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|Semi-autonomous domain of Mughal Empire|
The Kalhora dynasty (Sindhi: ڪلهوڙا راڄ) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty from the Indian subcontinent, originated in the region of Sindh. The dynasty ruled Sindh and parts of the Punjab region from 1701 to 1783. The family line is rooted in the Kalhora clan. They were assigned to hold authority by the Mughal Grand Vizier Mirza Ghazi Beg and later formed their own dynasty, but they were known as the Kalhora Nawabs by the Mughal Emperors.
The Kalhora dynasty succumbed to the Qizilbash during the invasion of Nadir Shah. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro reorganised and consolidated his power, but his son lost control of Sindh and was overthrown by Talpurs Amirs. Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro was the last Kalhora ruler.
Kalhora rule of Sindh began in 1701 when Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro was invested with title of Khuda Yar Khan and was made governor of Upper Sindh sarkar by royal decree of the Mughals. Later, he was made governor of Siwi through imperial decree. He founded a new city Khudabad after he obtained from Aurangzeb a grant of the track between the Indus and the Nara and made it the capital of his kingdom. Thenceforth, Mian Yar Muhammad became one of the imperial agents or governors. Later he extended his rule to Sehwan and Bukkur and became sole ruler of Northern and central Sindh except Thatto which was still under the administrative control of Mughal Empire.
The Kalhora dynasty produced four powerful rulers namely, Mian Nasir Muhammad, Mian Yar Muhammad, Mian Noor Muhammad and Mian Ghulam Shah.
- Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro 1696-1701
- Mian Yar Muhammad 1701-1719
- Mian Noor Muhammad 1719-1755
- Muhammad Muradyab Khan 1755-1757
- Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro 1757-1772
- Mian Sarfraz Kalhoro (Khudayar Khan) 1772-1783
- Verkaaik, Oskar (2004). Migrants and Militants: Fun and Urban Violence in Pakistan. Princeton University Press. pp. 94, 99. ISBN 978-0-69111-709-6.
The area of the Hindu-built mansion Pakka Qila was built in 1768 by the Kalhora kings, a local dynasty of Baluchi origin that ruled Sindh independently from the decaying Moghul Empire beginning in the mid-eighteenth century.
- Ansari, Sarah F. D. (1992). Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843-1947. Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-52140-530-0.
Another key to Kalhora 'success' lay in their strengthening of the Baluchi element in Sind.
- Pakistan Quarterly. As the Kalhoras were also a Baluch Dynasty. 1958.
- Sarah F. D. Ansari (31 January 1992). Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843-1947. Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-0-521-40530-0.