Kalapuyan languages

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Kalapuya
EthnicityKalapuya people
Geographic
distribution
Northwest Oregon
Linguistic classificationPenutian ?
  • Kalapuya
Glottologkala1402[1]
Kalapuyan langs.png

Kalapuyan (also Kalapuya) is a small extinct language family that was spoken in the Willamette Valley of Western Oregon, United States. It consists of three languages.[2]

Family division[edit]

Kalapuyan consists of

1. Northern Kalapuya (also known as TualatinYamhill)
2. Central Kalapuya (several dialects, including Santiam)
3. Yoncalla (also known as Southern Kalapuya)

Genetic relations[edit]

One of the boulders engraved with Kalapuyan words along the paths of east Alton Baker Park in Eugene, Oregon; this one is next to the Willamette River: Whilamut (meaning, Where the river ripples and runs fast)

Kalapuyan is usually connected with the various Penutian proposals, originally as part of an Oregon Penutian branch along with Takelma, Siuslaw, Alsea and Coosan.[3] A special relationship with Takelma had been proposed, together forming a "Takelma–Kalapuyan" or "Takelman" family.[4][5][6][7] However, an unpublished paper by Tarpent & Kendall (1998)[8] finds this relationship to be unfounded because of the extremely different morphological structures of Takelma and Kalapuyan.

Proto-language[edit]

Below is a list of Proto-Kalapuyan reconstructions by Shipley (1970):[9]

no. gloss Proto-Kalapuyan
1 all *pu-
2 bad *khaskha
3 big *pala
4 bird *twi(ː)ca
5 bite *yiːk
6 black *muː
7 blood *nu
8 blow *puː-
9 bone *ca
10 burn *y-
11 cold *tuːku
12 come *ma-
13 come -
14 cut -
15 dig *hu-
16 dog *tal
17 drink *kʷh-
18 dry *chakkaluː
19 dull *tu-
20 dust *skuːp
21 earth *nuwa
22 eat *kʷVnafu
23 egg *pha
24 eye *kʷhillaːk, *kʷhalliːk
25 fall
26 father *-fa-
27 father *maːma
28 fear *n-
29 fear *yakla
30 feather *lunka
31 few *puː(n)
32 five *waːn
33 flower *puːk
34 four *tapa
35 fruit *kayna
36 give *tiː
37 good *suː
38 grass *luːkʷa
39 green *ci-
40 guts *niːya
41 hair, head *kʷaː
42 hand *laːkʷa
43 he *kʷawk
44 hear *kapt
45 heart *-uːpna
46 heavy *kayt
47 hot *ʔuːk
48 I *chi
49 ice *tic
50 kill *tah-
51 know *yukhu
52 lake *paːɫ
53 leaf *takhVɫ
54 left *kay
55 liver *paw
56 long *puːs
57 louse *t-
58 man *ʔuːyhi
59 many -
60 meat *muːkhi, *muːkʷhi
61 mother *naːna
62 mountain *maːfuː
64 name *kʷat
65 neck *puː- -k
66 new *pa(n)ɫa
67 nose *nuːna
68 not *waːnk
69 old *yuː(k)
70 one -
71 other *wana
72 path *kawni
73 person *mim
74 pierce *twa-
75 push *t-
76 red *c- -l
77 river *cal
78 rope *cal
79 round *(wi)luː
80 saliva *ta(w)f
81 say *na(ka)
82 sea *minlak
83 see *huːthu
84 sew *-aːkʷaː(t)
85 short *-u(w)pna
86 sing *kawt
87 sit *tastu
88 sit *yuː
89 sky *yank
90 sleep, lie *way
91 smell *h-
92 snake *(t)kaː
93 snow *-uː(p)paː(y)k
94 split *plVk
95 stand *taːp
96 stone *taː
97 straight *yalk
98 suck -
99 sun *pyan
100 swell *kuːf
101 swim *kʷay(n)
102 tail *tkuː
103 they *k(ʷ)i(n)nVk
104 thick *fip
105 thin *kliʔk
106 think *m- -t
107 this *kʷus(a)
108 this *haːs(a)
109 thou *maː(ha)
110 three *psin
111 throw *kawi
112 tie *takt
113 tongue -
114 tooth *ti
115 tree *watVk
116 two *kaːmi
117 walk *ʔiːti
118 wash *kaw(a)ɫ
119 wash *cawC
120 water *pk(y)aː
121 we *stuː
122 what *ʔa(k)kaː
123 white *maw
124 wind *-iːʈwa
125 wing *wa(ː)n
126 ye *mV(t)tiː
127 year *miːcwa

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kalapuyan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Berman, H. (1990). An Outline of Kalapuya Historical Phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics, 56(1), 27-59.
  3. ^ Sapir, E. (1921). A Characteristic Penutian Form of Stem. International Journal of American Linguistics, 2(1/2), 58-67.
  4. ^ Frachtenberg, L. (1918). Comparative Studies in Takelman, Kalapuyan and Chinookan Lexicography, a Preliminary Paper. International Journal of American Linguistics, 1(2), 175-182.
  5. ^ Swadesh, M. (1965). Kalapuya and Takelma. International Journal of American Linguistics, 31(3), 237-240.
  6. ^ Shipley, W. (1969). Proto-Takelman. International Journal of American Linguistics, 35(3), 226-230.
  7. ^ Kendall, D. (1997). The Takelma Verb: Toward Proto-Takelma-Kalapuyan. International Journal of American Linguistics, 63(1), 1-17.
  8. ^ cited in: Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America, pp. 432-433. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ Shipley, William. 1970. Proto-Kalapuyan. In Swanson, Jr., Earl H. (ed.), Languages and Cultures of Western North America, 97-106. Pocatello: Idaho State University Press.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]