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Aerial view of water, a curved shore and a sandspit
Kakinada aerial view
Kakinada is located in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates: 16°57′58″N 82°15′18″E / 16.96611°N 82.25500°E / 16.96611; 82.25500Coordinates: 16°57′58″N 82°15′18″E / 16.96611°N 82.25500°E / 16.96611; 82.25500
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District East Godavari
Mandal Kakinada (Urban)
 • MP Thota Narasimham (TDP)
 • MLA Vanamadi Venkateswararao (Kakinada City)
Pilli Anantha Lakshmi (Kakinada Rural)
 • City 31.51 km2 (12.17 sq mi)
Population (2011)[2] 312,538
 • Rank 144th (India)
8th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Metro[3] 4,43,028
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 533 xxx
Telephone code 91 884
Vehicle registration AP-05
Literacy 81.23%
Lok Sabha constituency Kakinada
Vidhan Sabha constituency Kakinada City, Kakinada Rural
Website Kakinada Municipal Corporation

Kakinada About this sound pronunciation  is a city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation located in Kakinada (urban) mandal of Kakinada revenue division and also the district headquarters of East Godavari district.[4] It is the 4th most populous city of the state.

Kakinada has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. Further, it was short listed in the 20 cities that are to be first developed under the same scheme by securing 14th place in the list.[5]


Kakinandivada, a village near the present Kakinada was a Dutch settlement. They also used to store and export Coconut products and, hence, the name Co–canada. The British East India Company also called it with the same name when they established the first Canadian Baptist Mission. After Independence, it finally got the name Kakinada. Some theories suggest Kakasura's losing his eye by an arrow of Lord Rama gave the name Kakinada or that Kakinandi vada is derived from Kaka, an Ikshvaku king, who built the town. Another theory says that it is Kakulavada, an abode of crows - for catching fish on the shore.[6]


Kakinada is located at 16°56′N 82°13′E / 16.93°N 82.22°E / 16.93; 82.22.[7] The 82-degrees east longitude passes through the city. It has an average elevation of 2 metres (6 ft), and many areas of the city are below sea level. The city has a rough north-south orientation in a long, narrow strip parallel to the coast. The average width of the city is about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi), and it is about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) long.

The city consists of two regions, connected by bridges. The southern part, Jagannathapuram, is separated from the rest of the city by the Buckingham Canal. The canal and its branches form Medaline Island, which abuts the city in the southwest. During the colonisation of the Dutch Coromandel coast, the Dutch East India Company maintained a trading post known as Jaggernaikpoeram or Jaggernaickpuram (among other spellings) to the English.

The northern area of Kakinada is the more modern part of the city, with its recent extension. An industrial belt, running north–south the length of the city, separates the eastern part from the coast. Kakinada is bordered on the southeast by Kakinada Bay and a marshy wetland, home to India's second largest mangrove forest and the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary. A branch of the Godavari River, the Gouthami, flows into the Bay of Bengal at this point.


Kakinada has a tropical savanna climate with hot, humid weather most of the year. The warmest time of the year is late May and early June, with maximum temperatures around 38–42 °C (100–108 °F). January is the coolest month, with minimum temperatures of 18–20 °C (64–68 °F). The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the southwest monsoon, although considerable rain also falls during the northeast monsoon (from mid-October to mid-December). Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal frequently strike the city. Kakinada's prevailing winds are from the southwest for most of the year, except from October to January when they are from the northeast. The city's average annual rainfall is 110–115 centimetres (43–45 in).

Climate data for Kakinada
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
Average low °C (°F) 20
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41
Source: Sunmap


As of 2011 census of India, Kakinada had population of 312,538 of which 152,571 were male and 159,967 female.[8] The Kakinada urban agglomeration had a population of 443,028 of which males are 217,459 while female population are 225,569.[9] There are 101 identified slums in the city, which contains a population of 132,185, 41% of the city's population.[10]


Gold-coloured, seated Buddha statue on a pedestal
Statue of Buddha in Gandhinagar Park
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 17,839 —    
1881 28,856 +61.8%
1891 40,553 +40.5%
1901 48,096 +18.6%
1911 54,110 +12.5%
1921 53,348 −1.4%
1931 69,952 +31.1%
1941 75,140 +7.4%
1951 99,952 +33.0%
1961 122,865 +22.9%
1971 164,200 +33.6%
1981 226,409 +37.9%
1991 279,875 +23.6%
2001 327,541 +17.0%
2011 376,861 +15.1%

Kakinada Municipal Corporation is spread over an area of 30.51 km2 (11.78 sq mi), while the urban agglomeration area of Kakinada spreads over an area of 57.36 km2 (22.15 sq mi). The urban agglomeration constituents include the areas of Kakinada Municipal Corporation, census towns of Chidiga, Ramanayyapeta, Suryaraopeta and the out growths of Ganganapalle, Sarpavaram, Vakalapudi and Turangi.[1][4]


It is one of the fastest growing city. During the late 1940s (around the time of Indian independence) there was little industry in or around Kakinada; the local economy was based on agriculture and fishing. Until the early 1980s (before the fertiliser companies began operation), the local economy revolved around the textile industry, auto parts, steel-related ancillary units, agriculture and fishing. Kakinada's economy is diverse, due to its seaport and port-based industry.


Hope Island, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the coast, makes Kakinada Port a natural harbour. It is home to two ports: an Anchorage port and a Deep-water port ( and also third port is going to be constructed in KSEZ which will be Greenfield Seaport ). Kakinada's deep-water port is the second-largest in the state (after Visakhapatnam port) and the first in the country to be built in a public-private partnership, in 1996 It is operated by Kakinada Seaports.[11] Before the deep-water port was built, the Anchorage port was the largest of India's 40 minor ports. A shipyard is under construction (a joint venture of Singapore-based Sembawang Shipyard and Kakinada Seaports) to provide support services to ships around Kakinada and the east coast of India.[12]

Red-and-white lighthouse at night
The Vakalapudi Lighthouse serves the port of Kakinada.

Kakinada's principal exports include seafood (Prawns, Shrimp, Fish) and related products, agricultural products (including rice and corn,[13] oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, iron ore, bauxite powder and biofuel.[14] Imports include chemicals, edible oils and agricultural products[15] (including wheat and sugar).

Industrial sector[edit]


Factory with two smokestacks
Godavari Fertilizer plant

Kakinada is known as the "Fertilizer City" of Andhra Pradesh. The city is home to two fertiliser producers: Nagarjuna Fertilizers[16] (the largest urea manufacturer in coastal Andhra) and Godavari Fertilizers (owned by Murugappa Group, and producing diammonium hydrogen phosphate).


Coconuts are exported by several companies in and around Kakinada. The Murugappa Group-owned EID Parry (India) and Cargill International joint venture, Silk Road Sugars, has a port-based stand-alone sugar refinery in Kakinada with a capacity of 600,000 tonnes.[17][18]

Glass-block office building at night
ONGC India—Kakinada office

Edible oil refineries and biofuel plants

In 2002, several edible-oil refineries were established in Kakinada, with a refining capacity of 3,000 tons per day; they include Acalmar Oils and Fats (taken over by Adani Wilmar), Ruchi Infrastructure and Nikhil Refineries. The port facilitates the importation of crude palm and soybean oil.[19]

Vakalapudi Industrial Park has attracted over $10 million in investment from biodiesel companies such as Reliance Industries, Natural Bioenergy and Universal Bio Fuel.[20][14] Andhra Pradesh has entered into an agreement with Reliance Industries for jatropha planting. The company selected 200 acres (81 ha) of land in Kakinada to grow jatropha for quality biodiesel fuel.[21]


Kakinada is a tier-II city. Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) established a facility here in 2007. Since then, several IT companies have come up in the city, mainly due to its educated workforce.

About 35 IT companies are operating in Kakinada. Godavari IT Association of East and West Godavari districts (GITA) is an association of IT companies in the twin Godavari districts and is based in the city.[22]


Power generation

There are several power plants in and around Kakinada. Spectrum Power Generation has a 208-MW plant, and was one of the first Independent Power Producers in the country. The company is planning to expand the capacity to 1350 MW in phases. Tenders for a 350-MW expansion have been requested.[23] A 220-MW power station (being expanded to 2400 MW at a cost of Rs 100 billion) owned by Reliance Energy[24] and a 464-MW combined-cycle power plant by GVK Group are in operation at Samalkota (Kakinada Rural). These plants supply electricity to the state's transmission utility, AP Transco, under a power purchase agreement.

Natural gas and petroleum

Kakinada is the base for Oil and Natural Gas Corporation's Eastern Offshore Asset. Several oil companies use Kakinada for oil and gasoline shipments. Baker Hughes and Schlumberger are field-development companies working on offshore natural-gas fields near the city. The Krishna Godavari Basin is considered the largest natural-gas basin in India.[25] Significant discoveries of oil and natural gas were made by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation and Reliance, which has been extracting gas from its KG D6 block off the Kakinada coast. Reliance has an onshore terminal in Gadimoga, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Kakinada, to process and distribute gas to other parts of the country. Reliance Gas Transportation Infrastructure (RGTIL) has built a 1,440-kilometre (890 mi) pipeline from Kakinada to Bharuch (Gujarat) to transport 120 million cubic meters per day (mcmd) of natural gas from the Krishna-Godavari fields (owned by Reliance Industries)[26] across India to its west coast.

In 2010, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board awarded Kakinada's gas-distribution project to Bhagyanagar Gas, a consortium of GAIL and Hindustan Petroleum.[27] Construction is underway to supply gas to Kakinada and the surrounding towns of Samalkot, Peddapuram and Pithapuram, making Kakinada the second city in Andhra Pradesh to have a piped gas supply for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes (along with Vijayawada)



East Godavari is noted for its traditional Andhra cuisine: pickles (aavakaaya) made from mangoes, vegetables (e.g. cauliflower aavakaaya), chicken, shrimp, mutton and fish. Kakinada is known for Kakinada Kaaja, a sweet made from maida flour and dipped in a sugar syrup.[28] The sweet was popular not only in Andhra, but as far away as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Kotiah Sweets (founded in 1900) is the best-known maker of Kakinada Kaaja. Street-corner carts selling bhajis and pidatha kindha pappu (a mixture of onions and toasted rice).

Kakinada is one of the few places in Andhra Pradesh with bananas and mangoes. Kakinada is also known for Pesarattu, a breakfast or brunch crêpe made from moong daal (pesara pappu), green chillies, ginger and cumin which is sold in restaurants and street stalls. Pootarekulu is a coastal-Andhra sweet made of thin sugar wafers. The city has several Udupi vegetarian hotels, some of which provide overnight accommodations.

Kakinada Beach Festival also Sagara Sambaralu is a music festival held in Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh.[29] It was declared as an annual festival by the government of Andhra Pradesh.[30] It is a three-day event where many artists perform.[29][31] There are many scholars like Kasibhatta Brahmaiah Sastry, who is a noted Sanskrit and Telugu scholar and who coined the term "Navala" in Telugu literature, Chaganti Koteswara Rao (Hindu scholar) etc. The city also has its recognition in Tollywood films with notable actors, actresses and directors namely, Anjali Devi, Suryakantham, Relangi Venkata Ramaiah, Rao Gopal Rao, C. Pullaiah, P. B. Srinivas, S. V. Ranga Rao, Chittajallu Srinivasa Rao


Kakinada Town Jn. Railway Station main entrance


Kakinada-Banglore GARUDA Bus at KR Puram

Kakinada is connected by road to the rest of the state and other cities of India ny means of national highways. National Highway 214 which stretches 270 km (170 mi) from Kathipudi to Pamaru passes through Kakinada.[32] The city has a total road length of 719.21 km.[33]


Kakinada Port is a terminal station. The city has two main stations namely, Kakinada Town and Kakinada Port. The city is connected to the Howrah-Chennai main line at Samalkot.[34] Kakinada Town is classified as an A–category station. It is recognised as an Adarsh station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[35]


Kakinada Port is located on the shore of Bay of Bengal. It is one of the intermediate ports in the state.


Two gateways next to white building
Rangaraya Medical College entrance

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[36][37] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.

Kakinada is an educational hub, meeting the growing educational demands of the state. Several professional colleges in and around the city offer courses in engineering, medicine, information technology and management at the graduate and postgraduate levels. The Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada offers engineering courses and has a business school, and Rangaraya Medical College is a respected medical college in the state.

P R College is another old and famous college and one Shri Peddada Rama Swamy worked as principal for some time. Famous personalities like Devulapalli krishnasastri, P V Narasimha Rao, Ushasri were students at that time.

Andhra University Postgraduate Centre, established in 1977, is another college in Kakinada. The university is located on a 50.93-acre (20.61 ha) campus in Thimmapuram, six kilometres from the Kakinada Town Railway Station.[38]

There are a total of 65 Government Schools with 11,240 students studying in them.[39]

High School to Degree founded by Late. Malladi Satyalingam Naikar


Scenic view of Kakinada beach during evening

Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, part of the Godavari delta, Hope Island, India, a sandspit formed by the Godavari, Konaseema, scenic Godavari delta islands. It is the second largest mangrove forest in India after sundarbans. Uppada beach is primarily considered as Kakinada beach which is having one of longest coastlines in Indian beaches. Kakinada beach is meant for its mild blue waters and cold breeze all the day. The famous temples Suryanarayana Swami and Kodandaramalayam are located at G. Mamidada which is 20 km from the city.


Cricket is the most popular game in the city, followed by badminton and athletics. Kakinada is home to a number of local cricket teams participating in district and zone matches, with a stadium used for Ranji Trophy matches. The East Godavari District Sports Authority has a sports complex in the city with an indoor stadium and swimming pool. Tennis is taught to students by the KTA (Kakinada Tennis Academy) at the tennis courts of Rangaraya Medical College There is a roller-skating rink in Vivekananda Park.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Kakinada Profile". Kakinada Municipal Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  2. ^ "Draft-Smart Cities Proposal-Kakinada" (PDF). India Smart Cities Challenge. p. 4. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  3. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. 
  4. ^ a b "District Census Handbook - East Godavari" (PDF). Census of India. p. 3,16–17. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  5. ^ "Govt. announces list of first 20 smart cities under 'Smart Cities Mission'". 28 January 2016 – via The Hindu. 
  6. ^ "History". Official website of Kakinada Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  7. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Kakinada". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "Kakinada Census 2011". Census 2011. 
  9. ^ "Kakinada Metropolitan Population". Census 2011. 
  10. ^ "Kakinada Snapshot" (PDF). SMART CITY KAKINADA. 
  11. ^ "Kakinada Port". apports.in. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "Sembmarine Kakinada Ltd". Sembcorpmarine.com.sg. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  13. ^ "UPDATE 1-India corn exports up to Sept set to treble-trade". Reuters. 21 July 2008. 
  14. ^ a b ">> News >> Business >> Bio-fuel is next big bet if crude continues to rise". Moneycontrol. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  15. ^ "WB floats tender to import 1.86 lakh tonnes of wheat". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 16 April 2008. 
  16. ^ "Nagarjunagroup.com". Nagarjunagroup.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  17. ^ ""EID Parry teams up with Cargill for sugar EoU", The Hindu (25 April 2006)". The Hindu. India. 25 April 2006. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  18. ^ ""Murugappa group turnover up by 15%", Sify Business". Sify.com. 6 May 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  19. ^ "Nikhil, Acalmar edible oil refineries go on stream". The Hindu. 29 March 2002. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  20. ^ "Universalbiofuelsltd.com". Universalbiofuelsltd.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  21. ^ "Reliance's new biofuel business model to provide fuel with food". Livemint.com. 20 July 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "Kakinada zooms ahead as an IT hub-". The Times of India. India. 14 February 2011. 
  23. ^ "SPGL.co.in". SPGL.co.in. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  24. ^ "Anil Ambani monitors progress at Samalkot Plant". The Times of India. India. 22 January 2011. 
  25. ^ "Hemangi Balse, "Reliance gas-find 40 times bigger than Bombay High"". Rediff.com. 31 October 2002. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  26. ^ ""Reliance gets ready to test east-west gas pipeline" (Apr 14 2008) CNBC Money control.com". Moneycontrol.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  27. ^ "Piped gas in eighteen months: official". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2 October 2010. 
  28. ^ "Kotaiah's Foods Pvt. Ltd Since 1900 – Kotaiahs's Kaja". Kakinadakaja.com. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  29. ^ a b "Beach festival to be held every year". Deccan Chronicle. 22 December 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  30. ^ "AP set to become a tourist destination". The Hindu. 12 January 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  31. ^ "Singer Muralidhar dies during train journey". The Hindu. 12 January 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  32. ^ "National Highways and their Lengths". Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  34. ^ "Kakinada Town Junction". India Rail Info. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  35. ^ "Vijayawada Division – a profile" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  36. ^ "School Eduvation Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  37. ^ "The Department of School Education - Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  38. ^ "Andhrauniversity.info". Andhrauniversity.info. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  39. ^ "Kakinada Snapshot" (PDF). 

External links[edit]