Kalimantan

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Kalimantan
Location of Kalimantan (Indonesia) in Borneo Island
Location of Kalimantan (Indonesia) in Borneo Island
Coordinates: 1°S 114°E / 1°S 114°E / -1; 114Coordinates: 1°S 114°E / 1°S 114°E / -1; 114
Country Indonesia
Province West Kalimantan
 Central Kalimantan
 South Kalimantan
 East Kalimantan
 North Kalimantan
Largest CitiesBalikpapan
Banjarmasin
Palangkaraya
Pontianak
Samarinda
Tarakan
Tanjung Selor
Area
 • Total539,237.77 km2 (208,200.87 sq mi)
Elevation
2,278 m (7,474 ft)
Population
 (2020 Census)[1]
 • Total16,625,796
 • Density31/km2 (80/sq mi)
Time zonesUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
UTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
ISO 3166 codeID-KA
Vehicle signDA
KB
KH
KT
KU
HDIIncrease 0.708 (High)

Kalimantan (Indonesian pronunciation: [kaliˈmantan]) is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.[2] It comprises 73% of the island's area. The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are Brunei and East Malaysia. In Indonesia, "Kalimantan" refers to the whole island of Borneo.[2] In 2019, the Indonesian President Joko Widodo proposed that Indonesia's capital be moved to Kalimantan.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The name Kalimantan, was derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, which means "burning weather island", or island with a very hot temperature, to describe its hot and humid tropical climate. It consists of the two words kal[a] ("time, season, period") and manthan[a] ("boiling, churning, burning").[4] The indigenous people of the eastern region of Borneo referred to their island by the term Pulu K'lemantan or "Kalimantan" by the time the Portuguese explorer Jorge de Menezes made contact with them.[5][6] Its association with the island and its peoples has also been attributed to British scientist and colonial administrator Charles Hose from the early 20th century. However, the use of this term to refer to a supposed Klemantan people has since been discontinued, as it has been deemed to be an invented term of convenience that does not properly represent the people it claims to describe.

Area[edit]

Map of Kalimantan (light colour) and its component provinces.

The Indonesian territory makes up 73% of the island by area, and 69.5% of its population (13,772,543 at the 2010 Census of Indonesia, and 16,625,796 at the 2020 Census.[7] The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are of Brunei (460,345 in 2020[8]) and East Malaysia (6,824,600 in 2020), the latter comprising the states of Sabah (3,908,500) and Sarawak (2,816,500), and the federal territory of Labuan (99,600). The region within Indonesia is also known as Indonesian Borneo.

Kalimantan's total area is 539,237.77 square kilometres (208,201 sq mi).[9]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1971 5,154,774—    
1980 6,723,086+30.4%
1990 9,099,874+35.4%
1995 10,470,843+15.1%
2000 11,331,558+8.2%
2005 12,541,554+10.7%
2010 14,297,069+14.0%
2015 15,320,017+7.2%
2020 16,625,796+8.5%
Sources: Statistics Indonesia[10]

Kalimantan is now divided into five provinces. It was administered as one province between 1945 and 1956, but in 1957 the province of Central Kalimantan was created by being split away from the existing South Kalimantan. There were four provinces until 25 October 2012, when North Kalimantan was split off from East Kalimantan.

Provinces of Kalimantan
Province Area (km2) Pop. (2005
Census)
Pop. (2010
Census)
Pop. (2015
Census)
Pop. (2020
Census)[7]
Density
per km2
(2020)
Provincial
capital
Largest metro
West Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Barat)
147,307.00 4,042,817 4,393,239 4,783,209 5,414,390 36.8 Pontianak Pontianak
Central Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Tengah)
153,564.50 1,913,026 2,202,599 2,490,178 2,669,969 17.4 Palangkaraya Palangkaraya
South Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Selatan)
38,744.23 3,271,413 3,626,119 3,984,315 4,073,584 105.1 Banjarmasin Banjarmasin
East Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Timur)
127,346.92 2,840,874 3,550,586 3,422,676* 3,766,039 29.6 Samarinda Balikpapan
North Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Utara)
72,275.12 473,424 524,526 639,639 701,814 9.7 Tanjung Selor Tarakan
Total 539,237.77 12,541,554 14,297,069 15,320,017 16,625,796 30.8 - Banjarmasin

* excluding North Kalimantan, split off from East Kalimantan with resulting population and area loss for the 2015 census.

Demographics[edit]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Number of the largest population of ethnic groups according to the 2010 census:

Ethnicity West Kalimantan Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan North and East Kalimantan Total
Banjarese 14,430
(0.33%)
464,260
(21.28%)
2,686,627
(74.84%)
440,453
(12.45%)
3,605,770
(26.31%)
Dayak 1,531,989
(34.93%)
1,029,182
(46.62%)
80,708
(2.23%)
351,437
(9.94%)
2,993,316
(21.78%)
Javanese 427,238
(9.74%)
478,393
(21.67%)
523,276
(14.51%)
1,069,605
(30.24%)
2,498,512
(18.18%)
Malay 1,484,085
(33.84%)
87,348
(3.96%)
3,681
(0.10%)
6,053
(0.17%)
1,581,167
(11.51%)
Buginese 137,282
(3.13%)
17,104
(0.77%)
101,727
(2.81%)
735,819
(20.81%)
991,932
(7.22%)
Madurese 274,869
(6.27%)
42,668
(1.93%)
53,002
(1.47%)
46,823
(1.32%)
417,362
(3.04%)
Chinese 358,451
(8.17%)
5,130
(0.23%)
13,000
(0.36%)
32,757
(0.93%)
409,338
(2.98%)
Kutai None None None 275,696
(7.80%)
275,696
(2.01%)
Sundanese 49,530
(1.13%)
28,580
(1.29%)
24,592
(0.68%)
55,659
(1.57%)
158,361
(1.15%)
Batak 26,486
(0.60%)
12,324
(0.56%)
12,408
(0.34%)
37,145
(1.05%)
88,363
(0.64%)
Others 80,996
(1.85%)
42,378
(1.92%)
114,971
(3.18%)
485,056
(13.72%)
723,401
(5.26%)
Total 4,385,356
(100%)
2,207,367
(100%)
3,613,992
(100%)
3,536,503
(100%)
13,743,218
(100%)

Religion[edit]

Religion in Kalimantan (2010 census)[11]
Religion percent
Islam
78.23%
Protestantism
8.99%
Roman Catholicism
8.86%
Buddhism
1.94%
Others
1.35%
Not Asked
0.31%
Hinduism
0.27%
Confucianism
0.23%
Not Stated
0.02%

Number of the largest population of religious groups according to the 2010 census:

Religion West Kalimantan Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan North Kalimantan East Kalimantan Total
Islam 2,603,318
(59.22%)
1,643,715
(74.31%)
3,505,846
(96.67%)
378,478
(72.14%)
2,655,227
(87.68%)
10,786,584
(78.23%)
Protestantism 500,254
(11.38%)
353,353
(15.97%)
47,974
(1.32%)
109,358
(20.84%)
228,022
(7.53%)
1,238,961
(8.99%)
Roman Catholic 1,008,368
(22.94%)
58,279
(2.63%)
16,045
(0.44%)
29,366
(5.60%)
109,263
(3.61%)
1,221,321
(8.86%)
Hinduism 2,708
(0.06%)
11,149
(0.50%)
16,064
(0.44%)
288
(0.05%)
7,369
(0.24%)
37,578
(0.27%)
Buddhism 237,741
(5.41%)
2,301
(0.10%)
11,675
(0.32%)
3,879
(0.74%)
12,477
(0.41%)
268,073
(1.94%)
Confucianism 29,737
(0.68%)
414
(0.02%)
236
(0.01%)
175
(0.03%)
905
(0.03%)
31,467
(0.23%)
Other religions 2,907
(0.07%)
138,419
(6.26%)
16,465
(0.45%)
25
(0.00%)
824
(0.03%)
158,640
(1.35%)
Not Stated 671
(0.01%)
220
(0.01%)
3
(0.00%)
454
(0.09%)
1,497
(0.05%)
2,845
(0.02%)
Not Asked 10,279
(0.23%)
4,239
(0.19%)
12,308
(0.34%)
2,633
(0.50%)
12,903
(0.43%)
42,362
(0.31%)
Total 4,395,983
(100%)
2,212,089
(100%)
3,626,616
(100%)
524,656
(100%)
3,028,487
(100%)
13,787,831
(100%)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Kalimantan". Britannica. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  3. ^ "Indonesia president proposes to move capital to Borneo". Reuters. 2019-08-16. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
  4. ^ "Central Kalimantan Province". archipelago fastfact. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  5. ^ "Notice historique du royaume Banjarmasin (Bornéo) par M. le Baron T. Van Capellen, lieutenant d'artillerie , aide-de-camp de S. Exc. le gouverneur-général des indes néerlandaises" [Historical record of the Banjarmasin Kingdom (Borneo) by Baron T. Van Capellen, lieutenant of artillery, aide-de-camp of His Excellency, the Governor General of the Dutch Indies]. Le Moniteur des Indes-Orientales et Occidentales [The Monitor of the East and West Indies] (in French). The Hague, Netherlands: Belinfant Brothers. 1847. pp. 164.
  6. ^ "A Discourse Delivered at a Meeting of the Society of Arts and Sciences in Batavia, on the Twenty-fourth day of April 1813, being the Anniversary of the Institution, by the Honorable Thomas Stamford Raffles, President.". Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, der Kunsten en Wetenschappen [Treatises of the Society of Arts and Sciences in Batavia]. 7. Batavia, Dutch East Indies: A. H. Hubbard. 1814. p. 21.
  7. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  8. ^ "Department of Economic Planning and Development - Population". www.depd.gov.bn. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  9. ^ "Indonesia General Info". Geohive.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  10. ^ "Penduduk Indonesia menurut Provinsi 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 dan 2010". Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
  11. ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". Badan Pusat Statistik. 2010.

External links[edit]