|Linguistic classification||Penutian ?
Kalapuyan consists of
- 1. Northern Kalapuya (also known as Tualatin–Yamhill)
- 2. Central Kalapuya (also known as Santiam)
- 3. Yoncalla (also known as Southern Kalapuya)
Kalapuyan is usually connected with the various Penutian proposals, most recently as part of an Oregon Penutian branch along with Takelma, Siuslaw, and Coosan. A special relationship with Takelma had been proposed, together forming a Takelman family; however, subsequent research found evidence against such a relationship.
- Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
- Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9.
- Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
- Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978–present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published).
- The Verbal Morphology of Santiam Kalapuya (Northwest Journal of Linguistics)