Kalmia angustifolia

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Sheep-laurel
Kalmia angustifolia Rubra.jpg
Scientific classification
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K. angustifolia
Binomial name
Kalmia angustifolia

Kalmia angustifolia is a flowering shrub in the family Ericaceae, commonly known as sheep laurel. It is distributed in eastern North America from Ontario and Quebec south to Virginia.[1] It grows commonly in dry habitats in the boreal forest, and may become dominant over large areas after fire or logging.[2] Like many plant species of infertile habitats it has evergreen leaves and mycorrhizal associations with fungi.[3] It is also found in drier area of peat bogs.

Description[edit]

The attractive small, deep crimson-pink flowers are produced in early summer. Each has five sepals, with a corolla of five fused petals, and ten stamens fused to the corolla. They are pollinated by bumble bees and solitary bees. Each mature capsule contains about 180 seeds.[4]

In the wild the plant may vary in height from 15–90 cm (6–35 in). New shoots arise from dormant buds on buried rhizomes. This process is stimulated by fire.[4] The narrow evergreen leaves, pale on the underside, have a tendency to emerge from the stem in groups of three. The Latin specific epithet angustifolia means "narrow-leaved".[5] A peculiarity of the plant is that clusters of leaves usually terminate the woody stem, for the flowers grow in whorls or in clusters below the stem apex.[6]

Cultivation[edit]

Kalmia angustifolia is cultivated as an ornamental garden shrub. It prefers a moist, acidic soil in partial shade. Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use, of which K. angustifolia f. rubra,[7] with rich red flowers, has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[8]

Toxicity[edit]

Kalmia angustifolia is poisonous to mammals

Kalmia contains a glycoside, known as andromedotoxin.[9] It is poisonous to mammals. Hence, it can be unwelcome in pastures.[10] Several of its folk-names testify to the plant's toxicity: 'lamb-kill', 'sheep kill', 'calf-kill', 'pig laurel', 'sheep-laurel' and 'sheep-poison'.[11] It is also known as narrow-leaved laurel and dwarf laurel.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=kaan
  2. ^ Weetman, G. F. 1983. Forestry practices and stress on Canadian forest land. pp. 260–301. In W. Simpson-Lewis, R. McKechnie, and V. Neimanis (eds.) Stress on Land in Canada. Ottawa: Lands Directorate, Environment Canada.
  3. ^ Keddy, P.A. 2007. Plants and Vegetation: Origins, Processes, Consequences.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 666 p.
  4. ^ a b Hall, I. V., Jackson, L. P. and Everett, C. F. 1973. The biology of Canadian weeds. 1. Kalmia angustifolia L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 53: 865–873.
  5. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 184533731X.
  6. ^ Blanchan, Neltje. 1917. Wild Flowers Worth Knowing Doubleday, New York.Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Kalmia angustifolia f. rubra". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  8. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 57. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  9. ^ "Kalmia angustifolia, K. carolina". plants.ces.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2019-02-01.
  10. ^ "Kalmia angustifolia". www.fs.fed.us. Retrieved 2019-02-01.
  11. ^ a b "Kalmia angustifolia". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 24 December 2017.