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Kaimal is a title of the Indian nobility. The term is derived from Kai which in the Malayalam language means hand, signifying power. Earlier Kaimals were either recognised chieftains, including the Kaimal of Vaikattillam, Kaimal of Karancheril, Kaimal of Niranampetti, the Anchu or five Kaimals of Cochin and Thachudaya Kaimal of Irinjalakuda Temple. Others were in charge of the treasury, which according to custom could not be seen even by the kings except in their presence. The counsel of the Kaimals was sought in all matters by their king or rajah.
- 1 Derivation
- 2 Foreign powers in Cochin
- 3 Portuguese ascendancy
- 4 Dutch in Cochin
- 5 Agreement of Dutch with AnjiKaimal
- 6 Continuing relationship Cochin Raja and Eranakulam chiefs
- 7 Other Kaimals and chiefs
- 8 Kaimals of Nandietter Naddu
- 9 Malabar Chiefs in 1717
- 10 The Last Great Nayar War - Battle of Ambalapuzha (1754)
- 11 Thachudaya Kaimal
- 12 Rajas, Samantans and Chiefs
- 13 End of the Feudal Age of Kerala
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
Historian K. P. Padmanabha Menon suggests that the term is derived from a Malayalam word, noting: "Perhaps from Kai = hand meaning power; cf. Kai, Kan, and Kalpana = 'the hand', 'the eye' and 'the order' said to be the distinguishing prerogatives of the Nair caste according to the 17th century Keralolpathi, a work dealing with the origins of the land of Kerala. Another definition is koima +alu Koima(Dominant) Alu(Person) 'The person who dominates'. They were the feudal chiefs of the Malabar Kings and are often mentioned by Portuguese writers such as Barbosa, Castenheda and others. These writers mention that between the death of the Zamorin of Calicut and the swearing in of his successor, the government of the country was conducted by Kaimals. It was at one time their prerogative that one of them should always be in exclusive charge of the treasuries of the Malabar Rajas, the Rajas themselves having no power over them except through the Kaimal in charge. "Neither could they" says Barbosa "take anything out it [the treasury] without a great necessity and by the council of this person." Linguist Captain Alexander Hamilton also speaks of the same effect applying to the Chirakkal Rajas. The Kaimals were feudatories that had independent governments of their own, and were obliged only to follow the Rajas into the field of battle with an allotted number of fighting men.(p190) Some of them were Village kings /Naduvazhis ex: Angi kaimal, Vakkayil kaimal, Korattyil kaimal, Ranniyil kaimal, etc.
The wives of Kaimals used the honorific title Kunjamma, indicative of their greater status among the Nair community, where ladies unanimously used the title of Amma. The title Kunjamma is an honorific used commonly by all the royal families of Kerala. The Gazetteer of India's entry on Eranakulam for 1965 in discussing an adoption of the Koratty Kaimal refers to the sister of the Koratty as princess and the male member of the Murianattu Nambiar (a noble) as prince.(p165) As a result, Kunjamma can be translated as princess. The Kaimals in history books are referred to as "fifth Kaimal of Kodasseri, or the third Kaimal of Panamukkat."(p171)
The Keralolpathi says that the title of Kaimal was given to the sons of Kolathiri, rulers of Kannur whom Keralolpathi addressed as Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal. According to the book, Kolathiris were the descendents of a Tulu prince brother of Tulu king Kavi Rajasinghan who established the Kolathiri dynasty in the 12th century at Valapattanam near Kannur. The matriarchal dynasty closely followed the customs of Bunt (community), including matriarchy, which was not practised by the earlier Tamil rulers of the Chera Dynasty. The Tulu invader sent as Viceroy of Kerala by Krishnaraya of Rashtrakuta dynasty, declared himself as Cheraman Perumal. The sons of this first Tulu Cheraman Perumal were called Ner Ninta Kaimal (The straight Kaimal) and Chuzhanuu Vanna Kaimal (The Kaimal who came in a twisted way). The son born of a Kshatriya queen was called Straight Kaimal while the descendent of Vellala (agriculturist) was called Twisted Kaimal according to Keralolpathi. Thus the Kaimal title is equivalent to the Thambi title of Travancore.
The Explorer Tome Pires, in his Portuguese translation of an account dating to 1512–15 notes - "Going from Mangalore to Comorin, the following are the kings in the province of Malabar, the king of Kottayyam, King of Cannannore, the King of Calicut, the King of Tanor, King of Kayamkulam, the King of Quilon, the King of Travencore, King of Comorin. There are great Kaimals in this country, some of whom are greater than many of these kings, though they have not the title of king. Some of them are Brahmans and some of them Nayars [Nairs]. .. The ports of Ponnani, Veleankode, and Chetwayi with the land belonging to each, are ports with ships and merchants and goodly towns. They belong to a Brahman lords and Kaimals. ... No one is allowed to roof his house with tiles unless it is a turicol or mosque or by special privilege, the house of some great Kaimal and this is to prevent them from becoming too powerful in the land. The kings of Malabar enforce this very firmly. They are called Kaimals in the same way we say dukes, marquises, counts and other titles, because they are lords possessing much land and vassals; there are some Kaimals in Malabar with then thousand Nayars (vassals), and there are others with hundred or two hundred Nayars."(pp73–82)
Historian A. Sreedhara Menon in his Survey of Kerala History says "Ernakulum and suburbs were in the possession of five powerful Nair nobles known as Anchi Kaimals (cognte with Anchu Kaimal) of whom the most important was Cheranellur (Cherally) Kartha. These nobles frequently changed alliances from the Zamorin to the Cochin Raja and vice versa. Beside the Anchi Kaimals there several other powerful Nair Chieftains to the north of Ernakulum. Of these the most important were the Muriyanattu Nambiar, the Paliath Achan, Naikaruveetil Achan, Koratti Kaimal, Chanagaram Kotha Kaimal and the Panambukattu Kaimal. These Nair nobles exercised immense powers within their domains, though they nominally owned allegiance to the Raja of Cochin."(p166) These Kaimals and their descendants are very much alive and prevalent in Ernakulum, Kerala, India, and worldwide.
The best known Kaimal family in Central Kerala is Vettikulangara Kaimal centered at Kottayam District. Aithihyamala of Sri Kottaram Sankunni refers to Vettikulangara Kaimal family and their prominence.It is believed and narrated in the aithihyamala that, Goddess Karthyayani of Kiliroor Devi Temple is shifted to present Devi temple from Vettikulangara Family. Vettikulangara Kaimals played major role in building this major temple.
Other noted Kaimal families include the Anchu Kaimals of Eranakulam. During the reign of the Kaimal lords, Eranakulam was called Anchu Kaimal. The chief of the Anchu Kaimals were the Cheranellur Kartha and this family is still prevalent in Cheranellur today. When the Cochin King signed a treaty with the Portuguese, the Anchu Kaimals signed a treaty with the Dutch.
A 1740 Dutch map of South Malabar shows that Angi Kaimal is about twice the size of the Cochin State.
Foreign powers in Cochin
Historically, Cochin was sequentially in the hands three foreign powers: the Portuguese, Dutch, and English. The Portuguese reigned supreme from 1500 to 1663 when they lost to the Dutch who remained in power until they surrendered Cochin to the British East India Company in 1795.(p xv)
Due to family politics within the Perumpaddappu Swarupam (Cochin Royal family) between two branches or Thavazhi's of the family, Cochin had become a petty principality dependent on the Zamorin of Calicut. The ruler accepted the Zamorin's suzerainty since he installed him on the throne and agreed to sell all his pepper and other merchandise in Calicut.
The Anchikaimals or the five nobles who held sway over Eranakulam and the neighboring territories on the coast also proclaimed their allegiance to the Zamorin and repudiated the authority of the Cochin Raja. This was the situation when Pedro Álvares Cabral and the Second Portuguese India Armada arrived in Cochin on 24 December 1500.(pp115–116)
The Portuguese entered Kerala and made a simple demand—they did not want just to participate in the trade between Kerala and rest of the world, they wanted all of it. It also appears that the naval strength and western style of armaments were unknown in Kerala before 1500.
The Fifth Portuguese India Armada under Afonso de Albuquerque arrived in 1503, just in time to save the Cochin king from the Zamorin. The Portuguese then turned their attention to the chieftains who had fought against the Cochin and committed many atrocities where they killed inhabitants in large numbers and indiscriminately burnt down towns and villages.(pp120–121) It was also at this time that the foreigners who were initially embraced as high caste, were degraded to the lowest Mleccha caste by common decree.
The Portuguese impressed upon the Raja the need to deal with his chiefs and entered into a treaty with the Anchi Kaimals where they accepted the overlordship of the Cochin throne.(p121)
Dutch in Cochin
On Oct.26, 1662, the Dutch reengaged the Portuguese and with the help of the AnchiKaimals took complete possession of Cochin from the Portuguese.(p153)
Agreement of Dutch with AnjiKaimal
TI Poonen says
it may be mentioned that one of the important causes of Dutch success in Cochin was the loyal co-operation they received from the AnchiKaimals or five lords of whom the most important was Cheranellular Kartha.
Lucas Van Waardan, Councillor and Secretary of the expedition to Malabar makes the following statement on 4 January 1663.
There appeared before me the person who has signed below Anjikaimali, who has made the protestation and confesses to be and remain now and for all time a faithful upright friend and servant of the Dutch East India Company, forsaking all friendship and correspondence with the Portuguese, Goda Varma, Purakkad and their further adherents for which purpose he, the above mentioned Lord Anchi Kaimal, being authorized thereto, appeared before me, and in his honor's name has done homage in all deference, and accordingly been accepted by me as friend and ally of the Hon'ble Company on the authority of the Lord Admiral and Commander-in-Chief, Rijckal of Van Goens, promising in his name to keep and maintain in truthe the said Kaimal, his quality, dignity, and honor. Executed at Anjikaimali this 4th January in the year 1663 and exchanged to both sides. Signed, Lucas Van Waarden, Councillor and Secretary of the expedition.
On the side of the, three lines of Malayalam characters against which stood written: "this is the signature of the Paliyatter(Paliath Achan); as witness also, lower a Malayalam Signature wherewith stood written, this the signature of Pullel Achan, Regiadoor of AnjKaimal. Under the signature of the Hon'ble Van Waarden stands a Malayalam signature near which stands written the signature in hand of the Palongett, regiadoor of AnjKaimal, and in the midst of all signatures stood the company's seal printed in red lac."
Continuing relationship Cochin Raja and Eranakulam chiefs
"The Angia Caimals are oppressed most of all because they live in the centre of his territories (Cochin Raja's) and right opposite to his Palace on the other side of the river; but it is for this very reason that they ought to be protected by the Honorable Company against the greediness of the King and Their High Worshipfuls have ordered a police force to be stationed in the bazard of Angiecaimal for this fertile land has of old been looked upon as the store-house of Cochin which indeed it is.
The land of Cherally (Cherenellular Karttavu) lie in front and this is the reason why he suffers most, but he is the strongest as he is also the chief of Cooremalecoor by adoption and I have advised him that he should occasionally show his teeth taking care that right is on his side; and in such a case it will be Your Excellency's business to stop those quarrels by the authority of the Company and act as mediator.
" I think this is the only way somewhat to moderate unbearable vexations of the King. Of these lands of Cooremalcoor, Tachetta, Moonencoor and Tattayet Paunicail export much pepper, but the Company has never had and will never get a grain of it except by determined measures. All I have been able .. more.. more.. This cannot be denied, because while we were are Kismalanaddu which land borders on Cooroomalecoor, we were at a loss how to bring down the pepper without heavy expenses, great trouble and waste; for this reason Their High Worshipfuls (AnjeKaimal) by secret letter, dated 222nd June 1741 have proposed that this product should be sold, on the spot with 75 percent advance.
Caimal Cherally(Cheranellur Kaimal who is also known as Karttavu) is a gentlemen of 50 to 60 years old, particularly cautious and shrewd and devoted to the Honorable Company. His heirs are not great courtiers but good soldiers, and when they take up the government they will probably not put up with the injustice of the King of Cochin but rather follow the example of their neighbors, Moorianatty Nambiar and Codachery Caimal, (Caimal of Nandietter Naddu) two powerful landed proprietors of the King. Being tired of his extortions they sent home the King's messengers, or rather marauders with bleeding heads by this incurred the great hatred of the grasping King; however since that time they are living unmolested.(pp101 & 102)
Other Kaimals and chiefs
Lands of Murianad Nambiar, also known as Muriassu Nambiar "lie between Cochin, Paponetty, Belossa Nambiar and Codacherry. The Portuguese mention that he had no heirs and wanted to adopt. The Cochin King would not support it so that they could "swallow up the beautiful land". The Company promised to support him as long as he sold his pepper to the Company.(p103)(pp61–62)
Paljetter (Paliath Achan) he is the principal ragrodoar and hereditary general of the State of Cochin, resides at Chennoty quite near Craganore; he is chief of the island of Bypin (Vypin)and sometime back he became by adoption a sovereign prince of Manacottaor or Mooloorcarre which lies to the north of Chetwai.
Kaimals of Nandietter Naddu
The lands of Kotasseri Kaimal lie between Paru (Parur), Cranganore, the Cochin territories and the hills.
The territory of the Camialinne of Correty is situated in the same neighborhood
The Kaimals of Nandietter Naddu are also referred in a list made in 1694 by the Dutch East India Company on Nayar Militias of approximately 1.3 Million people. Ref V, pp. 241–244 as having the following Nayars in the militia-
Nanderetti Nade Corsoseir Cymal - 30,000 Nayars Cories Cymal - 5,000 Nayars Siangrande Cymal - 5,000 Nayars Panna Makettas Cymal - 3,000
Note, the different ways Changara Kodda Kaimal is spelt in the different historical documents.
Malabar Chiefs in 1717
(based on letter by Councillor Extraordinary, William Bakkan Jacobtz announcing his arrival on 28 November 1716)
"To the Rajas of Porca, Repolim, Calicoilan, De Marta, Signatty, Travencore, Tekenkore, Berkenkore, Peritally
To the Ameens of Atinga, Cochin
To the Rajas of Cartadavil, Ayrore, Palacatchery, Valuvanatty, Colastry, Cranganore
To the Second Prince of Mangatty and or Bardella
To the Pula of Bariatta, Gurip of Travancore,7000 of Carapuram,30,000 of Cururndada, the Palayet, the 3000 of Bypin, Codacherry Caymil, Coratti Caymal, Changara Codda Caymil (Nanderitti Nadde), Mangatta Atsjar, Torttachery Talachenore, Murianatty Nambiar
To the Ayinicutty Nambeddy, Raja of Paru, Balanore of Baragara, Ade Raja of Cannanore, Cymal of Cunnattunadu, Tevengal Nairo, parrqa Elledam, Palurgatty Cymal, Tachetta Munancur, Cymal of Anjecymal, Payencheri Nairs.
A footnote in ref 10 explains Caymal as Prince (footnote from 1910)
The Last Great Nayar War - Battle of Ambalapuzha (1754)
This is the last war in which the Nobility of Cochin join together to fight along with the Cochin Royal family, and the Dutch against the Marthanda Varma of Travencore. Marthanda Varma's source of strength were seen as an alien bureaucracy of Tamil Bramhins and a mercenary army of Maravas. The Nobility were fighting not only for their position, but against a seemingly foreign force.
The command was placed under Pallayil Idikkela Menon, an able administrator and gallant soldier. The nobles of the states including Komi Achan a brave and handsome youth of 18 from the Paliyam family. Chiefs of Kodasseri, Kaimal of Panamukkam (Panamukkat), Changaramkoda Kaimal, President of the 30,000 from Tottasseri and the "rest of the great families of Cochin, forgot their ancient rivalries and took up position beside Pallayil Idikkela Menon."
After a bloody engagement,the Cochin forces were routed. A large number were slain or taken prisoner. Among the prisoners were; Idekkela Menon, Paliath Achan, Changakara Koth Kaimal, The fifth Kaimal of Kodasseri, the third Kaimal of Panamukkat, and Cheraman Unni of Totasseri Thalasennor's family.
Prince Rama Varma took possession of all Cochin Territories as far as Udayamperur in the south and Mamala in the East.
However, 1763 is the year that historians identify as the end of the feudal era or the Nair Nobility and the beginning of the centralized State. According to K. M. Pannikar, another historian quoted by the Gazetter of Kerala on Eranakulam, "So far the history of Kerala had been the history of the Nayars. But in 1762, the military power of the Nayars is broken in Travencore, and in Cochin, and within a few years it was completely wiped out in North Kerala."
The achievements of Marthanda Varma against the Eithaveeta Pilamar were watched carefully by the Cochin King and the Paliath Achan. "It was realized that all the ills of Cochin flowed from the diffusion of power among a number of hereditary chiefs instead of its being cerntralized in head of the state. In the treaty of 1761 there was a specific provision to the effect that Travancore would give all assistance to Cochin in putting down the power of the hereditary Chiefs and puchishing the traitorous ones in particular. Accordingly, soon after the expulsion of the Zamorin, all administrative powers were taken away from the Nair Chiefs and vested in the officials appointed by the King. As a result of these measures the monopoly of power and territorial influence so far enjoyed by the feudal barons was broken and the Raja's power was more firmly established. The old Nair Nobility, which had at one time eclipsed royal power, now became a thing of the past."(pp170–181)
Thachudaya Kaimal reigns supreme in one of the most famous temples of Kerala, the Kootalmanikkam temple at Irinjalakudda in Cochin. Mr. Day a historian quoted in Ref 8, page 71 states, "At Irinjalakkudais a temple, the chief of which is a Sanyasi, who must be nominated from certain families. He enjoys considerable immunities, and when he goes out, is preceded by a lamp and sword and has the insignia of supreme authority. He acknowledges no superior and will reside in the presence of no Prince." Much is known of the installation of the Kaimal since it involved a dispute between the Cochin and Travencore Kings on the rights of who could consecrate the Thachudaya Kaimal.
What is interesting about the Thachudaya Kaimal is that a Nayar of a good family is raised to a Kaimal by rites administered by Brahmans and is given all the privileges of a Brahmin. The following account is the installation of a Thachudaya Kaimal in 1808 AD.
The process starts with Yogam (Namboodri Community) and Yogakkars proceeding to the Raja of Cochin and requesting him that a Thachudaya Kaimal be consecrated.
Next, they proceed to Alvancheri to inform a Tambarakal of the consecration (described as a high priest of Namoodri)
Next the Yogam writes a Writ (Theet) to the Raja of Travencore requesting him to send the horoscope of his nominee for consecration. Four members of the Yogam accompanied by Kolom Moothatu, Chirayath Moothatu, Oloor Nayar, and Thuruthikat Nayar (officers attached to the temple) go to Tripunithra (near Cochin) and ask the Cochin Raja for a Theetooram (Royal Wiriing and leave for Trivandrum).
The Theet and Theetooram are read to his highness after informing him that they were looking for the horoscope of the nominee for Thachudaya Kaimal. The Yogam seat themselves on a plank facing East, the Maharaja sat on the West. The Elaya Raja (heir apparent) and 3rd Raja were also present. Vatayattil Pillai stood down the Chowkkay. Oloor Nayar takes the horoscope.
Two members of the Yogam go to Tripunithra to inform the Raja of Cochin on what took place.
A day for conscrecation is chosen and invitations are sent to Tambarakal, Velattukara Nampidi, and Wadakumkootil Nair. On the day of invitation the Raja sat on a piece of cloth facing westwards with his sword on his lap. Kolom Moothatu, Chirayath Moothatu, Oloor Nayar, and Thuruthikat Nayar and the four Kaimals of Nanthipulam, Wadakumkootil Nair and Muriyatathu Nambiar stood in the Theke Vathilmadam. In the Vadakke Vathilmadam stood the Uralers of the nine houses, Vellattkara Nampidi, and Veloss Nampidid and Veloss Nampiar. The Chieftains could only come to the Vathilmadam and could only come in by purging themselves of any offense by giving an elephant as a penalty. The Chief, Chankarakanda Kaimal had to make amends. (Note, the four Kaimals of Nanthipulam probably refer to the four Kaimals of Nandinetter Nadde especially since one of the four Changara Coda Kaimal was one of them who had to make amends at the ceremony.
Next, Velose Nampiar was asked to surrender the silk and sword and insignia of the office given to his Uncle. His position was then given to Itteyethat Nambiar. (Velose Nampiar (similar to all the other titles) was something not only inherited, but had to be sanctioned by the Raja and the Chiefs.)
The Tamprakal then goes through some ceremonies including a puja to Ganapathy. He is given a dakshina of 1001 fanams by Molom Moothatu in a leaf on a plank. Similarly, Vellatukaray Nambidi and Vadakamkooletil Nayar were presented 101 fanams. Then a grand feast was provided to Brahmans and Ambalavasis.
At an auspicious day eight members of the Yogam accompanied by Kolom Motthatu, Nayars, Pishardy, Panikars, Wariyars and Marars bring down the Thachudaya Kaimal from Trivandrum.
Next, the group announces to the Travencore Raja that Ilath Puthen Veetil Kumara Kurup has been consecrated as the Thachudayan of Irinjalakkuda. The Maha Raja then says "you have been consecrated Thachudayan for Irinjalakkuda. Go you along with the Yogam and manage the temple as I had done."
Next, he enters into a palanquin to Trippayya couple of miles South of Irinjalakkuda. He is then attended by the Raja of Cochin and the Chieftains and Noblemen who had been invited.
The Kaimal is then shaved and bathes in the Kuttam Kulam (tank outside of the temple) and then in the Theertham (sacred pool inside the temple) and then dresses similar to a Nambootiri and has consecrated water poured on is head. more.. "The presiding priest gave him Theertham (holy water) and Prasadam used in worship. Receiving this on a plate, he went around the Sanctum and by the time he reached the Valia Belikall (a large stone altar) a palanquin has been placed in a shed, erected to the south of the altar." The Thachudaya Kaimal gets into palanquin and the Raja touches on end to show it is borne by God on one end and the Raja on the other end. It is then liften by Pollichan Nayars who act as bearers to Nambutiris.
The Raja gets 301 fanams in a bag from Moothatu. Next the Turthikat Nayar dressed in the fashion of the Nambutiri gives each of the Chiefs one and a quarter measures of rich and 32 fanams. The Chieftains make their obeisance and receive their allowance on their shield. more.. (Reference 8, Pages 74 to 81)
By this ceremony the Nayar is raised to a Kaimal who has all the privileges of the highest class Nambuturi. This ceremony in 1808 AD can be compared to a Brahman Avarodham of the Yogiathiripad of the Vadakunathan temple at Trichur. (Also from Reference 8, page 82). This will be done as more is discussed about the Panambakat Kaimals.
Rajas, Samantans and Chiefs
All the Rajas, Samantans (Rajas who do not were a sacred thread (poonool) of a Kshatriya), and Chiefs claim their inheritance and lineage from Cheraman Perumal. Francis Day in Reference 13 has this to say - The Perumal divided his kingdom between his Chiefs giving it to four Rajahs of - Cochin, Kolatiri, Zamorin, and Travencore. He quotes Dutch sources to say that Kolatiri, Zamorin, and Travencore were Samantans or Nairs. In fact, in Ref. 10 Gollenesse (Dutch Governor in 1743) says the Zamorin original seat is the - Karta of Ernad. The Zamorin was the chief reigning supreme sovereign when the Portuguese came to Kerala in the 1500. The Cochin King and the Kollatiri were both his vassals. The Travencore seat had not yet reached any level of prominence.
Francis Day goes on to say that Cheraman Perumal then divided his 16 lesser Kingdoms and gave them to Kaimals who possessed the power of life and death. (Ref 13, page 45 to 46) Ref 14 says that some of the Samantans had titles of Kartavu and Kaimal. Other Samantans are Nairs with titles Nambiar or Adiyodi. (page 114 and 115)
Very simply, it appears that Kshatriyas, Samantans, and Chiefs along with the Nayars belong to one community. Each family raised itself up as their fame and fortunes increased over time. There are no uniform rules of behavior between the different groups except that the Rajas, Samantans and Chiefs as well as many of the Nayar families had Sambandam (See note) relationships with Namboodiris (Exclusive Brahmins of Kerala). Over time, becoming more and more like their fathers and forefathers. (Ref 13, page 114)
When Swami Vivekananda a Mahatma and Social reformer visited Kerala he remarked that the Nayars could claim to be of Nambudiri status as Manu the Ancient lawgiver on Varna had decreed that 16 generations of Brahmin forefathers could allow a family to claim that status. (Francis Day gives the same opinion on page 114)
End of the Feudal Age of Kerala
The power of the Kaimals were severely curtailed as the power of the Rajahs grew over time. The Travencore Rajah and then the Cochin Raja increased their power and territory by annexing land held by the Chiefs and smaller Rajas.
PKS Raja in his book on Mediaeval Kerala gives the following factors for the end of feudalism in Travancore and Cochin - pages 198-218)
1. First was his violation of the principal custom of Malabar that a Nayar lord would not be punished with death. (in his dealings with the Etavita Pillamar.) 2.Second was his dealing with Raja of Quilon (his own family) where instead of making a conquered chief a subordinate, the Raja was made a state prisoner. 3. His invitation of Haider Ali to aid him in suppressing the revolt of the "whole country North of Kayamkulam" who did not appreciate his policies and his treatment of the nobility. 4. The treaty between Cochin and Travecore and an inserted clause in 1701 that Travecore would aid Cochin in putting down the nobles of Cochin. 5. Leading nobles of Cochin were brought to Tripunithra and asked to take an Oath of allegiance to the Rajas of Cochin and Travecore. After this says PKS Raja, the nobles of Cochin like those of Travencore lost their political powers.
Sambandam marriages were a social innovation that resulted from centuries of prosperity in Kerala. In a Sambandam relationship, men and women were allowed multiple partners while allowing the family unit to remain intact. This resulted in happy families following a matriarchal succession. Western values and especially the Victorian era brought these institutions to an end when the English succeeded the Dutch in India.
Men and women chose partners as decreed by social customs and the family status when Sambandam was practiced in Kerala.
- refers to Panambakadu Kaimal as Panamukkam Kaimal
- Castes and Tribes of Southern India,by Edgar Thurston, page 296
- History of Kerala, K.P. Padmanabha Menon, Vol 3
- Kerala District Gazetteers, Eranakulam by A Sreedhara Menon, M.A., A.M. (Harvard),1965
- The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires - An account of the east, from the Red Sea to Japan, written in Malacca and India in 1512 to 1515 and the Book of Francisco Rodrigues. In two volumes. Volume 1 , pages 73 to 82
- A Survey of Kerala History, A Sreedhara Menon
- Ref 10, page 1.
- History of Kerala, K.P. Padmanabha Menon, Vol 2
- A survey of the rise of the Dutch Power in Malabar, T. I. Poonen pp. 106–107
- History of Kerala, K.P. Padmanabha Menon, Vol 4
- Medieval Kerala, Dr. A.P. Ibrahimkunju, 2007
- The Dutch in Malabar, A. Gillette, Rev Van Der Burg, and Rev P. Groot, Madras Government, 1911
- History of Kerala, KP Padmanabha Menon, Vol 1
- Mediaeval Kerala, PKS Raja, Annamalai University, 1953, Annamalai University Historical Series no 11
- The Land of the Permauls or Cochin its Past and its Present Francis Day (1863), Asian Educational Services,New Delhi/Madras 1990
- Malabar Gazetteer, Vol I and II, by CA Innes, Vol I in 1908 and Vol II in 1915 and 1933