Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR), (Russian: Калмыцкая Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика; Kalmyk: Хальмг Автономн Советск Социалистическ РеспубликXal′mg Avtonomn Sovetsk Soscialističesk Respublik) was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian SFSR that existed at two periods of time. Its administrative center was Elista.
The Kalmyk ASSR was re-established when the newly formed Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast (re-established following the rehabilitation of the Kalmyks in January 1957) had its status increased on 29 July 1958. On 18 October 1990, the declaration of the sovereignty and transformation of Kalmykia into a Soviet Socialist Republic by the Kalmyk Supreme Soviet was accepted by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian SFSR on 24 May 1991. It existed until 31 March 1992, when its status was changed to a republic within the Russian Federation.