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Kalinga was an early republic in central East India[when?] that comprised north eastern parts of modern state of Andhra Pradesh, most of the modern state of Odisha and a portion of Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States. It was a rich and fertile land that extended from the Damodar River/Ganges to the Godavari River and from Bay of Bengal to the Amarkantak range in the west. The region was scene of the bloody Kalinga War fought by Ashoka of the Maurya Empire approximately 265 BCE.
The core area of the historical Kalinga now forms the sea shore of Orissa and Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, up to river Godavari state in India.
Kalinga is mentioned as "Calingae" in Megasthenes' Indica:
The Prinas and the Cainas (a tributary of the Ganges) are both navigable rivers. The tribes which dwell by the Ganges are the Calingae, nearest the sea, and higher up the Mandei, also the Malli, among whom is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that region being the Ganges.— Megasthenes fragm. XX.B. in Pliny. Hist. Nat. V1. 21.9–22. 1.
The royal city of the Calingae is called Parthalis. Over their king 60,000 foot-soldiers, 1,000 horsemen, 700 elephants keep watch and ward in "procinct of war."— Megasthenes fragm. LVI. in Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8–23. 11.
Kalinga was a powerful kingdom during the Mauryan era. The kingdom fell when emperor Ashoka led a war against the republic, leading to its bloody defeat in the Kalinga War. It seems to have gained independence soon by the time of king Kharavela.
Mahapadma Nanda the ruler of Magadha is presumed to have conquered Kalinga during his reign around c. 350 BCE. The Hathigumpha inscriptions mentions the suzerainty of the Nandas in the Kalinga region. The inscriptions also mention irrigation projects undertaken by the Nanda kings in the state during their reign.
Ashoka campaigned against the Kalingans and routed them in about 260 BC. He defeated Raja Anantha Padmanabhan in the war resulting in conquest of Kalinga into Maurya Empire.
Kalinga is mentioned in the legendary epic Mahabharata, along with the Vodhas and again along with the Kiratas residing in the east, at (6,9). Kalinga King Srutayu is stated to have fought the Mahabharata war for the Kauravas. Kuru king Duryodhana's wife was from Kalinga. Kalingas sided with Duryodhana in the Kurukshetra War. The founders of five eastern kingdoms, which included: Angas (east, central Bihar), Vangas (southern West Bengal and Bangladesh), Kalingas (Sea shore of Orissa), Pundras (western Bangladesh and West Bengal, India), Suhmas (north-westernBangladesh and West Bengal) shared common ancestry. Two capitals (Dantapura and Rajapura) of Kalinga were mentioned in Mahabharata, probably there were many Kalinga kings, ruling different territories of Kalinga.
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