Khanate of Kalat

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Kalat
Subdivision Khanate within the Mughal Empire[1][2] and Durrani Empire,[3]
Princely state of the British Raj and of Pakistan
1666–14 October 1955

Flag of Kalat

Flag

Location of Kalat
Map of Pakistan with Kalat highlighted
Capital Kalat
History
 •  Established 1666
 •  Disestablished 14 October 1955
Area 91,909 km2 (35,486 sq mi)
Today part of Balochistan, Pakistan
Government of Balochistan
Map of the Baluchistan Agency.
Coat of arms of Pakistan
This article is part of the series
Former administrative units of Pakistan

The Khanate of Kalat (Balochi: خانات ءِ قلات‎‎) was a princely state that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Prior to that they were subjects of Mughal emperor Akbar.[1][2] Ahmedzai Brahui Khan ruled the state independently until 1839, when it became a self-governing state in a subsidiary alliance with British India. After the signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars in 1876, Kalat became part of the Baluchistan Agency.[4] It was briefly independent from August 1947 till March 1948, when its Khan acceded his state to the new Dominion of Pakistan. It remained a princely state of Pakistan until 1955, when it was incorporated into the country.

Geography[edit]

The Khanate of Kalat occupied the central part of the territory of modern-day Balochistan province in Pakistan. To the north was Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province).

The principal mountains are the Central Baloch, Kirthar, Pab, Siahan, Central Makran and Makran Coast Ranges, which descend in elevation from about 10,000 to 1,200 feet (370 m). The drainage of the country is almost all carried off to the south by the Nari, Mula, Hab, Porali, Hingol and Dasht rivers. The only large river draining northwards is the Rakhshan. The coast line includes Gawadar, Pasni, Sonmiani and Geewani, modern-day Pakistani Balochistan.

Subdivisions[edit]

Jhalawan[edit]

A ethnic Brahui sub division of kalat headed by chief nawab of zarakzai tribe called chief of jhalawan

Kacchi[edit]

A ethnic Sindhi sub division of kalat in which various tribes have thier own tribal lands under the khan of kalat

Sarawan[edit]

A ethnic Brahui sub division of kalat headed by chief nawab of raisani tribe called chief of sarawan

Independent States[edit]

Makran[edit]

A ethnic makrani state of Gichki Tribe ruled by Chief Nawab called nawab of makran

Las Bela[edit]

A ethnic Sindhi state ruled by the chief nawab jam of lasbela independently from kalat

Kharan[edit]

A ethnic rakhshani state ruled by the chief nawab of nousherwani tribe called nawab of kharan

enclave of Gwadar[edit]

An ethnic makrani coastal area under the direct rule of his highness sultan of muscat and oman

History[edit]

The Khanate of Kalat was founded in 1666 by Mir Ahmad Khan Qambrani Baloch. The Khanate reached at its peak during the period of Khan of Kalat Mir Naseer Khan Noori Ahmadzai a Brahui speaking khan I in 1758, who unified Kalat region under his flag.[5] The territories controlled by the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by treaties with the British Agent Robert Sandeman in the late 19th century. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form the province of British Baluchistan which later gained the status of a Chief Commissioners province.

From 15 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. The Baluchistan States Union was formed on 3 October 1952 with three neighbouring states. The Khanate of Kalat ceased to exist on 14 October 1955 when the province of West Pakistan was formed.

The khanate of Kelat had a flag green over red. In the center occupying the red part and a little part of the green, a large white crescent pointed upwards and a white star (the star exactly in the center of the two stripes). Within the star and crescent an Islamic inscription. On the star there is a maxim: "Allah is Great" and on the crescent moon the inscription says: "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Prophet". All of this is placed on the horizontal bicolor of green over red. These are colors to which Muslim Baluch assign great significance.[6]

Rulers of Kalat[edit]

The rulers of Kalat held the title of Wali originally but in 1739 also took the title (Begler Begi) Khan usually shortened to Khan. The last Khan of Kalat (Balochi: خان قلات‎‎) had the privilege of being the President of the Council of Rulers for the Baluchistan States Union.

Tenure Khan of Kalat [5]
1512-1530 Mir Bijar Khan Mirwani
1530-1535 Mir Zagar Khan Mirwani
1535-1547 Mir Ibrahim Khan Qambrani ( Changed his Royal family name from Mirwani to Qambrani )
1547-1549 Mir Gwahram Khan Qambrani
1549-1569 Mir Hassan Khan Qambrani
1569-1581 Mir Sanjar Khan Qambrani
1581-1590 Mir Malook Khan Qambrani
1590-1601 Mir Qambar Sani Khan Qambrani
1601-1610 Mir Ahmad Khan Qambrani I
1610-1618 Mir Suri Khan Qambrani
1618-1629 Mir Qaisar Khan Qambrani
1629-1637 Mir Ahmad Sani Khan Qambrani II
1637-1647 Mir Altaz Khan Qambrani I
1647-1656 Mir Kachi Khan Qambrani
1656-1666 Mir Altaz Sani Khan Qambrani II
1666–1695 Mir Ahmad I Khan Qambrani III ( Changed his Royal family name from Qambrani to Ahmadzai )
1695–1697 Mir Mehrab Khan Ahmadzai I
1697–1714 Mir Samandar Khan Ahmadzai ( Amir al-Umara Amir of Amirs)
1714–1716 Mir Ahmad II Khan Ahmadzai
1716–1731 Mir Abdullah Khan Ahmadzai ( Eagle of the Mountain and The Greatest )
1731–1749 Mir Muhabbat Khan Ahmadzai ( Beglar Begi )
1749–1794 Mir Muhammad Nasir Khan I Ahmadzai ( Noori, Ghazi, Wali and The Great )
1794–1817 Mir Mahmud Khan I Ahmadzai
1817 - 13 November 1839 Mir Mehrab Khan Ahmadzai II
1839–1841 Mir Shah Nawaz Khan Ahmadzai
1841–1857 Mir Nasir Khan II Ahmadzai
1857 - March 1863 Mir Khudadad Khan Ahmadzai (1st time); during his rule, there were seven major and many minor rebellions.
March 1863 - May 1864 Mir Sherdil Khan Ahmadzai (usurped throne)
May 1864 - 15 August 1893 Mir Khudadad Khan (2nd time)
10 November 1893 – 3 November 1931 Mir Mahmud Khan II Ahmadzai
3 November 1931 – 10 September 1933 Mir Mohammad Azam Jan Khan Ahmadzai
10 September 1933 – 14 October 1955 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Ahmadzai (1st time);
declared independent on 5 August 1947; agreed to accede to Pakistan on 30 March 1948
14 October 1955 State of Kalat merged into One Unit of West Pakistan[7]
20 June 1958–1979 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Ahmadzai (2nd time Pretender)
1979-1998 Mir Dawood Jan Ahmadzai (Pretender)
1998-2006 Mir Agha Sulaiman Jan Ahmadzai (self exiled pretender)
2006-Till To Date Prince Mir Mohammad Khan Ahmadzai (pretender)

See also[edit]

Palace of Mir Khudadad, Khan of Kalat.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 29°01′33″N 66°35′24″E / 29.02583°N 66.59000°E / 29.02583; 66.59000