Kalinga (India)

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This article is about the ancient Indian kingdom. For other uses, see Kalinga (disambiguation).

Kalinga Caste[edit]

Kalinga/Kalingi is an Indian caste of temple priests and cultivators, found mainly in Srikakulam. The Kalingas are essentially Telugus and are found mainly on the borderland between the districts of Ganjam and Vizagapatam.

They are an endogamous population. The same class of people are known as the Kalinjis in the country north of the Vamsadhara river. In the Telugu parts they are called Kalingas and in the Oriya country they are known as Kalinjis. These Kalingas are not found south of Chipurupalle in the Vizagapatam district. These were the original people that gave their name to the region; most of them are now found confined to the south of Ganjam district, but some are found scattered all over the Oriya country along the coast.

Notable Kalinga personalities include : Ronanki Appalaswamy, Boddepalli Rajagopala Rao, Killi Krupa Rani, H J Dora( Andhra Pradesh Police Chief & CVC member), Padma Shri Kutikuppala Surya Rao and Dr G Shanta Rao.[citation needed]

Kalinga- Its a caste of temple priests and cultivators. Few comes under sub-division of Komatis, who "were formerly the inhabitants of the ancient Kalinga country. They are considered inferior to the other sub-divisions, on account of their eating flesh.

Their titles are: Subaddhi, Patro,Chaudari,Naidu, Nayarlu, Chowdari, Bissoyi, Podhano, Jenna, Swayi,Naiko,Borado, Bissoyi, Bariko, Behara, Dolei, Gaudo, Jenna, Moliko, Naiko, Patro, Podhano, Pulleyi, Ravuto, Santo, Savu, Swayi, Guru,etc.

In the Ganjam Manual, they are described as " traders and shopkeepers, principally prevalent in the Chicacole division. The name Kling or Kaling is applied, in the Malay countries, including the Straits Settlements, to the people of peninsular India, who trade thither, or are settled in those regions." It is recorded by Dr. N. Annandale that the phrase Orang Kling Islam (i.e., a Muhammadan from the Madras coast) occurs in Patani Malay.

Kalinga/Kalingi and Kalinji ; There has been some confusion, in recorded accounts, between these two classes. In the Ganjam Manual, the Kalinjis are described as agriculturists in that district, and, in the Vizagapatam Manual, the Kalingas or Kalingulu are stated to be cultivators in the Vizagapatam district, and a caste of Paiks or fighting men in Jeypore. In the Census Report, 1891, the Kalingis are said to be "most numerous in Ganjam, but there is a considerable number of them in Vizagapatam also.

The word means a native of Kalinga, the name of the sea-board of the Telugu country; the word Telugu itself is supposed by Dr. Caldwell to be a corruption of Tri-Kalinga. The three large sub- divisions of the caste are Buragam, Kintala, and Odiya.

In the Kintala sub-division, a widow may remarry if she has no male issue, but the remarriage of widows is not allowed in other sub-divisions. The use of flesh and alcoholic liquor is permitted. Naidu and Chaudari are their titles." Further, in the Census Report, 1901, the Kalingis are described as follows : " A caste of temple priests and cultivators, found mainly in Ganjam and Vizagapatam, whither they are supposed to have been brought by the Kalinga kings to do service in the Hindu temples, before the advent of the Brahmans. They speak either Oriya or Telugu. They have two sub-divisions, the Kintali Kalingas, who live south of the Langulya river, and the Buragam Kalingis, who reside to the north of it, and the customs of the two differ a great deal. There is also a third section, called Pandiri or Bevarani, which is composed of outcastes from the other two. Except the Kalingis of Mokhalingam in Vizagapatam,* they have headmen called Nayakabalis or Santos. They also have priests called Kularazus, each of whom sees to the spiritual needs of a definite group of villages. They are divided into several exogamous gotras, each comprising a number of families or vamsas, some of which, such as Arudra, a lady-bird, and Revi-chettu, the Ficus religiosa tree, are of totemistic origin. Each section is said to worship its totem. Marriage before puberty is the rule, and the caste is remarkable for the proportion of its girls under twelve years of age who are married or widowed. Mokhalingam is in Ganjam, not Vizagapatam. Widow marriage is not recognised by the Buragam Kalingis, but the Kintalis freely allow it. As usual, the ceremonies at the wedding of a widow differ from those at the marriage of a maid. Some turmeric paste is placed on a new cloth, which is then put over a pot of water, and the ceremony takes place near this. The binding portion of it is the tying of a saffron-coloured string to the woman's wrist. The Kalingis pay special reverence to Sri Radha Krishna and Chaitanya. Some of the caste officiate in temples, wear the sacred thread, and call themselves Brahmans, but they are not received on terms of equality by other Brahmans. All Kalingis bury their dead, but sraddhas (memorial services) are performed only by the Kintali sub-division. The Buragam Kalingis do not shave their heads in front. Kalingi women wear heavy bangles of brass, silver bell-metal and glass, extending from the wrist to the elbow. The titles of the castes are Naidu, Nayarlu, Chowdari, Bissoyi, Podhano, Jenna, Swayi, and Naiko." In the foregoing account, the Oriya-speaking Kalinjis, and Telugu-speaking Kalingis, are both referred to. The confusion seems to have arisen from the fact that the Kalinjis are sometimes called Kalingis by other castes. The Kalingis are essentially Telugus, and are found mainly on the borderland between the districts of Ganjam and Vizagapatam. The Kalinjis are, on the other hand, Oriyas, and seem to be closely allied to the agricultural castes, Doluva, Alia, Bosantiya, etc., like which they are mainly agriculturists. The Kalinjis can be easily distinguished from the Kalingis, as the latter wear the sacred thread. The following story is told in connection with the origin of the Kalinji caste. A band of robbers was once upon a time staying in a fort near Bhattu Kunnarade, and molesting the people, who invited the king of Puri to come and drive the robbers away. Among the warriors who were recruited for this purpose, was a member of the Khondaito caste, who, with the permission of the king, succeeded in expelling the robbers. He was named by the people Bodo-Kalinja, or one having a stout heart. He and his followers remained in the Ganjam country, and the Kalinjis are their descend- ants. The caste is widespread in the northern part thereof. There do not seem to be any sub-divisions among the Kalinjis, but there is a small endogamous group, called Mohiri Kalmji. Mohiri is a well-known division in Ganjam, and Kalinjis who dwell therein intermarry with others, and do not form a separate community. It has been suggested that the Mohiri Kalinjis are Telugu Kalingis, who have settled in the Oriya country. Like other Oriya castes, the Kalinjis have gotras, e.g., bano (sun), sukro (star), sanko (conch-shell), bhago (tiger) and nago (cobra). There is a good deal of confusion regarding the gotras in their connection with marriage. The same gotra, e.g., sukro, is exogamous in some places, and not so in others. Many titles occur among the Kalinjis, e.g., Borado, Bissoyi, Bariko, Behara, Dolei, Gaudo, Jenna, Moliko, Naiko, Patro, Podhano, Pulleyi, Ravuto, Santo, Savu, Swayi, Guru. In some places, the titles are taken as representing bamsams (or vamsams), and, as such, are exogamous. Families as a rule refrain from marrying into families bearing the same title. For example, a Dolei man will not marry a Dolei girl, especially if their gotras are the same. But a Dolei may marry a Pullei, even if they have the same gotra. The headman of the Kalinjis is styled Santo, and he is assisted by a Patro. There is also a caste messenger, called Bhollobhaya. For the whole community there are said to be four Santos and four Patros, residing at Attagada, Chinna Kimedi, Pedda Kimedi, and Mohiri. A man who is suffering from a wound or sore infested by maggots is said to be excommunicated, and, when he has recovered, to submit himself before the caste-council before he is received back into the community. Girls are generally married before puberty, and, if a real husband is not forthcoming, a maid goes through a mock marriage ceremony with her elder sister's husband, or some elder of the community. A bachelor must be married to the sado (Strebhis asper) tree before he can marry a widow. The remarriage of widows (thuvathuvvi) is freely allowed. A widow, who has a brother-in-law, may not marry anyone else, until she has obtained a deed of separation (tsado patro) from him. The marriage ceremonies conform to the standard Oriya type. In some places, the little fingers of the contract- ing couple are linked, instead of their hands being tied together with thread. On the fourth day, a Bhondari (barber) places on the marriage dais some beaten rice and sugar-candy, which the bride and bridegroom sell to relations for money and grain. The proceeds of the sale are the perquisite of the Bhondari. On the seventh day, the bridegroom breaks a pot on the dais, and, as he and the bride go away, the brother of the latter throws brinjal (Solanum Melongend) fruits at him. The dead are as a rule cremated. On the day after death, food, made bitter by the addition of margosa (Melia Azadirachtd] leaves, is offered. A piece of bone is carried away from the burning-ground, and buried under a pipal (Ficus religiosa} tree. Daily, until the tenth day, water is poured seven times over the spot in-4 B where the bone is buried. On the tenth day, if the deceased was an elder of the community, the jola-jola handi ceremony is performed with a pot riddled with holes.

For list the gotras and surnames of kalinga caste refer http://kalingaworld.com/Gothralu.aspx#

Kalinga Region[edit]

Kalinga c. 261 BCE

Kalinga (NLK Kaḷiṅga)(odia:କଳିଙ୍ଗ) was an early republic in central East India that comprised north eastern parts of modern state of Andhra Pradesh, most of the modern state of Odisha and a portion of Chattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh States.[1][2][3] It was a rich and fertile land that extended from the Damodar River/Ganges to the Godavari River and from Bay of Bengal to the Amarkantak range in the west.[1] The region was scene of the bloody Kalinga War fought by Ashoka of the Maurya Empire approximately 265 BCE.[4]

Rise of Kharavela[edit]

Kharavela (odia:ଖାରବେଳ) the warrior-emperor of Kalinga.[5] He was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in the Indian subcontinent. According to the Hathigumpha inscription near Bhubaneswar, Odisha, he attacked Rajagriha in Magadha, thus inducing the Indo-Greek king Demetrius I of Bactria to retreat to Mathura.[6] This shows his strong ties with the Shunga Empire rulers Pushyamitra Shunga and Agnimitra, who established their rule after uprooting the Mauryans.

Historical accounts of Kalinga[edit]

Kalinga is mentioned in the Mahabharata. Kalinga King Srutayu is stated to have fought the Mahabharata war for the Kauravas. Kalinga is also mentioned as "Calingae" in Megasthenes' Indica:

The Prinas and the Cainas (a tributary of the Ganges) are both navigable rivers. The tribes which dwell by the Ganges are the Calingae, nearest the sea, and higher up the Mandei, also the Malli, among whom is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that region being the Ganges.

— Megasthenes fragm. XX.B. in Pliny. Hist. Nat. V1. 21.9–22. 1.[7]

The royal city of the Calingae is called Parthalis. Over their king 60,000 foot-soldiers, 1,000 horsemen, 700 elephants keep watch and ward in "procinct of war."

— Megasthenes fragm. LVI. in Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8–23. 11.[7]

The Kalinga alphabet[8] derived from Brahmi was used for writing.

The Fall of Kalinga[edit]

The kingdom fell when Ashoka, leader of the Mauryan Empire led a war against the republic, leading to its bloody defeat in the Kalinga War. It is said that the war was so bloody that the river turned red. This ultimately led to Ashoka becoming a Buddhist king. Some advocates of the Greater India theory claim this led to an exodus of people to Southeast Asia where they set up Indianized kingdoms, but there is no evidence for such a migration of people.[9]

The term "Keling"[edit]

Long past the end of the Kalinga Kingdom in 1842 CE, derivatives from its name continued to be used as the general name of India in what are now Malaysia and Indonesia. "Keling" was and still is in use in these countries as a word for "Indian", though since the 1960s Indians came to consider it offensive. It may be due to "Sadhabas" (or Sadhavas) were ancient mariners from the Kalinga empire, which roughly corresponds to modern Odisha and Northern Coastal Andhra Pradesh. They used ships called Boitas to travel to distant lands such as Bali, Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, in Indonesia, and to Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Persia, China, Greece and Africa to carry out trade and for cultural expansion. Kartik Purnima, immediately before the full moon in October–November, was considered an especially auspicious occasion by the "Sadhabas" to begin their long voyages. Coconuts, earthenware, sandalwood, cloth, lime, rice, spices, salt, cloves, pumpkins, silk sarees, betel leaves, betel nuts, elephants, and precious and semi-precious stones were the main items of trade. Sometimes, even women were allowed to navigate as "Sadhabas". Odia navigators were instrumental in spreading Buddhism and Hinduism in East and South East Asia. In addition, they disseminated knowledge of Indian architecture, epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Indic writing and Sanskrit loan words in many Indo-Chinese languages such as Khmer and Indonesian. Maritime trade declined only in the 16th century, with the decline of the Gajapati dynasty. Today, the descendants of these ancient mariners generally bear the last name "Sahu".

Kalinga Kingdom[edit]

Kalinga (Odia: କଳିଙ୍ଗ, Devnagari- कळिंग, Telugu- కళింగ) forms the sea shore of Orissa and Andhra region of Andhra pradesh up to river Godavari state in India. Kuru king Duryodhana's wife was from Kalinga. Kalingas sided with Duryodhana in the Kurukshetra War. The founders of five eastern kingdoms, which included: Angas (east, centralBihar), Vangas (southern West Bengal and Bangladesh), Kalingas (Sea shore of Orissa), Pundras (western Bangladesh and West Bengal, India), Suhmas (north-westernBangladesh and West Bengal) shared common ancestry. Two capitals (Dantapura and Rajapura) of Kalinga were mentioned in Mahabharata, probably there were many Kalinga kings, ruling different territories of Kalinga.

References in Mahabharata[edit source | edit][edit]

Kalinga is mentioned as an ancient Indian (Bharata Varsha) kingdom, along with the Vodhas and again along with the Kiratas residing in the east, at (6,9)

Birth of the five royal lines[edit source | edit][edit]

The five royal lines of Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Suhma were born from the adopted sons of king Vali. This Vali's kingdom was either Magadha Kingdom or some kingdom close to it. There existed an Asura kingdom to the south of Magadha as per many Puranas. King Vali seems to be an Asura king, like the famous king Mahabali, who was also known as Vali or Bali. The five royal sons were actually the sons of the sage Dīrghatamas. Dīghatamas was a sage born in the race of Gautama and Angiras. He was also known as Gautama. His eldest son also was known as Gautama.(1,104).

Though Dīrghatamas was a great sage he was blind. He was cast away by his sons and wife who threw him into river Ganges in a raft. King Vali saved him. Knowing who he was the childless king chose him to raise offspring upon the queen, according to the ordinances of those times. Thus was born the famous five kings. After their names five countries were formed. It is after their names that their dominions have come to be called Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Suhma (1,104)

Gautama's abode was in Girivraja, the capital of Magadha. Gautama begat on the Sudra woman Ausinari (the daughter of Usinara) the royal sage Kakshivat and the other five celebrated sons. These five monarchs used to visit Gautama in his abode. (2,21)

The eastern kings mentioned in the self-choice of Panchali[edit source | edit][edit]

Kalinga King attended the self-choice event of Draupadi, along with Chandrasena the mighty son of Samudrasena (Vanga king), Jarasandha (Magadha king), Vidanda, and Danda—the father and son, Paundraka-Vasudeva (Pundra king), Bhagadatta (king of Pragjyotisha who also ruled Suhma Kingdom, Tamralipta, the king of Pattana etc. (1,188), (1,189).

Sahadeva's conquests[edit source | edit][edit]

Sahadeva brought under his subjection and exacted tributes from the Paundrayas (or Pandya Kingdom ?) and the Dravidas along with the Udrakeralas and the Andhras and the Talavanas, the Kalingas and the Ushtrakarnikas, and also the delightful city of Atavi and that of the Yavanas. (2,30)

Dantapura,now known as Puri city of Orissa was mentioned as the capital of Kalinga conquered by Sahadeva (5,23)

Karna's conquests[edit source | edit][edit]

Karna conquered and brought under subjection all the kings inhabiting the Himavat, and made them pay dues. Then descending from the mountain and rushing to the east, he reduced the Angas, and the Bangas, and the Kalingas, and the Mandikas, and the Magadhas. the Karkakhandas; and also included with them the Avasiras, Yodhyas, and the Ahikshatras. (3,252).

Other conquests of Kalinga[edit source | edit][edit]

  • Vasudeva Krishna also is mentioned to have vanquished a Kalinga king, along with the Pandyas and the city of Varnasi (Banaras) in Kasi. (5,48), (16,6)
  • Bhima also is mentioned to have vanquished the Kalingas along with all the people of Kasi and Anga and Magadha (5,50)
  • Bhargava Rama is mentioned to have conquered the Kalingas along with the Angas and Vangas (6,68)

Yudhisthira's entry into his new palace at Indraprastha[edit source | edit][edit]

Kalinga king Srutayus, attended the event of Yudhisthira entering his new palace at Indraprastha, along with Jayasena the king of Magadha.

Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice[edit source | edit][edit]

King Bhagadatta seems to have sway over all the eastern kingdoms including Pundra, Suhma, Vanga and Kalinga. Anga kingdom was ruled by his friend Karna and Vrihadvala was the king of Kosala Kingdom, his another friend.

King Bhagadatta of Pragjyotisha accompanied by all Mlechcha tribes inhabiting the marshy regions on the sea-shore; and many mountain kings, and king Vrihadvala; and Vasudeva the king of the Paundrayas, and the kings of Vanga and Kalinga came to the sacrifice. Similarly the Akastha and Kuntala and the kings of the Malavas and theAndhrakas; and the Dravidas and the Singhalas also came. (2,33). Kalinga king was mentioned as a charioteer at (2,43). Kalingas have brought tribute to the king Yudhisthiraalong with other kings like the Vangas, the Magadhas, the Tamraliptas, the Supundrakas, the Dauvalikas, the Sagarakas. (2,51)

Duryodhana marries from Kalinga[edit source | edit][edit]

Duryodhana married the daughter of Chitrangada, who was a Kalinga king, with the capital at Rajapura. This was different from the south Kalinga kingdom, with the capital atDantapura vanquished by Sahadeva.

Once on a time many kings repaired to a self-choice at the capital of Chitrangada, the ruler of the country of the Kalingas. The city full of opulence, was known by the name ofRajapura. Duryodhana

Arjuna's pilgrimage[edit source | edit][edit]

Arjuna visited all the regions of sacred waters and other holy palaces in Vanga and Kalinga during his 12-year-old pilgrimage, travelling the whole of ancient India. (1,127)

Pandavas's pilgrimage[edit source | edit][edit]

Pandavas, during their 12 year exile from their kingdom, set for a pilgrimage travelling the whole of ancient India, guided by sage Lomasa.

Pandavas started from the river Kausiki (now known as Kosi in Bihar) and repaired in succession to all the sacred shrines. They came to the sea where the river Ganges falls into it; and there in the centre of five hundred rivers, performed the holy ceremony of a plunge. Then they proceeded by the shore of the sea towards the land where the Kalingatribes dwell. Through it passeth the river Vaitarani (now known as river Baitarni in Orissa) (3,114)

Drupada's list of kings[edit source | edit][edit]

Drupada, the father in law of the Pandavas and the king of Panchala, made a list of kings to be summoned to assist the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War

In the list is mentions Srutayus, with other Kalinga kings, Samudrasena (Vanga king) etc. (5,4).

Kalingas in Kurukshetra War[edit source | edit][edit]

Kalingas were mentioned as allied to Kauravas at many places like at (5-62,95). Kalinga king Srutayudha also known as Srutayus and Srutayush, was one among the generals in the Kaurava army.(6,16). The generals of Kaurava army were:-

  1. Sakuni, a chief from Gandhara Kingdom
  2. Shalya, the king of Madra Kingdom
  3. Jayadratha, the king of Sindhu Kingdom
  4. Vinda and Anuvinda, two brothers and kings of Avanti Kingdom
  5. The Kekaya brothers from Kekeya Kingdom (oppoesed the Kekayas on the Pandava side)
  6. Sudakshina the king of Kamboja Kingdom
  7. Srutayudha the king of Kalinga Kingdom
  8. Jayatsena a king of Magadha Kingdom
  9. Vrihadvala the king of Kosala Kingdom
  10. Kritavarma, a Yadava chief from Anarta Kingdom

Bhima slew Kalinga king Srutayush and other Kalinga heroes[edit source | edit][edit]

The battle of Kalingas is mentioned at various places (6-17,56,70,71,88,118), (7-4,7,11,20,44,72,90,118,138,152,191) (8-5,8,17,22) (9,33). The prominent among them was their battle with Pandava Bhima, which proved fatel to all the Kalinga heroes. (6-53,54), (8,70).

Then king Duryodhana urged the ruler of the Kalingas supported by a large division, for the protection of Bharadwaja’s son, Drona. Then that terrible and mighty division of the Kalingas rushed against Bhima. And then commenced a fierce battle between the Kalingas and the high-souled Bhima. (6,53).

The mighty king of the Kalingas, Srutayush, accompanied by a large army advanced towards Bhima’s car. The ruler of the Kalingas with many thousands of cars, supported byKetumat, the son of the king of the Nishadas, with 10000 elephants and the Nishada army, surrounded Bhimasena, on all sides. Then the Chedis, the Matsyas, and Karushas, with Bhimasena at their head, with many kings impetuously rushed against the Nishadas. Terrific was the collision that took place between the few and many, between the Chedis on the one side and the Kalingas and the Nishadas on the other. The Chedis, abandoning Bhima, turned back. But Bhima, encountering all the Kalingas, did not turn back. Bhima, staying on his car whose steeds had been slain, hurled at Sakradeva, the son of the Kalinga King Srutayush, a mace made of the hardest iron. And slain by that mace, the son of the ruler of the Kalingas, from his car, fell down on the ground, with his standard and charioteer. Later he slew Bhanumat, the prince of Kalingas, by ascending the back of his elephant and cutting his body in half, with sword. Bhima drawing his bow slew the ruler of the Kalingas, Srutayush, with seven shafts made wholly of iron. And with two shafts he slew the two protectors of the car-wheels of the Kalinga King. And he also dispatched Satyadeva and Satya. (6,54)

  • A Kalinga ruler other than Srutayush, lead the Kalinga army, during the rest of the days in battle. (7-7,90)
  • Two brothers Kalinga and Vrishaka were mentioned as slain in battle at (8,5)
  • A Kalinga king is mentioned to be slain at (11,25)

Karna's opinion on the Kalingas[edit source | edit][edit]

Karna rebukes Shalya during the Kurukshetra War, and his race, and all the other tribes who had slightest similarity with Shalya's tribe.

  • The Karashakas, the Mahishakas, the Kalingas, the Keralas, the Karkotakas, the Virakas, and other peoples of no religion, one should always avoid. (8,44)
  • The Kauravas with the Panchalas, the Salwas, the Matsyas, the Naimishas, the Koshalas, the Kasapaundras, the Kalingas, the Magadhas, and the Chedis who are all highly blessed, know what the eternal religion is. (8,45)

Siva worship in Kalinga[edit source | edit][edit]

Siva is worshipped in the country of the Kalingas in the form of a tiger. Siva has an image in the country of the Kalingas that is called Vyaghreswara. (13,17)

Absence of Brahmins in Kalinga[edit source | edit][edit]

It is in consequence of the absence of Brahmanas from among them that the Sakas, the Yavanas, the Kamvojas and other Kshatriya tribes have become fallen and degraded into the status of Sudras. The Dravidas, the Kalingas, the Pulandas, the Usinaras, the Kolisarpas, the Mahishakas and other Kshatriyas, have, in consequence of the absence of Brahmanas from among their midst, become degraded into Sudras. (13,33)

The passage gives signs of the cultural differences prevailed in Kalinga with the mainstream culture prevailed in the plains of the Ganges.(13,33)

Other references[edit source | edit][edit]

  • A Kalinga princess named Karambha was wedded to Akrodhana a Puru king. Devatithi was their son. (1,95),
  • An ally of Karitkeya, generallissimo of Deva army is mentioned as Kalinga (9,45).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b An Advanced History of India. By R. C. Majumdar, H. C. Raychaudhuri, and Kaukinkar Datta. 1946. London: Macmillan
  2. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/310196/Kalinga
  3. ^ http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-12-02/visakhapatnam/35547536_1_jagannath-temple-kalinga-lord-jagannath
  4. ^ Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas, 1961 (revision 1998); Oxford University Press
  5. ^ Agrawal, Sadananda (2000): Śrī Khāravela, Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, Odisha
  6. ^ Shashi Kant (2000): The Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela and the Bhabru Edict of Ashoka, D K Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
  7. ^ a b Megasthenes Indica
  8. ^ "[Omnigator] Kalinga". Ontopia.net. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  9. ^ Hall, D.G.E. (1981). A History of South-East Asia, Fourth Edition. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd. p. 17. ISBN 0-333-24163-0.