List of captive orcas
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
This article gives a list of captive orcas, or killer whales, large predatory marine mammals that were first captured live and displayed in exhibitions in the 1960s, or were subsequently born in captivity. They soon became popular attractions at public aquariums and aquatic theme parks due to their intelligence, trainability, striking appearance, playfulness in captivity and sheer size. As of September 2015, 58 orcas are held captive at facilities in North and South America, Europe and Asia, providing entertainment for theme park visitors.
The first North Eastern Pacific orca, Wanda, was captured in November 1961 by a collecting crew from Marineland of the Pacific, and over the next 15 years, around 60 or 70 orcas were taken from Pacific waters for this purpose. When the US Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 effectively stopped the capture of Pacific orcas, captures were made in Icelandic waters. Since 2010, captures have been made in Russian waters.
The majority of orcas on display in the West (US, Canada, Argentina, Spain, and France), 29 of 38, were born in captivity. In the East, 6 of the 7 displayed in Japan are captive-born. An additional 13 orcas reported in China and Russia were evidently captured in Russian waters.
Kalina, born in September 1985, was the first captive-born orca calf to survive more than a few days. In September 2001, Kasatka gave birth to Nakai, the first orca conceived through artificial insemination, at SeaWorld San Diego. This technique lets park owners maintain a more healthy genetic mix in the small groups of orcas at each park, while avoiding the stress of moving orcas for breeding purposes.
- 1 Listing
- 2 Individuals
- 2.1 Living
- 2.1.1 Adán
- 2.1.2 Amaya
- 2.1.3 Corky
- 2.1.4 Earth
- 2.1.5 Ikaika
- 2.1.6 Kalia
- 2.1.7 Kasatka
- 2.1.8 Katina
- 2.1.9 Kayla
- 2.1.10 Keet
- 2.1.11 Keijo
- 2.1.12 Keto
- 2.1.13 Kiska
- 2.1.14 Kohana
- 2.1.15 Kshamenk
- 2.1.16 Kyuquot
- 2.1.17 Lolita
- 2.1.18 Lovey
- 2.1.19 Lynn
- 2.1.20 Malia
- 2.1.21 Makaio
- 2.1.22 Makani
- 2.1.23 Moana
- 2.1.24 Morgan
- 2.1.25 Nakai
- 2.1.26 Nalani
- 2.1.27 Orkid
- 2.1.28 Sakari
- 2.1.29 Shouka
- 2.1.30 Takara
- 2.1.31 Tuar
- 2.1.32 Trua
- 2.1.33 Ulises
- 2.2 Deceased
- 2.2.1 Baby Shamu II
- 2.2.2 Bingo
- 2.2.3 Chimo
- 2.2.4 Freya
- 2.2.5 Gudrun
- 2.2.6 Hoi Wai
- 2.2.7 Hyak
- 2.2.8 Junior
- 2.2.9 K1/Taku
- 2.2.10 Kalina
- 2.2.11 Kandu V
- 2.2.12 Kanduke
- 2.2.13 Keiko
- 2.2.14 Kenau
- 2.2.15 Kim II
- 2.2.16 Moby Doll
- 2.2.17 Namu
- 2.2.18 Neocia
- 2.2.19 Nepo
- 2.2.20 Nyar
- 2.2.21 Orky II
- 2.2.22 Samoa
- 2.2.23 Shamu
- 2.2.24 Skana
- 2.2.25 Splash
- 2.2.26 Spooky
- 2.2.27 Sumar
- 2.2.28 Taima
- 2.2.29 Taku
- 2.2.30 Tilikum
- 2.2.31 Unna
- 2.2.32 Vigga
- 2.2.33 Wanda
- 2.2.34 Winston
- 2.2.35 Yaka
- 2.1 Living
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
|Name||Gender||Origin||Date of Passing||Park||Birthdate|
|Adán||m||Captive born||alive||Loro Parque||13 October 2010|
|Amaya||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||2 December 2014|
|Corky II||f||North Eastern Pacific||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||1965 (est.)|
|Earth||m||Captive born||alive||Port of Nagoya Aquarium||13 October 2008|
|Ikaika||m||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||25 August 2002|
|Inouk||m||Captive born||alive||Marineland Antibes||23 February 1999|
|Kalia||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||21 December 2004|
|Kamea||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Antonio||6 December 2013|
|Kasatka||f||Icelandic||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||1976 (est.)|
|Katina||f||Icelandic||alive||SeaWorld Orlando||1975 (est.)|
|Kayla||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld Orlando||26 November 1988|
|Keet||m||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||2 February 1993|
|Keijo||m||Captive born||alive||Marineland Antibes||20 November 2013|
|Keto||m||Captive born||alive||Loro Parque||17 June 1995|
|Kohana||f||Captive born||alive||Loro Parque||3 May 2002|
|Kshamenk||m||Argentina||alive||Mundo Marino||1987 (est.)|
|Kyuquot||m||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Antonio||24 December 1991|
|Lara||f||Captive born||alive||Kamogawa Seaworld||8 February 2001|
|Lolita (Tokitae)||f||North Eastern Pacific (Southern Resident, L-pod)||alive||Miami Seaquarium||1964 (est.)|
|Lovey||f||Captive born||alive||Kamogawa Seaworld||11 January 1998|
|Luna||f||Captive born||alive||Kamogawa Seaworld||19 July 2012|
|Lynn||f||Captive born||alive||Port of Nagoya Aquarium||13 November 2012|
|Malia||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld Orlando||12 March 2007|
|Malishka (Juliet)||f||Russian pod||alive||Moskvarium||2010 (est.)|
|Malvina||f||Russia||alive||Center for Marine Mammal Adaptation (TINRO)||July 2015 (est.)|
|Makaio||m||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld Orlando||9 October 2010|
|Makani||m||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||14 February 2013|
|Moana||m||Captive born||alive||Marineland Antibes||16 March 2011|
|Morgan||f||Netherlands Wild Born Norway ( found Wadden Sea)||alive||Loro Parque||2008 (est.)|
|Nakai||m||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||1 September 2001|
|Nalani||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld Orlando||18 September 2006|
|Orkid||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||23 September 1988|
|Ran 2||f||Captive born||alive||Kamogawa Seaworld||25 February 2006|
|Sakari||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Antonio||7 January 2010|
|Shouka||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||25 February 1993|
|Skyla||f||Captive born||alive||Loro Parque||9 February 2004|
|Stella||f||Icelandic||alive||Port of Nagoya Aquarium||1987 (est.)|
|Takara||f||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Antonio||9 July 1991|
|Tekoa||m||Captive born||alive||Loro Parque||8 November 2000|
|Tilikum||m||Icelandic||Jan 6, 2017 (35)||SeaWorld Orlando||1981 (est.)|
|Trua||m||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld Orlando||23 November 2005|
|Tuar||m||Captive born||alive||SeaWorld San Antonio||22 June 1999|
|Ulises||m||Icelandic||alive||SeaWorld San Diego||1977 (est.)|
|Wikie||f||Captive born||alive||Marineland Antibes||1 June 2001|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Adán (Spanish variation of "Adam") measured about 6.6 feet (2.0 m) and weighed in at 330 pounds at birth. He was born on October 13, 2010, at Loro Parque. His mother, nine-year-old Kohana, showed no maternal interest in him at birth. As a result, Adán had to be bottle fed by staff until May 2011 when he was permanently moved onto fish. He had one little sister called Victoria, with whom Adán was very close to until her death. Adán spends a lot of time with the park's young female, Morgan.
Adán is a result of inbreeding between Kohana and Keto. Adán's only full-blooded sibling, Victoria, died in 2013. Adán has been introduced to all 5 orcas living in Loro Parque.
Amaya is a female orca born on December 2, 2014, at SeaWorld San Diego. Her mother is Kalia and her father is Ulises. Amaya was Kalia's first calf. Amaya was confirmed a female on December 13. Kasatka was there to assist Kalia during the birth alongside Makani ( Kasatka's calf ) and Nakai. Amaya was born tail first and was a length of 6.5 feet and a weight of 350 pounds at birth. Amaya now weighs 509 pounds and has a length of 8.75 feet. Amaya is 93.75% Icelandic and 6.25% southern resident. Amaya is a very energetic and playful whale and spends a lot of time with her mom and with some of the younger whales such as Makani. Amaya is very cooperative.
|This section does not cite any sources. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Corky is a 52-year-old female orca at Sea World San Diego. She is the longest-held captive orca in the world and is the largest female orca in captivity. She is now the only survivor from the Northern Resident captures. Around the age of four, Corky was captured in Pender Harbour off the coast of British Columbia on December 11, 1969. From there, she went to Marineland of the Pacific and lived with three other orcas. However, the two orcas who she was captured with died after three years and she spent most of her time at Marineland with an orca bull named Orky. Corky has been pregnant seven times, resulting in four live births from 1977 to 1985 (with two failures in 1986 and 1987), none of which survived the first two months of life.
On January 21, 1987, during her seventh pregnancy, she and Orky were moved to SeaWorld San Diego. She settled well in the new environment, but she had problems with one of the Icelandic orcas, Kandu V. The two females fought for dominance and it peaked during a show in 1989, resulting in Kandu's death. Corky is also used as the "Welcome Whale" for new trainers and new orcas. She has also "adopted" some of the whales she has been with. She has been a surrogate mother to Sumar, Splash, Orkid, and Keet. Corky is easy to identify, mostly because of her large size for a female, her tall unbent dorsal fin, the small 'chips' in her dorsal fin, and a nick in her left dorsal fluke. She also has experienced problems in aggression from a male named Ulises. "At SeaWorld, Ulises is dominant over some of the female orcas, especially the oldest female, Corky. In fact, trainers will not allow Corky and Ulises to be in the same pool unless Kasatka, the ultimate matriarch, is present to keep both whales calm."
Earth (アース? Āsu) was born at Kamogawa Sea World located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan on October 13, 2008. "Kamogawa is the location of Kamogawa Seaworld, which opened in 1970. . . Lovey gave birth to Earth on October 13, 2008, which makes Lovey the first captive-born mother in a Japanese marine park". His mother is Lovey and his father is Oscar who died on December 21, 2012.
Ikaika (pronounced ee-KY-ka which means "strong" in Hawaiian) is a male orca born at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida on August 25, 2002. He is the offspring of Tilikum (father) and Katina (mother), making him Katina's fifth calf. To decide the name of the newborn whale a poll was taken. The following names were chosen to be on the poll: Ikaika (Hawaiian for "strong"), Mottaka (Icelandic for "reception"), Ramu (in honor of the late whale by that name), Tsunami (Japanese) and Ramius (after the Captain in "The Hunt for Red October").
Ikaika was transferred to Marineland (Ontario) Ontario, Canada on a breeding loan on November 18, 2006, in exchange for three male beluga whales – Juno, Aurek, and Klondike – who joined Spooky within the Wild Arctic area of SeaWorld Orlando. Ikaika is a maturing male: his dorsal fin has started to collapse, his flukes have started to curl under, and he is about 17 feet (5.2 m) long. On November 13, 2011, Ikaika was transported to SeaWorld San Diego, where he joined six other whales; Ulises, Corky, Orkid, Kasatka, Nakai, and Kalia.
Kalia was born at SeaWorld San Diego on December 21, 2004 at 9:22 a.m. in Shamu Stadium's main show pool following a little more than two hours of labor and was estimated to weigh between 300 pounds and 500 pounds and measure 6 to 7 feet. Her parents are Kasatka and Keet. She is also known as GreatGrandbaby Shamu. Her siblings are Takara (1991) Nakai (2001), Halyn (2005–2008) and Makani (2013). The name Kalia means "beauty" in Hawaiian. Kalia met her father for the first time when he returned to San Diego in February 2012. Kalia gave birth to Amaya on December 2, 2014, at 12:34 pm. Amaya's father is Ulises, the form of conception is unknown, either naturally or through artificial insemination.
Kasatka is a 41-year-old female orca who lives at SeaWorld San Diego and the mother of Takara, Nakai, Kalia and Makani. She is currently the park's dominant orca and she can be seen putting the other whales in their places including her own offspring. She was captured off the coast of Iceland on October 26, 1978, about the age of two. Her name probably comes from the Russian word Kasatka (Russian: Кaсатка), a generic name for orcas. She is 17.7 feet (5.4 m) long and weighs around 5,950 pounds (2,700 kg). Kasatka became a grandmother for the first time when her daughter Takara gave birth to her first calf, a female born May 3, 2002, named Kohana. Takara gave birth a second time, on November 23, 2005, to a male named Trua in SeaWorld Orlando. Takara gave birth to her third calf, a female born January 7, 2010, named Sakari. Kasatka became a great grandmother on October 13, 2010, when Kohana gave birth to her first calf Adán. Kasatka gave birth to her fourth calf and second son on February 14, 2013, at 6:33 am after a one-hour labor. The calf was later named Makani.
Kasatka has shown aggression to humans. In 1993 Kasatka tried to bite a trainer during a show, and again in 1999. On November 30, 2006, Kasatka grabbed a trainer and dragged him underwater during their show. The trainer escaped and was later in good condition despite being underwater for a "brief" amount of time. Since this incident, Kasatka has been barred from performing waterworks with trainers and might not ever be reintroduced to them.
Katina is a female who lives in SeaWorld Orlando. She was captured near Iceland at about three years of age on October 26, 1978. She is healthy and the most successful breeding female orca in captivity. At 16 feet 4 inches (4.98 m) and about 5,600 pounds (2,500 kg), Katina is small compared to other females, but she is rather bulky.
Upon her capture, Katina was purchased by Marineland (Ontario). In 1979, Katina was bought by SeaWorld and was sent to their park in San Diego. In 1982, Katina was moved to SeaWorld Ohio in Aurora, Ohio with another female named Kasatka, with whom she was captured in 1978. For two years, the two would perform in the Ohio park during the summer months and then be moved back to San Diego for the winter. Finally, in 1984, Katina was transferred to the SeaWorld in Orlando.
Katina became pregnant in early spring of 1984 at SeaWorld San Diego from a male named Winston. Soon after, she was moved back to Sea World Ohio for the summer. The trainers soon realized she was pregnant, so she was moved to Orlando at the end of the summer season, where she gave birth on September 26, 1985, to a female who was named Kalina. Although ten orca calves had been born in captivity prior to Kalina, none had survived past a few weeks. Kalina was the first orca calf to be successfully born and raised in captivity. Kalina was taken from her mother at 4 years 5 months and conducted on a trip around all four SeaWorld parks.
In early 1987, an adult male named Kanduke arrived in Orlando. He and Katina soon mated. Katina bore her second calf on November 4, 1988, a female named Katerina. In early 1991 at a very early age Katerina was transferred out of Orlando. Katerina died on May 5, 1999, at SeaWorld San Antonio at 10.5 years of age. A male named Tilikum came to SeaWorld in January 1992. It wasn't long before Katina was pregnant again. She gave birth to her first son on September 9, 1993, named Taku. Katina's next calf came on December 27, 1996, a female named Unna. Her fifth calf was a male born on August 25, 2002, named Ikaika. Katina gave birth to her sixth calf, a female named Nalani, on September 18, 2006. She gave birth to her seventh calf, a male named Makaio on October 9, 2010, at 7:28 p.m. The great-grandmother went into labor at 6:47 p.m. and delivered a 7-foot (2.1 m)-long, 350-pound male calf. He swam to the surface moments later for his first breath. She has six grandchildren, Keet, Keto, Tuar, Skyla, Trua and Nalani, as well as four great grandchildren, Kalia, Halyn, Adán and Vicky. Kalia gave birth to Katina's first great-great grandchild, Amaya, on December 2, 2014.
Katina lives with two of her seven calves (Nalani and Makaio) and two of her grandchildren (Trua and Nalani). She is always with her calf, but is also with Nalani and Kayla quite often. She is grouped with her son Makaio, Trua, Malia, Nalani and Kayla.
Katina appeared on a That's My Baby episode, where she gave birth to Ikaika.
Kayla is a female born on November 26, 1988, at SeaWorld San Antonio. Her parents were Kenau and Orky II, both now deceased. Kayla is about 20-foot (6.1 m) long and weighs about 6,200 pounds (2,800 kg). Kayla lived with her mother for the first two and a half years of her life. Kenau was moved to SeaWorld Orlando in January 1991, and Kayla was moved to SeaWorld Ohio in April 1991. Kayla lived there for the next eight years with another young female, named Katerina, who was three weeks older than she was. After Katerina was moved out, an older female named Winnie was moved in.
In November 1999, Kayla and Winnie were both transferred to SeaWorld San Antonio. Kayla and Winnie joined a female named Haida II and her son Kyuquot. A young male named Keto arrived in March 2001. Haida II died on August 1 of that year, making Winnie the new dominant female. Winnie died on April 11, 2002. Kayla became the new dominant orca in the stadium and was until her relocation to Orlando in 2006. After the death of Winnie, only three whales were left in the park: Kayla, Kyuquot, and Keto. A young female by the name of Unna was moved to the park in December 2002 to settle down Kyuquot and Keto, because the two maturing males were constantly fighting over Kayla. In November 2006, Kayla was transferred to Sea World Orlando leaving behind a mate Keet, and their daughter Halyn was raised by Unna immediately after Kayla's transfer. Once Kayla arrived, she immediately gave up her dominant role to Katina, who has been the dominant female there since 1988. In spring 2007, Kayla miscarried a male calf, likely the son of Keet.
Kayla gave birth to her first calf on October 9, 2005, a female named Halyn. Halyn was moved to a special animal care facility to be hand raised. Halyn lived in Animal Care in a different part of the park, and in May joined her family at Shamu Stadium. Halyn's father is Keet. On June 15, 2008, Halyn died unexpectedly.
Keet is a bull orca who was born on February 2, 1993, in SeaWorld San Antonio. The word "Keet" means orca in the Tlingit language. His parents are Kalina and Kotar. Keet currently measures about 19 feet (5.8 m) and weighs 7,000 pounds (3,200 kg). Keet is also known as Grandbaby Shamu because his mother is the first orca to be born and raised under human care successfully.
When he was 1 year and 8 months of age, his mother was moved to SeaWorld Orlando in Florida to support her next pregnancy, Keet's brother Keto was born in 1995. Katerina, his aunt, was moved in from SeaWorld Ohio. In 1995, his father, Kotar, died. On May 5, 1999, Katerina died. Five months later, two females named Kayla and Winnie were moved in. In November 1999, he was moved to SeaWorld San Diego in California. There, he met his brother, Keto, and his playmate, Sumar. All three whales were moved to SeaWorld Ohio in February 2000. On February 15, 2001, Keet was returned to California; Sumar followed three days later, while Keto was relocated to SeaWorld San Antonio in Texas. Keet's best friends were the bull Ulises and a maturing male named Splash. On April 24, 2004, Keet was moved to his birthplace, meeting Kyuquot, Unna, Kayla, Keto, Tuar, and Tekoa.
Keet is a gentle and agile performer. On December 21, 2004, he became a father for the first time when Kalia, his daughter, was born at Sea World San Diego. On October 9, 2005, his mate Kayla gave birth to his second daughter Halyn, at SeaWorld San Antonio. He may have fathered Unna's stillborn in April 2006 and Kayla's miscarriage in spring 2007. Keet may have fathered the possible 2 extra pregnancies of Unna claimed by Bridgette Pirtle. Keet was the lowest ranking adult orca in the dominance chain at SeaWorld Texas. He is very sweet and was often used as a "starter whale" for new trainers along with a younger male named Tuar. On June 15, 2008, SeaWorld announced Halyn died unexpectedly; a necropsy was performed and the test results have been announced.
Keet moved back to Seaworld San Diego on February 27, 2012, and he has been reunited with three of his old friends Corky, Ulises and Orkid. He met his first daughter Kalia at the age of 7 when he returned. Keet became a grandfather on December 2, 2014, when Kalia gave birth to Amaya.
Keijo is a bull orca who was born in captivity at Marineland Antibes on November 20, 2013. "Keijo (Finnish for "Elf" or "Supernatural Being") weighs about 330 pounds (Jan 2014). His father is Wikie's half-brother Valentin".
Keto is a bull orca who was born on June 17, 1995. His parents are Kalina and Kotar. Keto has lived at all four Seaworld parks since he was separated from his mother at age 3.
When Keto was 10 years old he was moved to Loro Parque with Tekoa, his half-niece Kohana, and his half-sister Skyla. On Christmas Eve 2009, Keto killed trainer Alexis Martinez during training.
|This section does not cite any sources. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Kiska is an Icelandic female residing at Marineland of Canada, and the only orca residing there, she has been nicknamed the "World's Loneliest Orca". She was captured in 1979 along with King, Caren and a female who remained unnamed. Kiska and the female were sold to Marineland of Canada while King and Caren went to Kamogawa Sea World. The female was transferred to Kamogawa and died soon after.
Kohana is a female born at SeaWorld San Diego on May 3, 2002. She is the second orca to be conceived through artificial insemination. Her parents are Takara and Tilikum. On April 25, 2004, Kohana and her mother were moved to SeaWorld Orlando. On February 13, 2006, Kohana was moved to Loro Parque in Spain with three other orcas: Tekoa, Keto, and Skyla. She often floats at the acrylic glass to interact with visitors. She is intelligent and eager, and learns quickly.
On October 13, 2010, Kohana gave birth to her first calf (a male) named Adán, in the parks "Orca Ocean" killer whale exhibit, after a four-hour labor. The calf weighed around 150 kilograms (330 lb), and was two meters long (6.5 ft). Kohana's calf is the first killer whale born in Loro Parque. On August 3, 2012, Kohana gave birth to her second calf (a female) named Victoria (or Vicky). Like her older brother, Victoria was rejected by Kohana. On June 16, 2013, Victoria suddenly died at the age of 10 months. Vicky's cause of death was later revealed to be intestinal problems.
Kshamenk (pronounced sha-MEN-k) is a male orca that was taken from the wild off the coast of Argentina in 1992. The population he comes from is unknown. He was approximately 5 years old at the time, making him roughly 29 years old. Initial reports said that Kshamenk, along with three members of his pod, had stranded and been "rescued" by Mundo Marino. However, it was later revealed that Mundo Marino had "force stranded" the whales by placing a large net between the whales and the shore. When the tide went out, the whales were left stranded on the beach. One was released, one died on the way to the aquarium, one beat himself to death on the walls of his enclosure, and one, Kshamenk, survived.
When Kshamenk arrived at Mundo Marino he was kept with a female orca, "Belen." They performed in the orca show together for eight years. Kshamenk impregnated Belen in 1998 but the female calf was stillborn 16 months later. Belen died shortly after in February 2000, leaving Kshamenk alone. After a veterinary evaluation in 2006, Kshamenk was considered non-releasable.
In November 2001 Six Flags Worlds of Adventure, located in Aurora, Ohio, filed a request to import Kshamenk with the National Marine Fisheries Service. 35 anti-captivity organizations including, the Wild Earth Foundation, Humane Society of the United States, Cetacean Society International, and Earth Island Institute, opposed the transfer of Kshamenk in favor of his rehabilitation and release. In July 2002 the Secretary of the Environment of Argentina and CITES Argentina denied the request of Mundo Marino to export the whale. In Argentina it is illegal to export native fauna, and as a wild born orca, Kshamenk is a part of the commonwealth.
Kshamenk still resides at Mundo Marino. On February 14, 2013, Kshamenk became a father via artificial insemination to Makani, a male calf born to Kasatka at SeaWorld San Diego, and to a female calf named Kamea, born to Takara at SeaWorld San Antonio on December 6, 2013.
Kyuquot is an orca at the Seaworld San Antonio, Texas. His parents are Tilikum and Haida II, he was born on Christmas Eve in 1991, at Sealand Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Ky only lived here for a short amount of time. A trainer had fallen into the pool and drowned. Soon after, him, his parents, and another female all moved to SeaWorld parks. Kyuquot was very close to his mother, who died in 2001. Over time, Ky became very close to several females who came to Texas, though he has not sired any calves.
He used to perform waterworks, though after several incidents, he was not allowed to anymore. Ky is a very large male and can still do many athletic behaviors such as front flips. He is the largest orca at San Antonio, weighing over 9,000 pounds. He is a reliable whale and is most often grouped with Tuar, though he likes spending time with Takara and can be seen with any of his pod mates. Takara is currently pregnant with her fifth calf and either Kyuquot or Tuar is the father.
Lolita (Low lita), originally known as Tokitae (Toh-kih-tay), is an orca at the Miami Seaquarium. She was a member of the L pod. Researchers believe she is the only living offspring of matriarch L-25 "Ocean Sun". When she was about five years old she was captured on August 8, 1970, at Penn Cove, Puget Sound, off the coast of Washington, and is now the oldest captive orca. The Penn Cove Capture became controversial due to the large number of wild orcas that were taken (seven) and the number of deaths that resulted: four juveniles died, as well as one adult female who drowned when she became tangled in a net while attempting to reach her calf.
When she first arrived at Miami Seaquarium, Lolita was put in the 'Whale Bowl'. Miami Seaquarium had another orca, Hugo, who lived in a different tank, called the 'Celebrity Bowl', which now houses manatees. The two orcas would vocalize to each other, and Hugo was later moved into the Whale Bowl with Lolita. At first, they were aggressive with each other, but then became more compatible with each other and more aggressive towards their trainers. Lolita and Hugo mated several times, and it was reported that Lolita was pregnant from this. However, she never delivered a live offspring. Lolita has not seen another orca since Hugo died in 1980. She vocalizes in captivity, in the unique calls used only by her pod. When played recordings of her wild family members, she responded. She is still apparently healthy. She is a large orca, measuring 22 feet (6.7 m) long and weighing 7,800 pounds (3,500 kg). This makes her one of the largest female orcas in captivity. Lolita currently lives in the Miami Seaquarium's Whale and Dolphin Stadium, where she performs 1–2 shows daily, and shares her tank with four Pacific White-Sided dolphins. Despite her size, her tank is the smallest orca habitat in the United States, measuring 35 feet wide and 80 feet long. Lolita is the subject of the documentary Lolita: Slave to Entertainment released in 2008. Various groups have called for Lolita to be released into the wild.
Whale activists have proceeded to sue the U.S. government in federal court in Seattle, claiming that Lolita, captured from Puget Sound waters in 1970, should be accorded the same protection status granted to other Southern Resident orcas in 2005, as members of an endangered species.
In February 2015, NOAA included Lolita in the endangered Southern Resident pod while noting the inclusion does not affect her residency at the Miami Seaquarium.
Lovey (ラビー? Rabī) was born on January 11, 1998, at Kamogawa Sea World, to mother Stella and father Bingo/Thor. She was the first orca calf born successfully in Japan (there had been five calves born before her, but none lived for more than ten days). The only other orca at KSW at the time of her birth was Oscar, who would mate with her later on, once she was older. Her first calf was a male born on October 13, 2008, named Earth. "Earth measures about 11.5 feet and weighs in at around 1,543 pounds (2011).". Lovey's stage name is Oyako, meaning "parent and child" in Japanese. On July 19, 2012, Lovey gave birth to her second calf, a female named Luna. "Luna measures about 7.8 feet and weighs in at around 620 pounds (November 2012). Her father is Oscar."
Lynn (リン? Rin) is a female calf residing at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium in Japan. She currently measures 330 centimetres (130 in) long and weighs 630 kilograms (1,390 lb). Lynn was born on November 13, 2012, to mother Stella and father Bingo. Unlike most orcas, Lynn was born head first, as was her older sister Ran 2. A public naming contest was held from March 20 to May 6, 2013. The park received a total of 19,384 applicants and 5,062 individual names, and settled on Lynn. Initial western reports named her as Rin, the direct but inaccurate Hepburn romanization of her name in katakana. Later content provided by the aquarium confirmed the correct transcription as Lynn.
|This section does not cite any sources. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Malia was born to Taima and Tilikum at SeaWorld Orlando on March 12, 2007. She was Taima's third calf and her name means "calm and peaceful" in Hawaiian. She is learning new behaviors all the time and is used in shows daily alongside the other young orcas at SeaWorld Orlando. Malia's mother Taima died in June 2010 after a difficult labor that resulted in a stillborn male calf. Her eyepatches are long and skinny, and she has no marks, rakes, or chips in her tail fluke.
Katina (orca) delivered her 7th calf on October 9, 2010, after a short 41-minute labor. The father is Tilikum. It was announced on November 3, 2010, that the calf was a healthy boy. The calf has interacted with all the members of the pod, and plays well with them. His name was decided by a poll with three names to vote for on SeaWorld Orlando's official Facebook page. The names were Nico, Greek for "Victory", Makaio, the Hawaiian form of the name Matthew, meaning "Gift of God," or Haruki, Japanese for "Shining Brightly." Makaio was the name chosen. He can be seen in SeaWorld's new killer whale show One Ocean.
Kasatka's fourth calf is a male, born on Valentine's Day 2013 at 6:33 a.m. His name was chosen by a poll. The choices were "Hako", Norse for "chosen son", "Valentino", Italian for "strong", and "Makani", Hawaiian for "the wind". His name was announced on June 14, 2013. His siblings are Kalia, Nakai, and Takara. His father is Kshamenk at Mundo Marino. Makani can already swim upside down and wave his fluke. Makani can also do complex behaviors. Makani's father, Kshamenk, is an Argentinian transient orca (origin unknown) and his mother, Kasatka, is a resident Icelandic orca, making him a hybrid of the two vastly different ecotypes. Other such hybrids include the late Taima, her deceased sister Katerina, Taima's three calves and Kamea.
On March 16, 2011, Wikie gave birth to Moana, her first calf in Marineland of Antibes. Initially, it was stated that the calf was a girl so they had a naming contest on Facebook and the name "Moana" won (which means "ocean" in Maori) but a report in July confirmed that she was in fact a he. Marineland confirmed that his name will not be changed. It is also confirmed that Ulises of Sea World San Diego is the father. The calf was conceived via artificial insemination.
Moana became a big brother when his mother gave birth to Keijo on November 20, 2013.
Morgan was rescued from the Wadden Sea on June 23, 2010. The estimated 1.5 year-old orca was alone, malnourished and underweight. She was transferred to Dolfinarium Harderwijk where she was taken care of for several months. After it became clear she couldn't been released into the wild, the Dolfinarium searched for another facility to take care of her, because their basins were too small. Morgan moved to Loro Parque on November 29, 2011. In 2012, Loro Parque announced there was a good possibility that Morgan is partially deaf.
On September 1, 2001, Nakai was born to Kasatka, with Tilikum being the father. Unlike most orcas, he was born head first. He was the first orca to be conceived through artificial insemination with a successful birth. As of November 2015, he weighed 5,950 pounds (2,700 kg) and was 17 feet 11 inches (5.46 m) long. Currently, he lives at SeaWorld San Diego with ten other whales, including his mother, his half brother Makani, his half sister Kalia and his half brother Ikaika. He has lived there his entire life. In late September 2012, Nakai sustained a serious injury to his chin. SeaWorld stated that the injury occurred during "contact with the pool's environment".
Nalani is a young female orca who currently resides to SeaWorld Orlando, where she was born on September 18, 2006. Her parents are Katina and Taku (who is, due to inbreeding, also her brother). She is Katina's sixth calf, and was Taku's second. She is a very loving and curious youngster, but was very dependent on her mother in the first few years. She is learning fast, as she is used in shows regularly alongside Trua, Malia, Kayla, and Katina. An easy way to identify Nalani is how plump she is. She's grown to be bulky, like her mom, has round eyepatches, her dorsal fin has started to lean to her left side, and is the longest baby at Sea World Orlando.
Orkid was born September 23, 1988, in SeaWorld San Diego, California. Orkid's parents are Kandu V (her mother), and Orky II (her father). She was the first killer whale born in the San Diego Sea World Park successfully. Orky II died only three days after Orkid was born. She was named Orkid, in memory of her father (most likely a combination of "Orky" and "kid"). In August 1989, Kandu V charged Corky II during a live show. The blow broke Kandu V's jaw, and severed an artery in Kandu's head; apparently in an act of trying to assert her dominance over Corky II. As a result, she began spouting blood with every breath she took. Forty five minutes later Kandu V sank to the bottom of the pool and died, bleeding to death. Orkid witnessed this; for weeks after the incident, she would circle the tanks calling out and vocalizing. However, she was raised by Corky, and later befriended a male named Splash. Orkid has been artificially inseminated many times, but has so far not gotten pregnant. Orkid is highly intelligent (having been affectionately nicknamed by trainers 'The Rocket Scientist'), and knows hundreds of behaviors. Only the most senior trainers are to work with her, as she has shown aggression toward trainers in the past. After an incident in 2006 where she dragged a trainer to the bottom of the show pool, Orkid has been barred from performing waterworks with trainers.
Sakari was born on January 7, 2010, at Sea World San Antonio. Her mother is Takara and her father is Tilikum. Siblings on her mother's side include Kohana, Trua and Kamea. "Sakari" means "sweet" in the Inuit language.
Born on February 25, 1993, in Antibes, France, to Sharkane and Kim 2, the female killer whale's first nine years were spent with her parents and siblings. In 2002, she was moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (former SeaWorld Ohio) in Aurora, Ohio, near Cleveland. After Worlds of Adventure was sold, in 2004 Shouka was moved to Six Flags Discovery Kingdom (Marine World Africa USA) in Vallejo, California. She was the only orca at the park but had bottlenose dolphin companions named Merlin and Cupid for 7 years until they were relocated due to compatibility concerns. In July 2012, Shouka began to display aggressive behavior during one of her performances. She lifted a trainer into the air and knocked her trainer back into an open door area that leads to the back of the stage. Even after the trainer was gone, Shouka leaped two more times onto the stage. Six Flags moved Shouka to SeaWorld San Diego the next month in August 2012, where Corky immediately took her under her wing. She is currently fully integrated into the pod of eleven killer whales and is a highly athletic animal who enjoys working with her trainers.
Takara (Japanese for "treasure") was born on July 9, 1991, at SWC to Kasatka and Kotar. She was the second "Baby Shamu" born at SWC, after Orkid in 1988. She gave birth to her first calf, a female named Kohana on May 3, 2002. Kasatka was by her side during the labor and she and Takara helped assist Kohana to the surface to take her first breath. She was conceived via artificial insemination, the father being Tilikum, a bull orca living on the other side of the country at SeaWorld Orlando. Takara is an average sized female measuring 17.3-foot (5.3 m), and weighs 5,100 LBs.
Takara and Kohana were transferred to SeaWorld Orlando in 2004. A year later, Takara gave birth to her second calf, a male named Trua, fathered by Taku. Kohana was later transferred out of Sea World Orlando to Loro Parque, a Spanish amusement park in the Canary Islands.
Takara was transferred to SeaWorld San Antonio in February 2009 in a supposed effort to improve space at SeaWorld Orlando. The move angered many since it separated her from her son, Trua. However, other SeaWorld visitors and workers reported that she would often act aggressively toward Trua. It was later confirmed she was pregnant at the time (again from Tilikum). On January 7, 2010, Takara gave birth to another female calf in the main tank of the "Shamu Theatre" at Sea World San Antonio. On March 16, 2010, she was named Sakari, which is an Inuit word for "sweet". Takara became a grandmother on October 12, 2010, when her calf Kohana gave birth to her first calf Adán on October 12, 2010. Kohana had also given birth to Victoria on August 3, 2012. Victoria died on June 16, 2013, when she was 10 months old, of intestinal issues. Takara delivered her fourth calf on December 6, 2013, at 12:08 am Central Time. The calf is a healthy baby girl named Kamea. She gave birth to her 5th calf April 19 th 2017, at 2:33 central time. It is unknown as to if the calf is a male of female. The father of the calf is either Kyuquot or Tuar.
Tuar is a 17-year-old male orca who lives at SeaWorld San Antonio. His father is Tilikum and his mother is Kalina. He was born at SeaWorld Orlando on June 22, 1999.
He is quite dominant for a male orca. He is also growing very fast with his recent growth spurt. Tuar used to perform waterworks until they were stopped in 2010. He has never shown aggression towards his trainers. Takara is pregnant with her fifth calf and Tuar or Kyuquot is the suspected father.
Trua is a male orca born at SeaWorld Orlando on November 23, 2005. His parents are Takara and Taku. Takara and Kohana (his sister) had just been moved to SeaWorld Orlando when she and Taku met. At the time of Trua's birth, Kohana was by Takara's side and thus acted as the midwife. Trua currently lives at Sea World Orlando with six other orcas: Katina (matriarch), Tilikum, Kayla, Nalani, Malia and Makaio. Trua had been learning waterworks before they were stopped in 2010. Trua's mother Takara was moved to SeaWorld San Antonio on February 5, 2009. Trua is easily identified because of his three dots and belly freckles. Trua has a dot in his eyepatch, and two dots on his neck. His freckles earned him the nickname, "Freckles".
Ulises is the oldest male orca in captivity. He is 20 feet 6 inches (6.25 m) and weighs about 9,570 pounds (4,340 kg). He is currently living at SeaWorld San Diego in California with 10 other whales. He is often nicknamed, "Uli" or "Uli Bear." He was captured in 1980 in Iceland and lived at several European parks including Barcelona Zoo, before being transported to SeaWorld San Diego in 1994. He became a father in 2011, when his son Moana was born through artificial insemination to Wikie at Marineland Antibes, France. On December 2, 2014, at 12:34 pm, a young female named Kalia gave birth to Ulises's daughter, Amaya, at SeaWorld San Diego. It is unknown whether or not the calf was conceived naturally or through artificial insemination. He is believed to have a low sperm count.
Baby Shamu II
Baby Shamu II was born at SeaWorld San Diego in California on January 5, 1986. Her parents were Kenau and Winston. Because she was the second orca born at a SeaWorld park, she was nicknamed Baby Shamu II. The original Baby Shamu, aka Kalina, was her older half-sister, though Kalina had a different mother. Baby Shamu II was never given a real name as she died on January 16, 1986, just 12 days after she was born. The cause of death was a heart defect. Baby Shamu II was half Icelandic orca and half Southern Resident orca. She was 7 feet (2.1m) long and she weighed 135 kg (297 lb).
Bingo was a 31-year-old male orca who lived at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. He was captured in Iceland in 1984 and is the father of Lovey, Lara, Sarah, Ran II and Lynn and the grandfather of Earth and Luna. He died on August 2, 2014, of a respiratory illness.
Chimo (also known as T4), was a young female transient (exclusive mammal-eater) orca exhibited in Sealand of the Pacific in South Oak Bay at The Oak Bay Marina, near the city of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada from 1970 to 1972. Chimo was notable for being the only partially albino orca ever exhibited in captivity. Years before her capture, another pure white orca was spotted in what is suspected to be the same pod, this orca was named "Alice", Alice was never captured and vanished in the 1960s. Chimo was captured when trying to find a mate for the park's star attraction, Haida. After her capture, Sealand became famous. Chimo's probable mother was another orca by the name of Scarredjaw Cow (T3). She was captured alongside Chimo. Chimo died in 1972 from complications caused by Chediak-Higashi Syndrome, the syndrome which caused her albinism. Chimo never bore any calves.
Freya was a 35-year-old female orca who lived at Marineland of Antibes. She was captured in October 1982 alongside Haida II, Kim II, Nootka IV, and an unnamed male. She and Kim went to Marineland Antibes from Hafnarfjordur Aquarium. She became the first European orca to become pregnant. Freya gave birth in March 1991 to a stillborn calf. She gave birth to another stillborn in March 1993. Sometime between this calf and her next, Freya had a tumor removed, leaving a white indent on her side. Freya gave birth to Valentin on February 13, 1996. In March 2001, Freya had yet another stillborn calf. In April 2003, Freya gave birth to her final calf and her fourth stillborn. She ceased to become pregnant due to birth control and the death of her mate Kim II in 2005. Freya was very depressed, but Valentin usually was able to cheer her up. Freya became a grandmother on November 20, 2013, when Valentin fathered a calf named Keijo, however, since the calf's mother Wikie was Valentin's half-sister, Valentin being the father has not been confirmed. After months of fighting an unknown illness, Freya lost her battle on June 20, 2015, leaving behind her son Valentin and likely grandson Keijo.
Gudrun (Goo drun) was an Icelandic female orca who lived at Dolfinarium Harderwijk in the Netherlands and at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida. Gudrun was caught close to the coast of Iceland on October 25, 1976. She was kept in captivity in the Dolfinarium Harderwijk in the Netherlands, where she was the main attraction. In 1987, Gudrun was moved to SeaWorld Orlando in Florida, United States. Gudrun gave birth to Taima on July 11, 1989, at 16:45 EST during a thunderstorm. Gudrun gave birth to Nyar on December 31, 1993. Nyar suffered with illness often. She was so both mentally and physically ill, it was reported that Gudrun tried to drown her during several shows. Nyar died at the age of two years in April 1996. On February 21, 1996, Gudrun went into labor with her last calf, which was fathered by Tilikum. After 20 hours of labor, Gudrun was unable to deliver the calf. A cable and hook was used to pull the calf out by the tail flukes, and Gudrun began internally bleeding. Her dorsal fin collapsed and she eventually stopped bleeding. Zinc oxide was applied to her as she refused to move from a corner of G Pool. She swam to a gate to make amends with her abused daughter Nyar before dying four days after the calf was removed. She died just hours later.
In 1982, Gudrun was the subject of an experiment in two-communications, designed to see if she could learn new words and incorporate them into her vocabulary.
Hoi Wai was a female Orca captured near Iceland in October 1977. Initially brought to the Saedyrasafnid Aquarium in Iceland, she was moved in late October 1977 to the Dolfinarium Harderwijk in the Netherlands. Initially named Peanuts, she was moved to the Windsor Safari Park, where she was to stay until being moved to Ocean Park Hong Kong early in 1979, and where she was renamed Suzie Wong. Due to a dispute between SeaWorld and the safari park, she was transferred to Clacton Pier in August 1978 for the remainder of her training. Unfortunately, a storm on New Year's Day 1979 damaged Clacton Pier, and she was sent back to Windsor Safari Park until the end of January.
On January 27, 1979, Suzie Wong was finally moved to Ocean Park Hong Kong, where she was renamed Hoi Wai, and would perform for life. She died on April 21, 1997, after a bloody wound was found in her intestines. Hoi wai was about 5 metres (16 ft) long and weighed about 1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb). She was the last orca at Ocean Park Hong Kong. A newspaper claimed that her skeleton is preserved at Cape D'Aguilar Marine Reserve, near Shek O, but the skeleton is actually from a Bryde’s whale that stranded itself in Victoria Harbour in 1955.
Hoi Wai made an appearance in a movie called Moon Warriors.
Hyak was about a year old when he was captured in Pender Harbour, British Columbia, Canada on April 24, 1968. He was captured with six other pod members, including Corky II and Natsidalia, who was thought to be his mother. He was probably from the A5 Pod. The captured whales were kept at Pender Harbour for some weeks before being transferred, and Natsidalia did not survive. Hyak was transferred to the Vancouver Aquarium, where he was kept with Skana, an orca captured the previous year. After Skana died in 1980, the aquarium purchased four new orcas captured in Iceland, and two of them—Finna and Bjossa—were transferred to the Vancouver Aquarium. Hyak and Bjossa produced a calf in 1987, but it only survived a short time. He sired another calf on Bjossa—K'yosha, but he did not live to see the calf's birth, as he died of pneumonia in February 1991. K'yosha only lived a few months beyond her father's death.
Junior was captured in Icelandic waters in November 1984. After a short stay at the Saedrysafnid Aquarium he arrived at Marineland Ontario in Canada on November 15, 1986. He did not settle in well at his new home, was hard to train, and did not get on well with his fellow orca tankmates. So Junior was put in a small tank in Marineland's warehouse, with no natural sunlight or air, and with noisy overhead fans. From time to time he shares his small tank with several dolphins. Marineland tried to keep Junior's conditions a secret, but members of the public released photos and films. Junior died in 1994.
K1 was also named Taku. He was captured in August 1973 in Pedder Bay, British Columbia. While several other orcas that were caught with him were sold to other marine parks, K1 was too big to be sold. He was released on October 27, 1973, with a radio tag attached to his dorsal fin. Two nicks were cut by citation needed] into his dorsal fin to make it easier to identify and find him. He was given the adoption name of Taku. K1 reunited with his pod and was seen many times. K1 disappeared in 1997 and was presumed to have died at the age of 41, as his year of birth was believed to be 1955. K1 was a full blooded Southern Resident orca. He was 23 feet (7.0 m) long.[
Kalina (September 26, 1985 – October 4, 2010) was the first captive-born orca calf to survive more than a few days. Unlike most orcas, she was born head first. Kalina's mother is an Icelandic female named Katina, and her father, Winston (also known as Ramu III) was a Pacific Southern Resident, making Kalina an Atlantic/Pacific hybrid – a unique situation that would not have occurred in the wild. Kalina measured 17 feet 9 inches (5.41 m) and weighed approximately 6,300 pounds (2,900 kg).
Kalina first appeared in shows at SeaWorld Orlando in 1987, billed as "Baby Shamu", performing with her mother. On February 12, 1990, Kalina was transferred to SeaWorld Ohio. She was moved again in October of that year to SeaWorld San Diego, and again on May 30, 1991, to SeaWorld San Antonio. In October 1994, Kalina was moved back to SeaWorld Orlando, where she lived with eight other killer whales, including her mother and a half sister.
Kalina gave birth to her first calf, a male named Keet, on February 2, 1993, at Sea World Texas. Kalina was only seven and a half years old at the time of Keet's birth – an extremely young age for an orca to become a mother. Kalina became pregnant again shortly after Keet's birth, and was moved back to SeaWorld Orlando in October 1994, where she gave birth to her second calf, another male, Keto on June 17, 1995. She gave birth to another male, Tuar, on June 22, 1999. Kalina bore her fourth calf and first daughter, on February 9, 2004, named Skyla. Skyla is now at Loro Parque along with Keto. Kalina was a gentle whale, learned quickly, and was used a lot in shows. She was used as a "starter whale" for new trainers. On Monday October 4, 2010, less than four months after Taima's death, Kalina died of preacute bacteremia septicemia at the age of 25.
Kandu V was a dominant female Icelandic orca, caught in 1977 and kept at SeaWorld San Diego in California. On August 21, 1989, she attempted to rake a 24-year-old newcomer orca, Corky II, during a live show. She struck Corky behind her dorsal fin, the resulting impact fracturing Kandu's upper jaw and severing major arteries. The crowd was quickly ushered out, and after a 45-minute hemorrhage, Kandu V died. Her daughter, Orkid, was 11 months old at the time of the accident.
Kanduke (can-duke) was captured from T pod in British Columbia, Canada, in August 1975. When captured, he was about 14 ft long (4.3 m) and weighed about 2,600 pounds (1,200 kg), which made him about 4–5 years old. His mother is thought to be T7. He was sent to Sealand of the Pacific, Victoria, and then sold to Marineland, Canada. In January 1987, he was sold and moved to SeaWorld Orlando.
While at Marineland of Canada, he did 'water work' with his trainers, but once at SeaWorld he was described as a "moody and unpredictable" whale and the 'water work' was stopped. At SeaWorld Orlando, Kanduke often fought with a younger Icelandic male named Kotar. The aggression became increasingly serious. After an incident in which Kotar bit Kanduke's penis and caused an infection and show cancellations, the exhibitors decided to move the smaller whale to the newly opened SeaWorld San Antonio. On September 20, 1990, Kanduke died of St. Louis encephalitis, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. The cause of his death was later determined using information from his necropsy report provided by the Freedom of Information Act. This disease is non-existent in wild killer whales because they don't spend enough time on the surface for mosquitoes to bite them. However, in captivity, the behavior of "logging" (i.e. just floating at the surface) puts killer whales at risk for mosquito-borne illnesses. Kanduke has since become a grandfather with the births of Sumar, Tekoa, and Malia.
Keiko (1976 – December 12, 2003) was an orca who starred in the first of three Free Willy movies. Keiko died on December 12, 2003, after beaching himself during the night, pneumonia was later determined as the probable cause of death. Keiko was captured near Iceland in 1979 and sold to the Icelandic aquarium in Hafnarfjörður. Three years later, he was sold to Marineland Canada, where he first started performing for the public and developed skin lesions indicative of poor health. He was then sold to Reino Aventura (now named Six Flags Mexico), an amusement park in Mexico City, in 1985. He was the star of the movie Free Willy in 1993.
The publicity from his role in Free Willy led to an effort by Warner Brothers Studio to find him a better home. Donations from the studio and Craig McCaw led to the establishment of the Free Willy Keiko Foundation in February 1995. With donations from the foundation and millions of school children, the Oregon Coast Aquarium in Newport, Oregon spent over US$7 million to construct facilities to return him to health with the hope of returning him to the wild. He was airlifted by UPS to his new home on January 7, 1996, with a length of 24 feet (7.3 m) and weighing 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb). During his years in Oregon, he gained over a ton in weight.
On September 9, 1998, he was flown to Klettsvik Bay in Vestmannaeyjar in Iceland, and gradually reintroduced to the wild, returning to the open sea in July 2002. Keiko died on December 13, 2003, at the age of 27. Following requests from fans of the orca and Free Willy, the Oregon Coast Aquarium held a memorial service for him on February 20, 2004. 700 people attended the service, at which the aquarium's veterinary chaplain said, "Keiko was not one of our kind, but nonetheless was still one of us." There is a memorial site for Keiko set up by the locals in Halsa, Norway, where the famous orca spent the last year of his life.
Kenau died in 1991 while pregnant with her third calf, whose father was Kotar. The calf fetus was male. Kenau was Kayla's mother.
Kim II was a male orca who was captured at the age of 2 in October 1982 with Freya, Haida II and Nootka IV in Iceland. He was then sold to Marineland Antibes with Freya for reproduction. He sired many calves : Shouka, Inouk, Wikie and Valentin. Kim II was 6,3m long and weighted 5 tons. He was very close to his daughter Shouka but she was sent to Six Flags, later to SeaWorld San Diego. Kim II died on November 23, 2005, of pneumonia.
Moby Doll was the second captive orca displayed in a public aquarium exhibit. The 15-foot (4.6m) long, 1-ton male was captured in 1964 near East Point, Saturna Island in British Columbia after being harpooned and shot. He was towed to Vancouver and displayed publicly until he died three months after his capture. Moby Doll was popular locally and abroad and scientists took advantage of this first opportunity to study an orca and orca sounds up close.
Namu was only the third orca captured and displayed in an aquarium exhibit, and was the subject of a film that changed some people's attitudes toward orcas. In June 1965, William Lechkobit found a 22-foot (6.7m) male orca in his floating salmon net that had drifted close to shore near Namu, British Columbia. The orca was sold for $8,000 to Ted Griffin, a Seattle public aquarium owner. Griffin swam and performed with Namu in the Seattle exhibit and Namu survived one year in captivity before dying in his pen on July 9, 1966.
Neocia was born in October 1992, a female calf of Nootka and Kandu. Also known as 'Baby October', she was separated from her mother at the age of 3 and kept in a smaller tank at Marineland Canada with three other young orcas. She was often moved because of her aggressive behavior toward the other orcas in an attempt to dominate them. Neocia was impregnated by her own father Kandu; however, this pregnancy miscarried. Neocia died at the age of 12 after losing her appetite and "not acting normally".
Nepo was captured with several other orcas including Corky on December 11, 1969. He and a capture mate Yaka were sold to a place called Marine World/Africa USA in California. The two orcas joined another female Kianu who had been at the park since 1968. Kianu wanted Nepo all to herself and she would attack Yaka whenever the other female was with Nepo. Nepo, who was very close to Yaka, protected her from Kianu's attacks. It got so bad that Kianu was transferred to a park in Japan. Nepo and Yaka continued to bond and even starred in the 1977 horror film Orca. Nepo died from pneumonia on July 10, 1980. Yaka stayed by his side as he took his final breaths. Even when trainers arrived to take Nepo's body away, Yaka refused to leave him, and it took the trainers a while to separate the whales. Nepo was about 15 years old.
Nyar was born at SeaWorld Orlando Florida on New Year's Eve (December 31) 1993. She was born to parents Gudrun and Tilikum. Nyar suffered from many health problems. Sometimes trainers would have to separate Gudrun and Nyar because the mother would try to drown her daughter. They had some bonding moments together. Nyar was not able to perform in shows as she was a very slow learner. She was even put with her father Tilikum sometimes. He was very gentle with her. Nyar died on April 1, 1996. She was 2 years 4 months and 1 day old. The cause of death was Immune System Failure. Nyar's name means "Summer" in Hungarian (spelled Nyár).
Orky II was captured in April 1968 off of Pender Harbor, is well remembered as the father of Orkid and Kayla. He spent many of his years in captivity at Marineland of the Pacific. Corky II accompanied him, and the two were thought to be cousins, as they were both from the same pod. He fathered all seven of Corky II's unsuccessful calves, too. Orky was transferred to Sea World San Diego California along with Corky II in the year 1986. There, he was soon put to the bottom of the dominancy ladder. Orky was involved in one trainer incident in 1987, where he accidentally breached on a miscue and landed on a trainer (John Sillick) while the trainer was riding Corky II as a stunt.
While in service to Sea World, Orky mated with two of their females, Kandu V and Kenau. Kandu bore her first successful calf, Orkid, three days before he died on September 26, 1988. She was named in his memory: Orky's Kid. About two months later, Kenau also gave birth to her calf, another female who was later named Kayla. Orky's death was brought on by acute pneumonia and chronic wasting, which meant he lost a lot of weight before he died. His dorsal fin flopped completely over to his right rather than the left. His pectorals were huge and his flukes were curled completely. His enormous size can be seen in both of his daughters, who have grown up to be quite large females. Orky's only living (captive) relatives are Orkid and Kayla. At one time Orky was actually called "Snorky". At almost 22 feet long and 11,000 pounds, he was one of the largest whales ever held in any aquarium.
Samoa was a female captured off Iceland in 1983. Samoa was reported to have died due to complications of giving birth. However, her necropsy revealed she had a rare Saksenaea Vasiformis fungal infection which likely caused the stillbirth and her death. On March 14, 1992, while held at SeaWorld Texas, Samoa went into premature labour, and died giving birth to a female calf a few hours later. The calf was stillborn. It was the first reported death of a SeaWorld orca while giving birth. The age of Samoa at the time of her death was estimated to be 12–14.
Captured by Ted Griffin in Puget Sound in 1965, Shamu was intended to be a companion for the orca Namu in Griffin's Seattle aquarium. Shamu was, however, quickly leased and eventually sold to SeaWorld San Diego. She performed in several SeaWorld shows and Kenau the mother and Winston eventually died on August 23, 1971. The name Shamu has since been used for many different orcas in SeaWorld shows.
Skana was one of the first pod of Orcas captured, on February 15, 1967, in Yukon Harbor, Washington. The entire Southern Resident K Pod, at that time 15 members, was captured. Three died during capture, and five were transferred to the Seattle Aquarium for sale, including Skana, Ramu I and Kandu I. The others were released. Skana was believed to be six years old at the time of her capture. She was sold and transferred to the Vancouver Aquarium on March 10, 1967. She was by herself in Vancouver until the end of 1968, when the recently captured Hyak II arrived. She died on October 5, 1980, at the approximate age of 19 years, from a mycotic infection.
Splash was born in 1989 in Marineland in Canada, transferred to SeaWorld San Diego at the age of 3 and died there in 2005. He was a well loved animal. "He was the one that bonded the best with the trainers," said veterinarian Reidarson. Splash was prone to seizures, and at one point had to have the teeth in his lower jaw removed due to a violent seizure injury. Splash was among the park's most sickly animals. "We brought him back from life-threatening illnesses many times," Reidarson recalled. In 1994, Splash smashed face-first into the wall of his tank, ripping a book-sized patch of skin along his jaw that had to be repaired surgically. Splash died of an infection. Ex SeaWorld trainer John Hargrove, who worked closely with Splash, suggested that Splash died so young partly due to consuming large quantities of sand, presumably because of the boredom of captivity.
Spooky was the second calf born to parents Corky II and Orky II at Marineland of the Pacific on Halloween of 1978 (October 31). Unlike most orcas, he was born head first. He earned his name just for the holiday. Spooky was in good health at first, but it wasn't to last. Due to the circular tank the orcas were kept in, Corky had trouble nursing her son. Trainers took over and bottle fed Spooky hoping to help him survive. Spooky died 11 days later on November 10, 1978, from pneumonia and colitis. Spooky's breed was 100% Northern Resident orca.
Sumar (May 14, 1998 – September 7, 2010) was a male orca born at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida. His mother was Taima and he was her first calf. Just six months after birth, an incident happened when, during a show, his mother attacked him, pushing him against the glass, trying to make him fall. The crowd was evacuated and the show canceled. The trainers tried to move Taima to another tank and finally separated her from her son. Since then, the two of them have been always separated and Kalina and Katina became his surrogate mothers until he was transferred to SeaWorld San Diego in California on March 8, 1999. Afterwards, he spent a few months at now-closed SeaWorld Ohio before being transferred back to the San Diego park.
He was considered very gentle with other orcas and trainers. At the time of his death he was one of three males at the park, and was seen as a possible breeding male in the future; Nakai, the younger male, is still too young to breed, and the older male Ulises seems to have a low sperm count. Sumar was approaching full size for a typical bull orca when he died: his dorsal fin was more and more leaning to its left and his flukes were beginning to curl under. He was about 4.6 m (17 feet) long and weighed around 5,300 pounds (2,400 kg). He was often used for shows in the park. The theme of a June 2010 episode of Cupcake Wars was Sumar's twelfth birthday.
Sumar died at SeaWorld in San Diego, California, on Tuesday, September 7, 2010, at the age of 12. Trainers noticed that the whale was not feeling well on Monday, September 6, 2010, which resulted in veterinarians being notified, blood samples drawn, and antibiotics administered. Despite measures taken by Sumar's veterinarian team, Sumar became increasingly ill by Tuesday. He died shortly before 1:45 PM (Pacific time). Sumar's death prompted the canceling of the park's orca shows for the day. His death was determined to be as a result of a twisted intestinal tract (intestinal volvulus). He was set to be the next captive breeding bull orca, after his father Tilikum.
Taima (pronounced Ty-EE-Ma) (July 11, 1989 – June 6, 2010) was a transient/Icelandic hybrid female orca who lived at Sea World Orlando in Florida. Her name purportedly means crash of thunder in a Native American language. She was born tail-first around 16:45 EST during a thunderstorm.
Taima was born to mother Gudrun and father Kanduke. In 1990, Kanduke died at the age of 20 from St. Louis encephalitis; Gudrun gave birth to Taima's half-sister Nyar in 1993. Nyar suffered frequent illness and it was reported that Gudrun tried to drown her during several shows. Trainers believe that this confused Taima, as she witnessed this and thought this was how to raise a calf. She was later reported to have performed this on her own calves, Sumar, Tekoa, and Malia. Gudrun died in 1996 from stillbirth complications, and Nyar died from an illness a few months later in April.
On May 14, 1998, Taima gave birth to a male calf named Sumar. They were separated when he was about eight months old because of the aggression between them. On one occasion while performing, Taima started biting Sumar, and throwing him out of the pool, onto the trainer's platform. She then slid out herself and started biting him. The show was stopped, and Taima was pulled to the other swimming pool. A few months later Sumar was transferred to SeaWorld San Diego in California.
On November 8, 2000, at 3:47 pm, Taima gave birth to a male named Tekoa. He began feeding overnight and was estimated to be 7 feet (2.2 m) long and weigh 350 pounds (160 kg). During the birth, Kalina assisted Taima and helped the calf to the surface for its first breath. Tekoa was sent to SeaWorld San Antonio in 2004, and was later sent to Loro Parque in Tenerife in February 2006, where he remains today. After Tekoa's attack, Taima was separated from all other whales except Tilikum, until she gave birth again to her first daughter Malia in 2007, on March 12. "At birth Malia (Hawaiian for "calm and peaceful") measured about 6 feet and weighed in at around 350 pounds. Her father is Tilikum." Seaworld announced on May 18, 2010, that Taima was pregnant again.
Taima died from complications to a stillborn male calf on June 6, 2010. Preliminary indications suggested that her death was caused by placenta previa, a condition in which the placenta is delivered before the calf.
Taku (September 9, 1993 – October 17, 2007) was a male orca, who was born at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida. After birth, Taku spent most of his time with his mother Katina or Nyar, his younger half-sister. Three years later, Katina gave birth again to a female, Unna. On August 25, 2002, Katina gave birth to her fifth calf: a male, Ikaika. Unna was later moved to SeaWorld San Antonio in December 2002. Afterwards, Ikaika and Taku bonded to the point where Ikaika swam in mother-calf-position with Taku. On November 18, 2006, Taku was moved to SeaWorld San Antonio whereas Ikaika was moved to Marineland Canada in Ontario.
Takara soon became pregnant. On November 23, 2005, around 21:50 EST (4:50 PM), Takara went into labor with her second calf. Her daughter Kohana was at her side. Thirty-two minutes later around 22:22 EST (5:22 PM), Takara gave birth to a male calf (Taku's son/first calf) who was later to be named Trua. Taku sired another calf in 2006 with his mother Katina – Nalani, who was also his sister the first successful inbred calf.
Taku died unexpectedly on October 17, 2007, at the age of 14 and weighing over 7,000 pounds (3,200 kg) and at 22 feet (6.7 m) long. Trainers were notified that Taku had been acting differently the Wednesday before his death. A NMFS Marine Mammal Inventory Report lists the cause of death as "severe multifocal interstitial pneumonia"; however, there are also peer-reviewed sources which have reported, based on necropsy results, the cause of death as West Nile virus contracted via a mosquito bite.
Tilikum (sometimes misspelled Tillikum) was a bull orca involved in three human deaths while he was in captivity, one at Sealand of the Pacific and two at Seaworld Orlando. He was captured near Iceland in November 1983 at about two years of age. He was the largest orca in captivity and also the most successful sire in captivity, with 21 offspring, 11 of which are still alive.
While at at Sealand of the Pacific, Tilikum sired his first calf when he was about eight or nine years old. His first son, Kyuquot, was born to Haida II on December 24, 1991. Just a few months prior to the birth of Kyuquot, Tilikum was involved in the first incident involving a death. Seaworld requested an emergency transfer of Tilikum to their facility. Tilikum was moved to SeaWorld Orlando, Florida, on January 9, 1992. Sealand of the Pacific closed soon thereafter.
Following his arrival at SeaWorld, Tilikum sired many calves with many different females. His first calf born in Orlando was to Katina. Katina gave birth to Taku on September 9, 1993. Taku died on October 17, 2007.
Tilikum's other calves are: Nyar (born 1993, died 1996), Unna (1996–2015), Sumar (1998–2010), Tuar (1999), Tekoa (2000), Nakai (2001), Kohana (2002), Ikaika (2002), Skyla (2004), Malia (2007), Sakari (2010) and Makaio (2010). On January 6, 2017, SeaWorld announced that Tilikum had died early in the morning.
Unna was a female orca. She was born on December 27, 1996, at SeaWorld Orlando. Her parents were Katina (mother) and Tilikum. She was Katina's fourth calf and Tilikum's seventh (fourth successful), and was the second calf to be born to the pair. Unna lived with her mother, father, siblings, and other whales at her birthplace in Orlando for the first six years of her life. In December 2002, Unna was transferred to SeaWorld San Antonio. In late April 2006, Unna gave birth to a stillborn calf. Unna recovered well from her stillbirth. She died on December 22, 2015, from a bladder infection, believed to be candidiasis.
Vigga (Little Sweetheart) was born in 1977 near Iceland, and brought to Marine World Africa USA Park, then located in Redwood City California, in 1980. Vigga shared her tank at the park with another female orca, Yaka, who had lost her mate Nepo a few months before Vigga was introduced to the park. Yaka and Vigga lived together at Marine World until Yaka died in 1997 at age 32. She made the move with Yaka to the Park's new quarters in Vallejo California in 1986. Vigga was over 16 feet long and weighed 5,000 pounds. Vigga died on Monday, August 14, 2000, at approximately 8 p.m.
Wanda (aka 'The Newport Specimen') was captured by Marineland of the Pacific, now closed, in Newport Beach on November 18, 1961. She was the first killer whale to be captured and displayed in captivity. She died on November 20, 1961, approximately 42 hours after her capture in Newport Harbor (approximately 36 hours after being placed into Marineland's tank).
Winston, originally known as Ramu, was captured near Coupeville, Washington, in 1970 and lived in Windsor Safari park and SeaWorld San Diego. He died in 1986. He was the father of the original Baby Shamu, Kalina.
Yaka (Pronounced: Yah-Kah) (1966–1997), was a Pacific Northwest killer whale. She died on October 29, 1997, after 27 years in captivity. She was about 31 years old, the third oldest orca in captivity at the time. The cause of her death was supposedly pneumonia. She came to Marine World Africa USA located in Redwood City California in December 1969 together with male Nepo after being captured off the coast of British Columbia. Nepo and Yaka starred in the 1977 horror film Orca. Nepo died in July 1980, leaving Yaka alone. In November 1980, the Icelandic female killer whale Vigga became her tank mate. Yaka was 10 years older than Vigga. They made the move together when the park relocated to Vallejo, California, in 1986. Vigga died 3 years after Yaka in August 2000.
She lives in Moscow dolphinarium and aquarium Russia (is from Russia). She was found in 2014.
- Category:Individual killer whales
- Captive killer whales
- Killer whale attacks on humans
- Keiko, the star of the 1993 movie Free Willy
- Free Willy, a 1993 family film (3 sequels)
- "Orcas in captivity". Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. Archived from the original on August 5, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
- "Tank Worlds" Orca Home. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Heimlich, Sara and Boran, James. Killer Whales (2001) Voyageur Press, Stillwater, Minnesota.
- "A Whale of a Business" PBS, Reproduced from "The Performing Orca, Why the Show Must Stop" by Erich Hoyt. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- "Artificially inseminated killer whale gives birth" BBC. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- "Artificial Insemination Produces Killer Whales" Archived February 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- シャチの「リン」 １歳をお祝いしてイベントを行います 終了しました (in Japanese). Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Forever Seaworld". foreverseaworld.yolasite.com. Forever Seaworld. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- "Corky's Story". Hal Sato. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Orcas of MarineLand Canada: Ikaika Archived October 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. animaltrainer91. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- http://www.orcahome.de/news2004.htm>Orca News 2004
- "A' Killer' Birth in San Diego". CBS News.
- "How Orky and Kasatka almost sank Seaworld". Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- "Meet the Orcas who are Suing Seaworld". peta.org. PETA. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- Repard, Pauline (November 30, 2006). "Killer whale bites trainer, takes him to tank bottom". SignOnSanDiego.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009.
- "Killer whale attacks Sea World trainer" CNN November 30, 2006.
- "Katina-Shamu Dictionary". shamudictionary.tumblr.com. Shamu Dictionary. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
- "Meet the Orcas Who Are Suing Seaworld". peta.org. PETA. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- "Captive Orcas 'Dying to Entertain You'", Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
- Jacobson, Susan (October 10, 2010). "Killer whale born at SeaWorld Orlando". Orlando Sentinel.
- "Katina" Orca Spirit. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "Killer whale at SeaWorld San Antonio dies". Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on March 8, 2009. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- "Keijo". Nordic Names. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Fung, Anika. "Blood in the Water". outsideonline.com. outside online. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- "Kohana" Friend of the Orcas. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "Kohana Gives Birth to the First Spanish Orca". loroparque.com. Loro Parque. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "Birth of Victoria". loroparque.com. Loro Parque. August 18, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- http://cetacousin.com/captive/orca/profile/makani.html[permanent dead link]
- "Lolita's Life Today" Archived February 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Orca Network. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "Orca survival trumps profits, 'ownership' " San Juan Journal. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- "Free Lolita! Bid to bring orca 'home' heats up" Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- Whale activists use federal endangered law in attempt to free Lolita from Florida attraction. Winnipeg Free Press, December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2011.
- 水族館生まれのシャチが出産 (in Japanese). Retrieved July 20, 2012.[permanent dead link]
- "シャチの最新情報". Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- 国内最高齢シャチ「ビンゴ」体調不良 名港水族館 (in Japanese). Chunichi Web. Archived from the original on May 20, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- "シャチ「ステラ」出産 赤ちゃんが無事生まれました！". Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. November 13, 2012. Archived from the original on June 2, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "シャチの赤ちゃんの愛称が「リン」に決定しました". Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. June 17, 2013. Archived from the original on September 17, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "☆この冬のオススメ商品☆" (in Japanese). Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "Cetacean Cousins: Captive Orca". August 3, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Une orque un peu spéciale à Antibes" (in French). Europe 1. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- "Orcas in Captivity". Andreas Stüger. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
- "SeaWorld Animal Profiles" (PDF). orcahome.de. SeaWorld. June 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- "About Ulises (SWC-OO-0127)". cetacousin.bplaced.net. Cetacean Cousins. Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- "Orca News". Orcahome.de. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- Thomas, Pete, "SeaWorld killer whale's severe injury: accident or battle wound? Archived October 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.", GrindTV, October 1, 2012
- SeaWorld mounts its defense of trainers' 'water work' with killer whales. Orlando Sentinel, November 17, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- "About Ulises (SWC-OO-9426)". cetacousin.bplaced.net. Cetacean Cousins. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Trasllat de l'orca Ulisses al parc Sea World de San Diego". tv3.cat. Televisió de Catalunya, S.A. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- http://cetacousin.com/captive/orca/profile/babyshamu2.html[permanent dead link]
- http://cetacousin.com/captive/orca/profile/bingo.html[permanent dead link]
- Website Dolfinarium, Downloaded on November 5, 2008, from Dolfinarium.nl Archived April 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "An experiment in two-way communication in Orcinus orca L." Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Phinventory. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "About Hoi Wai / Suzie (OO7901)". cetacousin.bplaced.net. Cetacean Cousins. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- "The Killer Whales of Clacton Pier". clactondolphins.co.uk. Martin Allen. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- "The Storm Damage – January 1979". clactondolphins.co.uk. Martin Allen. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- "They did not survive the show". orcahome.de. Stephan Jacobs. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- Reeves, Randall R.; DeMaster, Douglass P.; Hill, Cynthia L.; Leatherwood, Stephen. "Survivorship of Odontocete Cetaceans at Ocean Park, Hong kong, 1974–1994". Asian Marine Biology. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. 11–12. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- "hong kong. cetacean". hong kong. cetacean.
- "About Hyak II". cetacousin.bplaced.net. Archived from the original on March 12, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "SeaWorld's killer whale Kalina dies unexpectedly". blogs.orlandosentinel.com. Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on October 6, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
- https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=nSxKAAAAIBAJ&sjid=t4UMAAAAIBAJ&pg=1076,3514204&dq=seaworld&hl=en The Vindicator, August 23, 1989
- "Performing Whale Dies in Collision With Another". New York Times. August 23, 1989. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- Kirby, David. Death at Seaworld: Shamu and the Dark Side of Killer Whales in Captivity. St. Martin's Press, New York, 2012
- The Free Willy Keiko Foundation
- Keiko.com: Keiko's Story: The Timeline
-  Archived March 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "A listing of dolphin/whale captures..." at pbs.org
- WGBH Frontline: "Edward 'Ted' Griffin, The Life and Adventures of a Man Who Caught Killer Whales". Retrieved March 28, 2008
- M. L. Lyke, "Granny's Struggle: A black and white gold rush is on", Seattle P-I, Wednesday, October 11, 2006 link[permanent dead link] Retrieved March 27, 2008
- Orca Report, WDCS, p61 link
- url="Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- http://cetacousin.com/captive/orca/profile/orky2.html[permanent dead link]
- Pollard, Sandra (2014). Puget Sound Whales for Sale. Charleston, SC: The History Press.
- "About Skana". cetacousin.bplaced.net. Archived from the original on March 12, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Rodgers, Terry (April 24, 2005). "Deaths of marine mammals hit staffers especially hard". Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Batt, Elizabeth (May 2, 2014). "The Life -- And Death -- Of Splash, Another Disturbed SeaWorld Orca". Archived from the original on June 11, 2014.
- "Deaths of marine mammals hit staffers especially hard". Union-Tribune Publishing Co. (SignOnSanDiego.com). October 10, 2007. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2007.
- "Sumar" Archived October 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Beyond the Blue. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "Reality Bites: The Week in Food TV". Zagat. June 18, 2010. Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- http://cetacousin.com/captive/orca/profile/taku.html[permanent dead link]
- "Sea World Killer Whale Dies". WOAI-TV. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2007.
- "Killer whale at SeaWorld San Antonio dies". Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- Jett, John; Ventre, Jeffrey. "Orca ( Orcinus orca ) captivity and vulnerability to mosquito-transmitted viruses". Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology. 5 (2, 2012).
- "Necropsy Report: Killer Whale (Orcinus-orca) Taku". The Orca Project Corp. May 2, 2012.
- "SeaWorld: Tilikum, orca that killed trainer, has died". January 6, 2017.
- Press, Associated (January 6, 2017). "SeaWorld: Tilikum, orca that killed trainer, has died". Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- "SeaWorld killer whale Unna dies after long illness". ITV News. 2015-12-22.
- "Six men capture a killer whale". The Miami News. November 19, 1961. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- "'Newport Specimen' November, 1961 / Behavioral, Antatomical and Pathological Data on the 'Newport Specimen'". Marineland of the Pacific Historical Society. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Killer Whale Netted in Newport Harbor". Independent-Press-Telegram Newspaper of Long Beach, California / Bob Geivet. November 19, 1961. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Captured Killer Whale Dies". St. Joseph Gazette. November 21, 1961. Retrieved June 7, 2012.