|Discovered by||Scott S. Sheppard|
David C. Jewitt
Jan T. Kleyna
|Discovery site||Mauna Kea Observatory|
|Discovery date||9 December 2001|
|S/2001 J 8|
|Orbital characteristics |
|Epoch 17 December 2020 (JD 2459200.5)|
|Observation arc||16.29 yr (5,951 days)|
|0.1571703 AU (23,512,340 km)|
|0° 29m 19.565s / day|
|Inclination||166.17658° (to ecliptic)|
Kale //, also known as Jupiter XXXVII, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. It was discovered in 2001 by astronomers Scott S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, and J. Kleyna, and was originally designated as S/2001 J 8.
Kale is about 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) in diameter, and orbits Jupiter at an average distance of 22,409 Mm (13,924,000 mi) in 736.55 days, at an inclination of 165° to the ecliptic (166° to Jupiter's equator), in a retrograde direction and with an orbital eccentricity of 0.2011.
It was named in August 2003 after Kale, one of the Charites (Greek: Χάριτες, Latin: Gratiae, 'Graces'), daughters of Zeus (Jupiter). Kale is the spouse of Hephaestus according to some authors (although most have Aphrodite play that role).
It belongs to the Carme group, made up of irregular retrograde moons orbiting Jupiter at a distance ranging between 23 and 24 Gm (14,000,000–15,000,000 mi) and at an inclination of about 165°.
- MPEC 2002-J54: Eleven New Satellites of Jupiter 2002 May (discovery and ephemeris)
- as 'Cale' in Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language
- "M.P.C. 127088" (PDF). Minor Planet Circular. Minor Planet Center. 17 November 2020.
- Sheppard, Scott. "Scott S. Sheppard - Jupiter Moons". Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. Carnegie Institution for Science. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- IAUC 7900: Satellites of Jupiter[permanent dead link] 2002 May (discovery)
- IAUC 8177: Satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus Archived 2008-07-09 at the Wayback Machine 2003 August (naming the moon)