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|Semi-autonomous domain of Mughal Empire|
The Kalhora dynasty or Kalhoro dynasty (Sindhi: ڪلهوڙا راڄ) ruled Sindh and other parts of present-day Pakistan from 1701 to 1783. The family line is rooted in the Kalhora clan. They were assigned to hold authority by the Mughal Grand Vizier Mirza Ghazi Beg and later formed their own dynasty, but they were known as the Kalhora Nawabs by the Mughal Emperors.
The Kalhora dynasty succumbed to the Qizilbash during the invasion of Nadir Shah. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro reorganised and consolidated his power, but his son lost control of Sindh and was overthrown by Talpurs Amirs. Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro was the last Kalhora ruler.
Kalhora rule of Sindh began in 1701 when Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro was invested with title of Khuda Yar Khan and was made governor of Upper Sindh sarkar by royal decree of the Mughals. Later, he was made governor of Siwi through imperial decree. He founded a new city Khudabad after he obtained from Aurangzeb a grant of the tract between the Indus and the Nara and made it capital of his kingdom. Thenceforth, Mian Yar Muhammad became one of the imperial agents or governors. Later he extended his rule to Sehwan and Bukkur and became sole ruler of Northern and central Sindh except Thatto which was still under administrative control of Mughal Empire.
The Kalhora dynasty produced four powerful rulers namely, Mian Nasir Muhammad, Mian Yar Muhammad, Mian Noor Muhammad and Mian Ghulam Shah.
- Sarah F. D. Ansari (31 January 1992). Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843-1947. Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-0-521-40530-0.