Kalinga (province)

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Kalinga
Province
Official seal of Kalinga
Seal
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 17°45′N 121°15′E / 17.75°N 121.25°E / 17.75; 121.25Coordinates: 17°45′N 121°15′E / 17.75°N 121.25°E / 17.75; 121.25
Country Philippines
Region Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
Founded February 14, 1995
Capital Tabuk
Government
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Jocel Baac (Liberal Party) (Sr. Felisa Pedro)
 • Congressman Manuel S. Agyao (Liberal Party)
 • Vice Governor Allen Jesse C. Mangaoang (Nacionalista Party)
Area[1]
 • Total 3,231.25 km2 (1,247.59 sq mi)
Area rank 44th out of 81
Elevation 2,329 m (7,641 ft)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 201,613
 • Rank 70th out of 81
 • Density 62/km2 (160/sq mi)
 • Density rank 78th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 1
 • Municipalities 7
 • Barangays 152
 • Districts Lone district of Kalinga
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 3800 to 3808
Dialing code 74
ISO 3166 code PH-KAL
Spoken languages Kalinga, Ilocano, Tagalog, English

Kalinga (Ilocano: Probinsya ti Kalinga and Filipino: Lalawigan ng Kalinga), Tagalog pronunciation: [kɐˈliŋɐ]) is a landlocked province in the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region of Luzon.

Its capital is Tabuk and borders Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north.

Kalinga and Apayao are the result of the 1995 partitioning of the former province of Kalinga-Apayao; which was seen as a way to better service the respective needs of the various indigenous peoples in the area.

Geography[edit]

The mountains of Kalinga in Lubuagan

The topography of Kalinga province is rugged and sloping, with mountain peaks ranging from 1,500 to 2,500 metres (4,900 to 8,200 ft) in elevation. The province’s western side is characterised by sharp, crested, interlinking peaks of steep slopes, isolated flatlands, plateaus and valleys. The eastern lands are mainly of rolling and gradually sloping foothills.

Large swaths of the province's lowlands are open grassland suitable for pasture, while the highlands have extensive areas of tropical rainforest. In higher elevations to the west, particularly in the mountains of Balbalan, lie some of the most intact pine forests of Luzon island. Rizal and Tabuk with their flatlands are the biggest rice producers. Next in rice production are the mountainous area, and of note are the rice terraces of Balbalan, Lubuagan, Pasil, Pinukpuk, Tinglayan, and Tanudan.

Climate[edit]

The province experiences an average temperature ranging from 17 to 22 °C (63 to 72 °F) with Type 3 weather patterns. The dry season extends from November to April, while the rest of the year is considered the rainy season, the heaviest rains usually occurring from July to October.

Hydrology[edit]

The Chico River passing through Tinglayan

The province is drained mainly by the Chico River, with its headwaters in the Mountain Province and emptying into the Cagayan River. The Chico River has several tributaries: Bunog River in Tinglayan in the south; the Tanudan and Biga Rivers in the east; Pasil River in the central area; and Poswoy, Dao-angan, Mabaca and Saltan Rivers in the west.

Several small lakes can also be found in Kalinga.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Kalinga is subdivided into one city and seven municipalities, all of which belong to a lone legislative district. Tabuk was proclaimed a component city in 2007, but in November 2008 the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that its cityhood was unconstitutional. However, Tabuk had its city status reinstated by the Supreme Court on December 22, 2009.[3]

City or
municipality
Area
(km²)[4]
Population
(2010)[4][5]
Density
(per km²)
No. of
barangays
ZIP
code
Income
class
(DOF)[4]
Coordinates

Balbalan 542.69 12,082 22.3 14 3801 3rd 17°26′24″N 121°12′02″E / 17.4400°N 121.2006°E / 17.4400; 121.2006 (Balbalan)
Lubuagan 234.2 9,369 40 9 3802 4th 17°21′04″N 121°10′30″E / 17.3510°N 121.1751°E / 17.3510; 121.1751 (Lubuagan)
Pasil 189 9,626 50.9 14 3803 5th 17°23′02″N 121°09′26″E / 17.3838°N 121.1572°E / 17.3838; 121.1572 (Pasil)
Pinukpuk 743.56 29,596 39.8 23 3806 1st 17°34′25″N 121°21′54″E / 17.5736°N 121.3651°E / 17.5736; 121.3651 (Pinukpuk)
Rizal (Liwan) 231 15,942 69 14 3808 4th 17°29′58″N 121°35′44″E / 17.4994°N 121.5956°E / 17.4994; 121.5956 (Rizal)
Tabuk 700.25 103,912 148.4 42 3800 5th 17°24′49″N 121°26′38″E / 17.4136°N 121.4440°E / 17.4136; 121.4440 (Tabuk)
Tanudan 307.55 8,529 27.7 16 3805 4th 17°17′35″N 121°14′20″E / 17.2930°N 121.2389°E / 17.2930; 121.2389 (Tanudan)
Tinglayan 283 12,557 44.4 20 3804 4th 17°15′50″N 121°08′56″E / 17.2640°N 121.1489°E / 17.2640; 121.1489 (Tinglayan)
 †  Provincial capital and component city      Municipality
  • Coordinates mark the city/town center vicinity, and are sorted according to latitude.
  • Income classifications for cities are italicized.
  • Italicized names indicate former names.
Kalinga Labelled Map.png

Barangays[edit]

The 7 municipalities and 1 city of the province comprise a total of 152 barangays, with Bulanao in Tabuk City as the most populous in 2010, and Anggacan Sur in Tanudan as the least. If cities are excluded, Pinukpuk Junction in Pinukpuk municipality has the highest population.[5][4]

Further information: List of barangays in Kalinga

Demographics[edit]

Population census of
Kalinga
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 137,055 —    
1995 154,145 +2.23%
2000 174,023 +2.63%
2007 182,326 +0.64%
2010 201,613 +3.73%
Source: National Statistics Office[2]

Based on the 2000 census survey, 64.4% of the population are Kalinga and Ilocanos are 24% of the province population. Other ethnic groups living in the province are the Kankana-ey 2.5%, Ibontoc 1.6%, Tagalog 1.3% and Applai 1%.[6]

The primary language spoken is Kalinga, including its dialects of Balangao, Butbut, Limos, Lower Tanudan, Lubuagan, Mabaka, Madukayang, Southern Kalingan, and Upper Tanudan. Gaddang, as well as Ilocano, Tagalog, and English are also spoken in the area as lingua francas with varying degrees of proficiency.

Culture[edit]

A student from Tinglayan, vested in traditional garb and holding a handcrafted weapon first produced during the Second World War; traditional Kalinga cloth is draped over Orthodox icons in the manner of Russian nabozhnyks.

There are many sub-tribes in the province. The strong sense of tribal membership and filial loyalty results in frequent tribal unrest and occasional outright war. Due to the mountainous terrain and warrior-culture of the people, the Kalinga were able to preserve their culture despite centuries of occupation in the lowlands by the Spaniards, Americans, and the Japanese. Unbeknownst to many, the last stand of President Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901 took place in Lubuagan, which he proclaimed the seat of government,[citation needed] and where the Aguinaldo Museum commemorates the event.

The Kalinga people are highlanders and the most extensive rice farmers of the Cordillera peoples, having been blessed with some of the most suitable land for both wet and dry rice farming. Like the Ifugao, the Kalinga are prolific terrace builders. The Kalinga are also skilled craftsmen, well-versed in basketry, loom weaving, metalsmithing, and pottery, the last centred in the lower Chico River Valley.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  3. ^ SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities
  4. ^ a b c d "Province: Kalinga". Philippine Statistics Authority - National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "2010 Census of Population and Housing: Population Counts - Cordillera Administrative Region" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Philippines), April 4, 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  6. ^ http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2002/pr0259tx.html

External links[edit]