Kalinga (province)

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Kalinga
Province of Kalinga[1]
Flag of Kalinga
Official seal of Kalinga
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 17°45′N 121°15′E / 17.75°N 121.25°E / 17.75; 121.25Coordinates: 17°45′N 121°15′E / 17.75°N 121.25°E / 17.75; 121.25
CountryPhilippines
RegionCordillera Administrative Region
FoundedMay 8, 1995
CapitalTabuk
Government
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorFerdinand B. Tubban (PDP-Laban)
 • Vice GovernorDave Q. Odiem (NP)
 • RepresentativeAllen Jesse C. Mangaoang (NP)
 • LegislatureKalinga Provincial Board
Area
 • Total3,231.25 km2 (1,247.59 sq mi)
Area rank41st out of 81
Highest elevation2,617 m (8,586 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [4]
 • Total229,570
 • Estimate 
(2020)
220,329[3]
 • Rank71st out of 81
 • Density71/km2 (180/sq mi)
 • Density rank78th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities
1
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays153
 • DistrictsLegislative district of Kalinga
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
ZIP code
3800–3808
IDD:area code+63 (0)74
ISO 3166 codePH-KAL
Spoken languages
Websitewww.kalinga.gov.ph

Kalinga is a landlocked province in the Philippines situated within the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Tabuk and borders Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north. Kalinga and Apayao are the result of the 1995 partitioning of the former province of Kalinga-Apayao which was seen to better service the respective needs of the various indigenous peoples in the area.

Unbeknownst to many, President Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Lubuagan town the seat of government for 73 days from 6 March 1900 to 18 May 1900 before finally fleeing to Palanan.[5][6]

Etymology[edit]

The province's name is derived from the Ibanag and Gaddang noun "kalinga", which means "enemy", "fighter", or "headtaker".[7]

Geography[edit]

The mountains of Kalinga in Lubuagan

Kalinga covers a total area of 3,231.25 square kilometres (1,247.59 sq mi)[8] occupying the central section of the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. The province is bordered by Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north.

Large swaths of the province's lowlands are open grassland suitable for pasture, while the highlands have extensive areas of tropical rainforest. In higher elevations to the west, particularly in the mountains of Balbalan, lie some of the most intact pine forests of Luzon island. Rizal and Tabuk with their flatlands are the biggest rice producers. Next in rice production are the mountainous area, and of note are the rice terraces of Balbalan, Lubuagan, Pasil, Pinukpuk, Tinglayan, and Tanudan.

Climate[edit]

Hydrology[edit]

The Chico River passing through Tinglayan

The province is drained mainly by the Chico River, with its headwaters in the Mountain Province and emptying into the Cagayan River. The Chico River has several tributaries: Bunog River in Tinglayan in the south; the Tanudan and Biga Rivers in the east; Pasil River in the central area; and Poswoy, Dao-angan, Mabaca and Saltan Rivers in the west.

Several small lakes can also be found in Kalinga.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Butchered remains of a Rhinoceros philippinensis found in Rizal, Kalinga. An evidence of early hominins in the Philippines about 709,000 years ago.

Kalinga comprises one component city and seven municipalities, all encompassed by a single legislative district.

Tabuk was proclaimed a component city in 2007, but in November 2008 the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that its cityhood was unconstitutional. However, Tabuk had its city status reinstated by the Supreme Court on December 22, 2009.[9]

Political divisions

Barangays[edit]

The seven municipalities and one component city of the province comprise 152 barangays, with Bulanao in Tabuk City as the most populous in 2010, and Anggacan Sur in Tanudan as the least. If the City of Tabuk is excluded, Pinukpuk Junction in Pinukpuk municipality has the highest population.[8]

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Kalinga (province)
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 17,660—    
1918 27,467+2.99%
1939 31,320+0.63%
1948 36,777+1.80%
1960 59,927+4.15%
1970 86,597+3.75%
1975 102,110+3.36%
1980 114,382+2.29%
1990 137,055+1.83%
1995 154,145+2.23%
2000 174,023+2.63%
2007 182,326+0.64%
2010 201,613+3.73%
2015 212,680+1.02%
2020 229,570+1.51%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority [10][11][12]
Population by ethnicity (2000)[13]
Ethnicity Number
Kalinga
111,774 (64.37%)
Ilocano
41,633 (23.98%)
Kankanaey
4,421 (2.55%)
Ibontoc
2,804 (1.61%)
Tagalog
2,227 (1.28%)
Applai
1,730 (1.00%)

Others
8,115 (4.67%)
Not Reported
930 (0.54%)
Other foreign ethnicity
(0.002%)

The population of Kalinga in the 2020 census was 229,570 people, [4] with a density of 71 inhabitants per square kilometre or 180 inhabitants per square mile.

On the 2000 census survey, Kalinga people comprised 64.37% (111,774) of the total provincial population of 173,638. Ilocanos came in second at 23.98% (41,633), while other ethnic groups in the province were the Kankanaey at 2.55% (4,421), Bontoc at 1.61% (2,804), Tagalog at 1.28% (2,227) and Applai at 1% (1,730).[13]

The primary language spoken is Kalinga, including its dialects of Balangao, Butbut, Limos, Lower Tanudan, Lubuagan, Mabaka, Madukayang, Southern Kalingan, and Upper Tanudan. Gaddang, as well as Ilocano, Tagalog, and English are also spoken in as lingua francas with varying degrees of proficiency.

Economy[edit]


Culture[edit]

107-year old Apo Whang Od, the embodiment of Kalinga tattoo artistry.
A student from Tinglayan, vested in traditional garb and holding a handcrafted weapon.

There are many sub-tribes in the province. The strong sense of tribal membership and filial loyalty results in frequent tribal unrest and occasional outright war. Due to the mountainous terrain and warrior-culture of the people, the Kalinga were able to preserve their culture despite centuries of occupation in the lowlands by the Spaniards, Americans, and the Japanese.

On February 22, 2019, the Department of Tourism announced the bid of Digdiga Ni Tupayya, a Kalinga courtship dance, to be included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.[21][22]

Historic figures[edit]

  • Macli-ing Dulag - a Kalinga warrior and leader (pangat) who opposed the Chico River Dam Project. Murdered by military personnel under the command of dictator Ferdinand Marcos. Dulag's death is remembered as one of the two occasions for the declaration of Cordillera Day in the entire Cordillera Administrative Region. His name has been inscribed in the heroes' marker in Quezon City.
  • Conrado Balweg - a former Filipino Catholic priest and rebel who was the founder of the Cordillera People's Liberation Army, a militant group which advocated autonomy for the Cordillera region in the Philippines. He was also known by the nom-de-guerre Ka Ambo.
  • Whang-od - a Kalinga master tattooist (mambabatok) and recipient of the prestigious Dangal ng Haraya Award.
  • Alonzo Saclag - Awarded as a National Living Treasure for his efforts to preserve the culture of Kalinga through performing arts.

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Ilocano: Probinsia ti Kalinga; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Kalinga)
  2. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  3. ^ "POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY REGION, PROVINCE, CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES, 2020-2025". www.doh.gov.ph. Department of Health. August 27, 2020. Archived from the original on May 14, 2021. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  4. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2020 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  5. ^ "History". Municipality of Lubuagan. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  6. ^ "Municipality of Lubuagan". Department of Interior and Local Government-Cordillera Administrative Region. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  7. ^ http://nlpdl.nlp.gov.ph:81/CC01/NLP00VM052mcd/v1/v27.pdf[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ a b c "Province: Kalinga (province)". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  9. ^ Pulta, Benjamin B. (23 December 2009). "SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities". The Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  10. ^ a b Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  11. ^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  12. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  13. ^ a b "Females Better Educated in Kalinga; Table 5. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Kalinga, 2000". Philippine Statistics Authority. 29 May 2002. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  14. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  15. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  16. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2009%20Poverty%20Statistics.pdf; publication date: 8 February 2011; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  17. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  18. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  19. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  20. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province_2015%20and%202018.xlsx; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  21. ^ Geminiano, Pamela Mariz (22 February 2019). "DOT eyes Kalinga courtship dance in UNESCO heritage list". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  22. ^ "DOT eyes Kalinga courtship dance in UNESCO heritage list". www.pna.gov.ph. Archived from the original on 2021-02-03. Retrieved 2021-04-03.

External links[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML