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METSAT Kalpana-1 deployed view.png
Kalpana-1 Deployed
Mission typeWeather
COSPAR ID2002-043A
SATCAT no.27525Edit this on Wikidata
WebsiteKalpana-1 on ISRO Web-site
Mission duration7 years[1]
Spacecraft properties
BusI-1000 Bus [2]
ManufacturerISRO Satellite Center
Space Applications Centre
Launch mass1,060 kilograms (2,340 lb)
Dry mass498 kilograms (1,098 lb)
Power550 watts
Start of mission
Launch date12 September 2002, 10:24:00 (2002-09-12UTC10:24Z) UTC[3]
Launch siteSHAR, Satish Dhawan FLP
End of mission
Deactivatedmid 2018
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
Longitude74° East
Perigee altitude35,771 kilometres (22,227 mi)
Apogee altitude35,801 kilometres (22,246 mi)
Inclination0.48 degrees
Period1436.06 minutes
Epoch25 September 2002[4]

Kalpana-1 was the first dedicated meteorological satellite launched by Indian Space Research Organisation using Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle on 2002-09-12. The satellite is three-axis stabilized and is powered by solar panels, getting up to 550 watts of power. The METSAT bus was used as the basis for the Chandrayaan lunar orbiter mission of 2008.


Originally known as MetSat-1, the satellite was the first launched by the PSLV-C4 into the Geostationary orbit. On February 5, 2003 it was renamed to Kalpana-1 by the Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in memory of Kalpana Chawla—a NASA astronaut who perished in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.

The satellite features a Very High Resolution scanning Radiometer (VHRR), for three-band images (visible, infrared, and thermal infrared) with a resolution of 2 x 2 km, and a Data Relay Transponder (DRT) payload to provide data to weather terrestrial platforms.[3] Its mission is to collect data in layer of clouds, water vapor, and temperature of the atmosphere.

Kalpana-1 went out of service in mid 2018.[5]

VHRR scanning radiometer[edit]

The three band images are:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Kalpana - 1". www.isro.gov.in. ISRO.
  2. ^ "ISAC_website". Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  3. ^ a b "Geostationary Satellites - Kalpana-1(METSAT)". Indian Space Research Organization. 2009. Archived from the original (aspx) on 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
  4. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Kalpana-1". 12 July 2018.
  6. ^ "Kalpana 1". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Nasa.