Kakinada aerial view
|• MP||Thota Narasimham (TDP)|
|• MLA||Vanamadi Venkateswararao(TDP) (Kakinada City)
Pilli Anantha Lakshmi(TDP) (Kakinada Rural)
|• Rank||143rd (India)
8th (Andhra Pradesh)
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||91 884|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Kakinada|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Kakinada City, Kakinada Rural|
|Website||Kakinada Municipal Corporation|
Kakinada pronunciation (help·info) is a city and municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located 65 kilometres (40 mi) away from Rajahmundry. It is the headquarters and largest city of East Godavari district The city has a population of 376,861 in 2011 it the 12th largest city by area and 8th largest by population in Andhra Pradesh. Its literacy rate was 81.23 percent—84.88 percent for men and 77.76 percent for women. Kakinada covers an area of 192.3 square kilometres (74.2 sq mi).
Kakinada is part of a Special Economic Zone and a proposed Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR).
A theory about the origin of the city's name holds that the area was called "Kakinandiwada" during the reign of Nandi chiefs before the arrival of the Europeans, and the name became truncated over time. The British called it "Cocanada" (pronounced "Caa-key-naada"), or Coninga. After independence the name returned to Kakinada, although a few organisations established during British colonial rule retain the old name (e.g. Cocanada Chamber of Commerce). Kakinada's two railway stations are codenamed CCT (Kakinada Town Junction) and COA (Kakinada Port) by Indian Railways. The area was historically rich in ponds filled with red lotus (known as Kokanadamu in Telugu). Kakinada is known as "Pensioners Paradise" due to its calm, pleasant environment.
Kakinada is located at  The 82-degrees east longitude passes through the city. It has an average elevation of 2 metres (6 ft), and many areas of the city are below sea level. The city has a rough north-south orientation in a long, narrow strip parallel to the coast. The average width of the city is about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi), and it is about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) long..
The city consists of two regions, connected by bridges. The southern part, Jagannathapuram, is separated from the rest of the city by the Buckingham Canal. The canal and its branches form Medaline Island, which abuts the city in the southwest. During the colonisation of the Dutch Coromandel coast, the Dutch East India Company maintained a trading post known as Jaggernaikpoeram or Jaggernaickpuram (among other spellings) to the English.
The northern area of Kakinada is the more modern part of the city, with its recent extension. An industrial belt, running north–south the length of the city, separates the eastern part from the coast. Kakinada is bordered on the southeast by Kakinada Bay and a marshy wetland, home to India's second largest mangrove forest and the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary. A branch of the Godavari River, the Gouthami, flows into the Bay of Bengal at this point.
Kakinada has a tropical savanna climate with hot, humid weather most of the year. The warmest time of the year is late May and early June, with maximum temperatures around 38–42 °C (100–108 °F). January is the coolest month, with minimum temperatures of 18–20 °C (64–68 °F). The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the southwest monsoon, although considerable rain also falls during the northeast monsoon (from mid-October to mid-December). Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal frequently strike the city. Kakinada's prevailing winds are from the southwest for most of the year, except from October to January when they are from the northeast. The city's average annual rainfall is 110–115 centimetres (43–45 in).
|Climate data for Kakinada|
|Average high °C (°F)||29
|Average low °C (°F)||20
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||41
Kakinada is run by the Kakinada Municipal Corporation, consisting of elected representatives and a commissioner. The city is divided into 50 wards, and each ward elects a corporator. A mayor is elected for the city from the elected corporators by indirect ballot. The commissioner (part of the IAS) is appointed by the state government. The city is represented at the state level in the Andhra Pradesh State Legislative Assembly by two MLAs, and at the federal level in the Lok Sabha by an MP.
During the late 1940s (around the time of Indian independence) there was little industry in or around Kakinada; the local economy was based on agriculture and fishing. Until the early 1980s (before the fertiliser companies began operation), the local economy revolved around the textile industry, auto parts, steel-related ancillary units, agriculture and fishing. Kakinada's economy is diverse, due to its seaport and port-based industry.
Hope Island, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the coast, makes Kakinada Port a natural harbour. It is home to two ports: an anchorage port and a deep-water port. Kakinada's deep-water port is the second-largest in the state (after Visakhapatnam port) and the first in the country built in a public-private partnership, in 1996. It is operated by Kakinada Seaports. Before the deep-water port was built, the anchorage port was the largest of India's 40 minor ports. A shipyard is under construction (a joint venture of Singapore-based Sembawang Shipyard and Kakinada Seaports) to provide support services to ships around Kakinada and the east coast of India.
Kakinada's principal exports include seafood (prawns, shrimp, fish) and related products, agricultural products (including rice and corn, oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, iron ore, bauxite powder and biofuel. Imports include chemicals, edible oils and agricultural products (including wheat and sugar).
Kakinada is known as the "Fertilizer City" of Andhra Pradesh. The city is home to two fertiliser producers: Nagarjuna Fertilizers (the largest urea manufacturer in coastal Andhra) and Godavari Fertilizers (owned by Murugappa Group, and producing diammonium hydrogen phosphate).
Coconuts are exported by several companies in and around Kakinada. The Murugappa Group-owned EID Parry (India) and Cargill International joint venture, Silk Road Sugars, has a port-based stand-alone sugar refinery in Kakinada with a capacity of 600,000 tonnes.
Edible oil refineries and biofuel plants
In 2002, several edible-oil refineries were established in Kakinada, with a refining capacity of 3,000 tons per day; they include Acalmar Oils and Fats (taken over by Adani Wilmar), Ruchi Infrastructure and Nikhil Refineries. The port facilitates the importation of crude palm and soybean oil.
Vakalapudi Industrial Park has attracted over $10 million in investment from biodiesel companies such as Reliance Industries, Natural Bioenergy and Universal Bio Fuel. Andhra Pradesh has entered into an agreement with Reliance Industries for jatropha planting. The company selected 200 acres (81 ha) of land in Kakinada to grow jatropha for quality biodiesel fuel.
Kakinada is a tier-II city in India and Andhra Pradesh where Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) established a facility in 2007. Since its inception, several companies have begun operations in the city due to its educated workforce.
About 35 companies are operating in Kakinada. Godavari IT Association of East and West Godavari districts (GITA) is an association of IT companies in the twin Godavari districts, which is based in the city. Some IT companies in the city are Infotech Enterprises, a Hyderabad-based multinational software company; Avineon, a US-based technology company providing GIS and engineering services;  Firstobject Technologies, a BPO firm and Krify, a UK- and India-based mobile-app development company.
Small-to-midsize software companies in Kakinada include, Prominere Software Solutions, vinutnaa  3One Technologies, TrewPort Technologies, Aaspire Technologies, Traceout Technologies, ForeTell Technologies, Mythrii Solutions,  Nyros Technologies,  Meconzee InfoTech and Software Services., SaaS based business solutions provider company 'Messisoft'. Kakinada is home to Andhra Electronics, an electronic-components manufacturing company which began in 1977.
There are several power plants in and around Kakinada. Spectrum Power Generation has a 208-MW plant, and was one of the first Independent Power Producers in the country. The company is planning to expand the capacity to 1350 MW in phases. Tenders for a 350-MW expansion have been requested. A 220-MW power station (being expanded to 2400 MW at a cost of Rs 100 billion) owned by Reliance Energy and a 464-MW combined-cycle power plant by GVK Group are in operation at Samalkota (Kakinada Rural). These plants supply electricity to the state's transmission utility, AP Transco, under a power purchase agreement.
Natural gas and petroleum
Kakinada is the base for Oil and Natural Gas Corporation's Eastern Offshore Asset. Several oil companies use Kakinada for oil and gasoline shipments. Baker Hughes and Schlumberger are field-development companies working on offshore natural-gas fields near the city. The Krishna Godavari Basin is considered the largest natural-gas basin in India. Significant discoveries of oil and natural gas were made by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation and Reliance, which has been extracting gas from its KG D6 block off the Kakinada coast. Reliance has an onshore terminal in Gadimoga, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Kakinada, to process and distribute gas to other parts of the country. Reliance Gas Transportation Infrastructure (RGTIL) has built a 1,440-kilometre (890 mi) pipeline from Kakinada to Bharuch (Gujarat) to transport 120 million cubic meters per day (mcmd) of natural gas from the Krishna-Godavari fields (owned by Reliance Industries) across India to its west coast.
In 2010, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board awarded Kakinada's gas-distribution project to Bhagyanagar Gas, a consortium of GAIL and Hindustan Petroleum. Construction is underway to supply gas to Kakinada and the surrounding towns of Samalkot, Peddapuram and Pithapuram, making Kakinada the third city in Andhra Pradesh to have a piped gas supply for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes (along with Hyderabad and Vijayawada).
Kakinada is connected by road to the rest of the state and India. NH-214 from Kathipudi to Ongole (both on NH-5) passes through the city, and state highways connect it to Rajahmundry and other towns in the district.
Kakinada Port is a terminal station. The city has two main stations namely, Kakinada Town and Kakinada Port. The city is connected to the Howrah-Chennai main line at Samalkot. Kakinada Town is classified as an A–category station. It is recognised as an Adarsh station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.
Kakinada is an educational hub, meeting the growing educational demands of the state. Several professional colleges in and around the city offer courses in engineering, medicine, information technology and management at the graduate and postgraduate levels. The Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada offers engineering courses and has a business school, and Rangaraya Medical College is a respected medical college in the state.
P R College is another old and famous college and one Shri Peddada Rama Swamy worked as principal for some time. Famous personalities like Devulapalli krishnasastri, P V Narasimha Rao, Ushasri were students at that time.
Andhra University Postgraduate Centre, established in 1977, is another college in Kakinada. The university is located on a 50.93-acre (20.61 ha) campus in Thimmapuram, six kilometres from the Kakinada Town Railway Station.
Kakinada is noted for its temples, beaches, mangrove forests and the Godavari delta. Attractions include Tholi Thirupathi Sri Srungara Vallaba Temple, Annavaram Satyanarayana Swamy Temple, Pithapurm sri dattatreya temple,famous Shakti Peetha in Pithapuram is Puruhuthika devi Shakti Peetam. This Shakti peetha forms an integral part of Shiva temple, the Kukkuteshwara Swami temple, Draksharama Shiva Temple, Samalkot Shiva Temple, Sri Bhimeswaraswamy Vari Temple (Sri Chalukya Kumararama Temple, one of the five Pancharama Kshetras and a National Heritage site) (10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away in Samalkota), Kukkuteshwara Swamy Temple, Kotipalli Kotilingeswara Temple, Shri Bhavanarayana Swamy Temple (Sun God), Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, part of the Godavari delta, Hope Island, India, a sandspit formed by the Godavari, Konaseema, scenic Godavari delta islands.
Uppada beach is primarily considered as Kakinada beach which is having one of longest coastlines in Indian beaches. Kakinada beach is meant for its mild blue waters and cold breeze all the day.
East Godavari is noted for its traditional Andhra cuisine: pickles (aavakaaya) made from mangoes, vegetables (e.g. cauliflower aavakaaya), chicken, shrimp, mutton and fish. Kakinada is known for Kakinada Kaaja, a sweet made from maida flour and dipped in a sugar syrup. The sweet was popular not only in Andhra, but as far away as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Kotiah Sweets (founded in 1900) is the best-known maker of Kakinada Kaaja. Street-corner carts selling bhajis and pidatha kindha pappu (a mixture of onions and toasted rice).
Kakinada is one of the few places in Andhra Pradesh with bananas and mangoes. Kakinada is also known for Pesarattu, a breakfast or brunch crêpe made from moong daal (pesara pappu), green chillies, ginger and cumin which is sold in restaurants and street stalls. Pootarekulu is a coastal-Andhra sweet made of thin sugar wafers. The city has several Udupi vegetarian hotels, some of which provide overnight accommodations.
Kakinada Beach Festival also Sagara Sambaralu is a music festival held in Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh. It was declared as an annual festival by the government of Andhra Pradesh. It is a three-day event where many artists perform. There are many scholars like Kasibhatta Brahmaiah Sastry, who is a noted Sanskrit and Telugu scholar and who coined the term "Navala" in Telugu literature, Chaganti Koteswara Rao (Hindu scholar) etc. The city also has its recognition in Tollywood films with notable actors, actresses and directors namely, Anjali Devi, Suryakantham, Rao Gopal Rao, C. Pullaiah, P. B. Srinivas, S. V. Ranga Rao, Chittajallu Srinivasa Rao.
Cricket is the most popular game in the city, followed by badminton and athletics. Kakinada is home to a number of local cricket teams participating in district and zone matches, with a stadium used for Ranji Trophy matches. The East Godavari District Sports Authority has a sports complex in the city with an indoor stadium and swimming pool. Tennis is taught to students by the KTA (Kakinada Tennis Academy) at the tennis courts of Rangaraya Medical College There is a roller-skating rink in Vivekananda Park.
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