Kaliman I of Bulgaria

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Kaliman Asen I
Еmperor of Bulgaria
Reign 1241–1246
Predecessor Ivan Asen II
Successor Michael Asen I
Born about 1234
Died 1246
House Asen dynasty
Father Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria
Mother Anna Maria of Hungary

Kaliman Asen I (Bulgarian: Калиман Асен I), or commonly but less accurately Коломан Асен I, Koloman Asen I) reigned as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1241 to 1246. Kaliman Asen I was the son of Ivan Asen II and Anna Maria of Hungary. His maternal grandparents were Andrew II of Hungary and Gertrude of Merania. He was named after his maternal uncle, Coloman of Hungary.


Second Bulgarian Empire (1241-1256)

The reign of Kaliman Asen I was characterized by the gradual weakening of the Bulgarian state. The seven-year-old emperor was obviously not able to rule by himself and the country was governed by a regency presided by Patriarch Joachim I.[1] There are indications that local authorities took advantage of the youth of the ruler to abuse their power in the provinces, for example at Melnik.

Early in the reign Bulgaria was invaded by the Mongols of the Golden Horde under Batu Khan. They were bought off by an annual tribute. Bulgaria's influence over neighbouring South Walachia, Thessalonica and Serbia also came to an end, although the boundaries of the enlarged state remained the same until Kaliman Asen I's premature death. In 1245 Pope Innocent IV addressed him a letter seeking to bring the Bulgarian Church into a church union with the Roman Catholic Church.

Kaliman Asen I's death in August/September 1246 was attributed by the Byzantine chronicler George Acropolites to either natural causes or poisoning. He was succeeded by his younger half-brother Michael Asen I (often inaccurately called Michael II Asen).




  • Андреев (Andreev), Йордан (Jordan); Лалков (Lalkov), Милчо (Milcho) (1996). Българските ханове и царе (The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars) (in Bulgarian). Велико Търново (Veliko Tarnovo): Абагар (Abagar). ISBN 954-427-216-X. 
  • Андреев (Andreev), Йордан (Jordan); Лазаров (Lazarov), Иван (Ivan); Павлов (Pavlov), Пламен (Plamen) (2012). Кой кой е в средновековна България [Who is Who in Medieval Bulgaria] (in Bulgarian). Изток Запад (Iztok Zapad). ISBN 978-619-152-012-1. 
  • Fine, J. (1987). The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10079-3. 

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Preceded by
Ivan Asen II
Emperor of Bulgaria
Succeeded by
Michael Asen I