hospital.[11] The Armenians themselves, as in previous times of trouble, sought refuge in their churches and schools.[12] Women and children found momentary shelter in Marash's six Armenian Apostolic and three Armenian Evangelical churches, and in the city's sole Catholic cathedral. All the churches, and eventually the entire Armenian districts, were set alight.[13][14][15] When the 2,000 Armenians who had taken shelter in the Catholic cathedral attempted to leave, they were shot.[16] Early reports put the number of Armenians dead at no less than 16,000, although this was later revised down to 5,000–12,000.[17][18]

In 1973, Marash's name was changed to Kahramanmaraş when the Turkish government added "Kahraman" to the name, in reference to the resistance to the French occupation after the First World War. Kahraman means "heroic" or “brave” in Turkish.[19]

In December 1978, the Maraş Massacre of leftist Alevis took place in the city. A Turkish nationalist group, the Grey Wolves, incited the violence that left more than 100 dead. The incident was important in the Turkish government's decision to declare martial law, and the eventual military coup in 1980.[20]

Year Population[21]
1525-6 7,500
1564-5 13,500
1914 32,700
1927 25,672
1940 27,744
1945 33,104
1950 34,641
1960 54,447
1970 110,761
1980 178,557

Demographics[edit]

In 1913, the town was home to 45 thousand Turks and 30 thousand Armenians, while other ethnic groups had very small representation.[22] The population of the province (which includes the city) was 1,112,634 as of 2017.[23]

Climate[edit]

Kahramanmaraş has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa, Trewartha: Cs). Summers are very hot and dry with a daytime average of 35 °C (95 °F) but temperatures can reach 40 °C (104 °F) quite easily. The highest recorded temperature is 45.2 °C (113.3 °F) on 30 July 2007. Winters are cool and wet with daytime temperatures typically in the 5-10 °C (40-50 °F) range. The coldest temperature recorded is -9.6 °C (14.7 °F) on 6 February 1997.

Climate data for Kahramanmaraş (1991–2020, extremes 1930–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.7
(65.7)
25.3
(77.5)
29.8
(85.6)
36.0
(96.8)
39.3
(102.7)
42.0
(107.6)
45.2
(113.4)
44.4
(111.9)
42.5
(108.5)
38.6
(101.5)
29.6
(85.3)
24.0
(75.2)
45.2
(113.4)
Average high °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
11.6
(52.9)
16.5
(61.7)
21.8
(71.2)
27.4
(81.3)
32.8
(91.0)
36.5
(97.7)
36.9
(98.4)
33.1
(91.6)
26.6
(79.9)
17.8
(64.0)
11.3
(52.3)
23.5
(74.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
6.7
(44.1)
11.0
(51.8)
15.6
(60.1)
20.6
(69.1)
25.7
(78.3)
28.9
(84.0)
29.2
(84.6)
25.6
(78.1)
19.6
(67.3)
11.8
(53.2)
6.9
(44.4)
17.2
(63.0)
Average low °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
2.7
(36.9)
6.3
(43.3)
10.3
(50.5)
14.8
(58.6)
19.5
(67.1)
22.8
(73.0)
23.0
(73.4)
19.2
(66.6)
13.8
(56.8)
7.4
(45.3)
3.6
(38.5)
12.1
(53.8)
Record low °C (°F) −9.0
(15.8)
−9.6
(14.7)
−7.6
(18.3)
−1.8
(28.8)
4.7
(40.5)
6.6
(43.9)
12.4
(54.3)
12.5
(54.5)
4.0
(39.2)
0.0
(32.0)
−4.4
(24.1)
−7.6
(18.3)
−9.6
(14.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 130.2
(5.13)
118.0
(4.65)
95.8
(3.77)
74.6
(2.94)
42.7
(1.68)
6.8
(0.27)
2.4
(0.09)
1.9
(0.07)
17.3
(0.68)
45.3
(1.78)
89.5
(3.52)
126.4
(4.98)
750.9
(29.56)
Average precipitation days 10.77 10.07 9.90 9.73 7.23 2.10 0.50 0.77 2.47 6.40 7.20 9.23 76.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.3 115.8 164.3 195.0 248.0 297.0 319.3 297.6 252.0 198.4 135.0 99.2 2,423.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.3 4.1 5.3 6.5 8.0 9.9 10.3 9.6 8.4 6.4 4.5 3.2 6.6
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[24]

Industry[edit]

Maraş view from Seyir hill

Several internationally known ice cream companies, like MADO, Yaşar Pastanesi, EDO and Ferah Pastanesi, started their business in Kahramanmaraş, and thousands of people visit the city because of its ice cream (dondurma in Turkish).

Turkish Ice Cream, also known as Kahramanmaraş Ice cream originates from the city.

Sports[edit]

At 2,300 m (7,500 ft) elevation, the nearby Yedikuyular Ski Resort offers winter sports activities.[25]

Notable natives[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ Bryce, Trevor (2012). The World of The Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-921872-1, pp. 125-128.
  4. ^ Payne, Annick (2012). Iron Age Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions. Society of Biblical Lit. ISBN 978-1-58983-658-7, p. 7.
  5. ^ Bryce 2012, p. 128.
  6. ^ Cumhuriyet , 20 December 2010 p. 20
  7. ^ Kahramanmaraş Tarihi Gelişimi
  8. ^ Kupferschmidt, Uri M. (1987). The Supreme Muslim Council: Islam Under the British Mandate for Palestine. Brill, p. 508 ISBN 9789004079298
  9. ^ Kupferschmidt 1987, pp. 508-509
  10. ^ "The Massacre Of Armenians." The Times. 28 February 1920.(subscription required)
  11. ^ "Eyewitness Tells How Armenians were Massacred." The New York Times. 29 February 1920.
  12. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (2008-01). "The Postwar Contest for Cilicia". In Armenian Cilicia, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian & Simon Payaslian. Mazda Publishers. p. 509. ISBN 978-1-56859-154-4
  13. ^ Muré, Materne (1921). Un épisode de la tragédie arménienne: le massacre de Marache (février 1920). Brussels: Société Belge de Libraire. (in French)
  14. ^ Kerr, Stanley Elphinstone (1973). The Lions of Marash: Personal Experiences with American Near East Relief, 1919-1922. SUNY Press, pp. 95–142. ISBN 978-0-87395-200-2
  15. ^ Sahakyan, Ruben G. (1970). Turk-Fransiakan haraberutyunnere ev Kilikian 1919-1921 tt. [Turkish-French Relations and Cilicia, 1919-1921]. Erevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, pp. 150–52.
  16. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The first year, 1918-1919. University of California Press, p. 41. ISBN 978-0-520-01805-1
  17. ^ Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. vii, p. 303.
  18. ^ Kerr 1973, p. 196.
  19. ^ "Kahramanmaras". Dokuz Eylül University. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  20. ^ Zürcher, Erik J. (2017). Turkey: A Modern History. I.B. Tauris. p. 267. ISBN 978-1-78673-183-8
  21. ^ Kupferschmidt 1987, pp. 508–509
  22. ^ Jernazian, Ephraim K. (1990). Judgement Unto Truth: Witnessing the Armenian Genocide. London: Transaction Publishers. p. 16. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  23. ^ see Demographics of Turkey#Census
  24. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  25. ^ "Yedikuyular Kayak Merkezi'ne mevsimin ilk karı yağdı". TRT Haber (in Turkish). 8 December 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2022.

External links[edit]