Калужская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Established||July 5, 1944|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|• Governor||Anatoly Artamonov|
|• Legislature||Legislative Assembly|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|• Total||29,800 km2 (11,500 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Density||33.92/km2 (87.9/sq mi)|
|Population (January 2013 est.)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
Established in 1944, Kaluga Oblast is located in the heart of the European part of Russia. It has well-developed transportation and utility infrastructure. The oblast has been demonstrating high economic growth rates, has substantial human reserves, and is one of the largest cultural, educational and scientific centers of Russia.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Administrative and municipal divisions
- 5 Economy
- 5.1 Industry
- 5.2 Investments
- 5.3 Development institutions
- 5.4 Energy
- 5.5 Agriculture
- 5.6 Transportation
- 5.7 Telecommunications
- 6 Science, education, and culture
- 7 Culture
- 8 Politics
- 9 Notable people
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
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Kaluga Oblast lies in the central part of the East European Plain. The oblast's territory is located between the Central Russian Upland (with and average elevation of above 200 m and a maximum elevation of 275 m in the southeast), the Smolensk–Moscow Upland and the Dnepr-Desna province. Most of the oblast is occupied by plains, fields and forests with diverse flora and fauna. The administrative center is located on the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The western part of the oblast - located within the drift plain - is dominated by the Spas-Demensk ridge. To the south of it is an outwash plain that is part of the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, with average elevation up to 200 m.
From north to south, Kaluga Oblast extends for more than 220 km, from 53°30' to 55°30' northern altitude, and east to west – for 220 km. Its area is 29,800 km².
The oblast's territory is crossed by major international motor and railways, linking Kaluga with Moscow, Bryansk, Kiev, Lvov and Warsaw.
Kaluga Oblast borders on:
- Bryansk Oblast to the west
- Oryol Oblast to the south-west
- Tula Oblast to the south-east
- Moscow Oblast to the east
- Smolensk Oblast to the north
- the federal city of Moscow (from July 1, 2012)
Terrain, geological structure, and mineral resources
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Kaluga Oblast's modern terrain replicates pre-glacial terrain: undulating, with river valleys, ravines and hollows. Some glacial lakes have been preserved, like the oblast's deepest lake – the Bezdon.
The oblast is located between the Central Russian upland and the Smolensk-Moscow upland. There are both low plains elevating to 200 m above sea level, and high plains rising above 200 m. The southeastern part of the oblast is occupied by the Central Russian upland, and extreme northwest – by the Spas-Demensk ridge. The uplands are separated by the Yugorsk-Protvino lowland. In the extreme southwest, the oblast is covered by Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, and in the central part – by the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The highest point of the oblast is located on the Spas-Demensk ridge at 279 m (Zaitseva mountain), and the lowest – in the valley of the Oka (120 m above sea level). Thus the amplitude of the terrain is 160 m.
Kaluga Oblast is situated in the central part of the East European Platform. The depth of the top (aqueous) structural stage is 400–500 m in the south and up to 1000–1400 m in the north. Most of the sedimentary sheath was formed by Devonian deposits. Their share in the south exceeds 80% of the entire aqueous depth (including quaternary formations). There are four geo-economic districts in Kaluga Oblast: North-East, Central, South and North-West.
The specific value of Kaluga Oblast's deposits is over RUR 8 million per m2. 550 solid mineral deposits with 19 types of mineral resources, 131 fresh and 13 mineral subsoil water sources have been discovered in the oblast's territory.
The range of the oblast's mineral resources includes phosphates, brown coal, mineral pigments, plaster stone, building stone, construction chalk, carbonate rock for soil liming and pulp and paper production, fire clay and high-melting clay, low-melting clay for brick and clay aggregate production, tripolite for manufacturing of whitening soil and thermolith gravel, clay for drilling fluids, sand and gravel mixtures, glassmaking and molding sand, construction and silicate sand, black dirt, putrid ooze and mineral water.
There are 24 deposits with industrial reserves of clay exceeding over 220 million m3, 14 of which are currently[update] in intensive development. The Ulyanovo deposit of fire and ceramic clays is one of the biggest in Russia, and one that has not yet been developed industrially. It accounts for 16.2% of all high-melting clay reserves in the Central Federal District. Such clay is used in manufacturing of fire-resistant products applied in metallurgy, cement, glass and other industries, where production processes are associated with high temperatures. Given consistent development of construction in the Central Federal District, the demand for clay from the Ulyanovo deposit will reach 600,000-700,000 tons per year. The Ulyanovo deposit has every potential to become the principal resource base of construction and refractory companies well beyond Kaluga Oblast.
Combined balance reserves of brown coal in the Moscow lignite basin deposits amount to 1,240 million tons, including: Vorotynskoye (410 million tons), North Ageyevskoye (151 million tons), Seredeyskoye (150 million tons), Studenovskoye (103 million tons). Although the quality of the coal is not high, it is of interest due to its proximity to major consumers. Balance reserves of black dirt are around 24 million tons.
The oblast's mineral-resource potential is sufficient to meet the demands for the principal types of non-metallic resources (construction stone, sand and gravel, construction and silicate sand, low-melting clay and loam soil for brick and clay aggregate manufacturing). In 2013, Kaluga Oblast had 109 acting licenses for construction material extraction.
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The climate of Kaluga Oblast is moderately continental with distinct seasons: warm and humid summers, and cold winters with stable snow-cover. The average temperature in July is +18 °C (64 °F) in north and +20 °C (68 °F) in south, and in January −11 °C (12 °F) in northeast and −8 °C (18 °F) in southwest. The duration of the warm period (with the average temperatures above zero) is 215–220 days. The territory of the oblast is exposed to a substantial amount of solar radiation— around 115 Kcal per cm². The average annual air temperature varies from 3.5 - 4.0 °C in the north and the north-east to up to 4.0 - 4.6 °C in the west and the east of the oblast. The duration of the frost-free season is 113 to 127 days. The northern part of the oblast is the coldest, while the central part is moderately cold. In the south, in the zone of forest steppes, the climate is relatively warm. The precipitation rates in Kaluga Oblast are rather high. The precipitation is distributed unevenly in the territory of the oblast, varying from 780 to 826 mm in the north and the west and up to 690 – 760 mm in the south. The climate of the oblast is characterized by frequent spring frosts as well as alternation of hot dry and cold humid summers, which makes agricultural production in this oblast risky. There are six meteorological stations of the Russian Meteorological Service operating in the oblast (the current meteorological data).
There are 2,043 rivers in the oblast with a total length of 11,670 km, of which 280 rivers have a length of over 10 km with a total length of 7,455 km. There are 1,763 rivers and small streams that have a length of less than 10 km. Their total length is 4,215 km. The average density of the river network is 0.35 km/km². The Oka is the main river in the oblast river system. There are also other large rivers in the oblast, including the Ugra, the Zhizdra, the Protva, the Vorya, the Ressa, the Shanya, and the Yachenka. There are nineteen water reservoirs in the oblast with a water-storage capacity of over 1 mln m³ each. The total water-storage capacity of the water reservoirs is around 87 mln m³.
The total area of the oblast occupied by marshes is less than 1%. The marshes are concentrated mainly in the north and west of the oblast.
The predominant soils in the oblast are sod-podzolic (around 75.6%). Telopodzol soils are predominant at the watersheds. Criptopodzol soils predominate in the northern part of the territory in the east and south-east of the oblast, and alluvial soils are predominant in the plain floods. Sod-podzolic gleyed soils are predominant in the south. Gray and light gray soils (occupying an area of 12.4%) are predominant in the central and eastern parts of the oblast.
The total area occupied by forests is around 1,380,000 ha (46% of the territory of the oblast) (2006). The total reserves of timber are 228.3 mln m³, most of which are birches and aspens. Protective forests occupy an area of 585,300 ha (44%), and merchantable forests occupy an area of 808,800 ha (56%). Forty four percent of the oblast territory is covered by forests. The total forest cutting area in 2007 was 2,507,800 m³, including 300,500 m³ of pines, 42,000 m³ of hard-leafed trees, 2,168.3 m³ of soft-leafed trees (including 1,072,700 m³ of birch trees). The actual volume of trees cut in 2005 was 379,200 m³ (17% of the forest cutting area), including 133,400 m³ of conifers (55.6% of the forest cutting area). There are vast expanses of broad-leafed tree forests in the southeast of the oblast — the Оrlovsko-Kaluzhsky Forest.
As of the beginning of 2005, agricultural lands occupied an area of 1,350,000 ha (44% of the territory), of which tillage lands comprise 32%, and forage lands 12% of the total land area of the oblast. The main crops grown include forage cereals, potatoes, vegetables, and feed grains (wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat), and fiber-flax.
The area covered by marshes is relatively small—around 0.5% of the total territory, and there are fewer marshes in the east as compared to the western part of the oblast.
Over two centuries of research, several thousands of species of invertebrate animals and 396 vertebrates were discovered in Kaluga Oblast. 132 vertebrate species are included in Kaluga Oblast's Red Book of endangered species, including 36 from the current list of protected species of the Russian Federation.
The oblast's territory is inhabited by 68 species of mammals. These include typical forest animals: brown bear, lynx, elk, wolf, polar hare, and squirrel. There are also species more typical for prairies: hamsters, great jerboa, spotted prairie dog and the bobac marmot. In recent decades, hunting-estate employees have been dispersing small-population species. Among them are the Russian muskrat, beaver, boar, and roe – all of them adapted very well and increased populations. There were also efforts to acclimatize species that previously did not inhabit the oblast: the raccoon dog, beaver rat, the red deer and the sika deer, which quickly achieved game populations. The south of the oblast is sometimes visited by bison that were recently released into the Orlovskoye Polesye national park.
The oblast's aquatic fauna includes two kinds of lamprey and 41 species of bony fish. The diversity of fish is explained by the variety of habitats. Thus the Oka basin is inhabited by brook lamprey, and the Desna and its tributaries – by the Ukrainian lamprey. Stagnant pools are home to crucian and gold carp, tench and many other fish varieties. Pond estates breed mirror carp, silver carp, grass carp and, sometimes, peled. Of the commercially valuable fish, bream predominate. Rare varieties include starlet, riffle minnow, and slimy sculpin that are included in Russia's Red Book of Endangered Species.
Among 11 kinds of amphibians, the most common are crested and common newts, red-bellied, common and green toads, and various lake, pool, moor and grass frogs. Reptiles are represented by 7 species, including snakes: the venomous adder and the harmless water snake and smooth snake. Lizards are quite common - sand lizards and deaf adders that do not have limbs and are often mistaken for snakes.
There are 267 kinds of birds registered as visiting the oblast, including 177 to nest, 58 to migrate and 32 to occasionally transit. The number of bird species staying for the winter has increased to 93, which is due to anthropogenic landscape transformations. The most significant bird-of-prey habitats are located in the Kaluzhskiye Zaseki reserve and the interfluve of the Bytebet and the Resseta. The largest populations are: waterfowl - mallard; semi-aquatic – black-headed gull; in forest– chaffinch, chiffchaff; along river banks – sand martin; in settlements – rock pigeon, common swift, rook, tree sparrow.
Forests cover 45% of Kaluga Oblast. Combined reserves of timber are 269 million m3, of which 30% are coniferous species, and 67% - soft-wooded broadleaved species.
According to data for 2013, the annual allowable cutting rate was 3,136,900 m3. It is currently utilized to 30%. The annual stand increment is 4,8 million m3.
The oblast's forest zone has two subzones: combined coniferous and broadleaved, and broadleaved forests. The combined subzone is dominated by various types of spruce forests. The tree layer in such forests is formed by the Norway spruce mixed with pine, birch, aspen, basswood and common oak. Primary broadleaved forests occupy a small area in the interfluve between the Vytebet, the Zhizdra and the Oka. Here, the edificatory species are common oak, tillet, taller ash, and elm trees. Unlike the coniferous forests, these are polydominant ones, with 7 to 8 layers. Usually there is birch and aspen in the second layer, with lowland maple, crab apple and field-ash in the third layer. There is also a well-developed layer of shrub. Herbage is dominated by prevernal ephemeroids and perennials.
The oblast's extrazonal flora is represented by pine and small-leaved forests, swamps and meadows. The common pine forms forests on sandbanks of ancient alluvial flats, sand terraces of river valleys, stagnant peaty soil. There are also white and green moss pinewoods, sphagnous and complex pinewoods. The tree layer in small-leaved and derivative mixed forests is formed by weeping and white birch, aspen, goat willow, spruce, pine and oak trees.
There are two types of meadows - floodplains and dry meadows.
Swamps are distributed unevenly. The greatest concentration is in the north-west and west (the Ugra basin), and in the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands.
Conservation and ecological condition
According to the governmental report “On the Status of the Environment and Its Conservation in the Russian Federation” published by the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Kaluga Oblast is one of the most ecologically pure regions of the Central Federal District. In 2012, by the condition of its atmosphere, Kaluga was a top ten among 85 Russian cities.
In Kaluga Oblast, environmental assessment, regulation, licensing and control in the sphere of environmental protection are handled by several authorized governmental agencies. In 2008 the oblast established a territorial system for environmental monitoring (TSM).
In 2013 the investment council supervised by the Governor of Kaluga Oblast passed a resolution on the creation of an Ecotechnopark. The park will be designed with the use of the best technologies, ensuring its sanitary and environmental safety. Priorities include protection of surface and subterranean waters from contamination, storage and recycling of industrial and household waste, radiation security, and reduction of air pollution.
Kaluga Oblast's share in combined air and water polluting emissions in the Central Federal District is insignificant. By level of screening and decontamination of harmful substances, the oblast is in the third place after Bryansk and Belgorod Oblasts. Most of the harmful atmospheric emissions are generated by Kaluga, Kirov, Obninsk, Lyudinovo, and by Dzerzhinsky District.
The accident in Chernobyl resulted in radioactive contamination in the oblast's south and southwest. Radiation monitoring is conducted in nine districts. The radiation background complies with the established radiation situation. The oblast has many stations for the collection, storage, removal and processing of ferrous and non-ferrous metal scrap, glass and paper.
The oblast's plants implement waste-free technologies. Primary sorting of waste is performed by Polygon, a small enterprise in Obninsk, and by others.
There are several successful eco-settlements in Kaluga Oblast, the nature reserve Kaluzhskiye Zaseki, the Ugra National Park, the Tarusa natural reserve, and the Kaluzhski Bor natural sanctuary.
The territory of Kaluga Oblast has been inhabited since ancient times. The oldest human sites discovered by archeologists date back to the Mesolithic period (10,000–6,000 BC). The first mentions of Kaluga’s towns are associated with events in the 12th century, specifically, the feudal war between the Olegovichi and the Monomakhovichi (Kozelsk - 1146, Serensk - 1147, Vorotynsk -1155, Mosalsk - 1231).
In the 14th century, Kaluga lands were the place for constant confrontations between Lithuania and Moscow. In 1371, Olgerd, grand duke of Lithuania, wrote to Philotheos, patriarch of Constantinople, to complain about Alexei, metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia, who seized some of his cities, including Kaluga, which in that letter is mentioned for the first time. Traditionally, it is considered that Kaluga was established as a frontier to protect the Moscow principality from Lithuania’s attacks.
In 1480-1481, Kaluga's territory was the place of an event bearing high significance for Russian history – the great stand on the Ugra river, resulting in the liberation of Russian lands from the Tatar Yoke and Moscow's transformation into a sovereign state.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, with active development of trade and crafts, Kaluga became more than a military outpost. Sources indicate that the rich city was advanced in the arts of wood carving and jewelry. After the reunification of Russia and the Ukraine in 1654, Kaluga's role as a trade intermediary between Moscow and the Ukraine contributed even more to its economic development.
On August 24, 1776, Catherine II issued a decree establishing Kaluga Viceroyalty to unite Kaluga and Tula Governorates. The center of the viceroyalty acquired a new image, and even today Kaluga’s planning and development is considered a brilliant achievement of Russian urbanism of late 18th and early 19th centuries. During the rule of Paul I, in 1795 Kaluga Viceroyalty was transformed into a governorate.
The end of the 18th century and the first three decades of the 19th century were a period of economic stability. Kaluga continued to act as an intermediary, trading with Moscow, Petersburg, Ukraine, Siberia, Poland and German cities.
During the Great Patriotic War, the territory was liberated from German occupation by the Soviet Army's 10th, 16th, 33rd, 43rd, 49th, 50th, and 61st Armies, the 20th Tank Brigade, 1st Air Army, 1st Cavalry Corps, and the Normandy squadron.
The modern oblast was founded in accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 5, 1944. Kaluga Oblast included the following cities and districts: the city of Kaluga, Babyninsky, Detchinsky, Dugninsky, Kaluzhsky, Peremyshlsky, and Tarussky Districts (formerly part of Tula Oblast); Borovsky, Vysokinichsky, Maloyaroslavetsky, and Ugodsko-Zavodsky Districts (formerly a part of Moscow Oblast); Baryatinsky, Dzerzhinsky, Duminichsky, Iznoskovsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Kuybyshevsky, Medynsky, Meshchovsky, Mosalsky, Spas-Demensky, Sukhinichsky, and Yukhnovsky Districts (formerly a part of Smolensk Oblast); and Zhizdrinsky, Lyudinovsky, Ulyanovsky, and Khvastovichsky Districts (formerly a part of Oryol Oblast).
After the dissolution of the USSR, Kaluga Oblast became a federal subject of the Russian Federation. On March 27, 1996, the Charter of Kaluga Oblast was adopted.
2009 - 1.41 | 2010 - 1.48 | 2011 - 1.49 | 2012 - 1.62 | 2013 - 1.64 | 2014 - 1.69 | 2015 - 1.84(e)
According to the results of the 2010 Census, the population of the oblast is 1,010,930; down from 1,041,641 recorded in the 2002 Census, and further down from 1,066,833 recorded in the 1989 Census.
|Ethnic Groups||Number in 2010|
|Only those ethnic groups whose total number exceeds 1,000 people are included in this table|
- 77,292 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
As of a 2012 official survey 48.6% of the population of Kaluga Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 7% declare to be generically unaffiliated or nondenominational Christians (excluding such-defined Protestant churches), 2% of the population are adherents of the Slavic native faith movement (Rodnovery), 2% are Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to church or belong to other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches, less than 1% of the population are Muslims, 5.4% follow other religion or did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 26% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 9% to be atheist.
Kaluga Oblast is an important centre of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) movement, being the headquarters of the Union of Slavic Native Faith (Rodnover) Communities (Союз Славянских Общин Славянской Родной Веры) located in Kaluga city. The region has many temples dedicated to the Slavic gods.
Administrative and municipal divisions
Within the framework of municipal divisions, the territories of the administrative districts are incorporated into twenty-four municipal districts and the territories of the two cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban okrugs. Two other cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban settlements within corresponding municipal districts.
Kaluga Region is one of the most economically advanced territories of the Russian Federation. The region is among leaders by industrial growth, investments per capita, growth of real income and level of annually introduced advanced technologies. Such growth is based on high quality of governance, an effective investment policy and a professionally structured program for support of traditional production companies. Industrial parks and special industrial economic zone “Kaluga” offer investors tax benefits and support from regional development institutions, creating an attractive climate for all types of businesses. Major international corporations implementing projects in the region include Volkswagen, Volvo, Peugeot, Citroen, Mitsubishi, GE, Samsung, Continental, Berlin-Chemie/Menarini, Novo Nordisk, STADA CIS, etc. There is active development in traditional economic segments, as well, represented by manufacturers of turbo generators and gas turbine engines, railway equipment, building materials, electronics, optical systems and much more. New high tech companies conduct research and development in a variety of spheres spanning from nuclear technologies, aeronautics and cosmonautics to nano mechanics and water treatment. Kaluga Region’s results for 2015:
- 2nd place in the national investment climate rating. 1st place in the “Support of Small and Medium Businesses” category.
- 1st place in the Central Federal District and 2nd place in the Russian Federation by manufacturing output per capita.
- 1st place in the Central Federal District and 12th place in the Russian Federation by industrial output per capita.
- 1st place in the Russian Federation by birth rate. 2015 showed the highest birth rate in 26 recent years.
- 4th place in the Central Federal District and 9th place in the Russian Federation by residential construction per capita.
- 2nd place in the Central Federal District and 16th place in the Russian Federation by volume of construction services per capita.
- 1st place in the category “Best Event Tourism Location – Natural Recreation Areas” granted to Nikola-Lenivets landscape park (Russian Event Awards).
- 1st place in the category “Best Regional Tourism Information Center” granted to Kaluga Krai regional tourism information center (Russian Event Awards).
Total industrial investments recruited in 2006-2015 – 452.8 billion rubles (investment contracts). Over the same period, 86 new companies were created in the region, including 9 new production facilities in 2015 alone. There is a total of 155 investment projects being implemented in the region, including 18 that joined the region’s investment portfolio in 2015.
The economic policy being pursued in Kaluga Region changed the structure of its industrial complex and created conditions for development of high tech production companies. There are 2,747 different enterprises in the region that generate about 40% of gross regional product (GRP) and more than half of tax payments to the regional budget. Almost a third of the region’s residents are employed in industry. The traditional foundation of the region’s industry is the automotive complex. From 2006, the volume of Kaluga Region’s industrial output increased by 2.5 times. 129.9 % — growth in output of rubber and plastic products; 121.2 % — growth of output on non-metal mineral products; 107.6 % — growth of output of pharmaceuticals; 109 % — growth of output of food products, including beverages and tobacco; 114.3 % — growth of metallurgical output.
Industrial Production Growth Dynamics (RUR billion)
2006 — 78.2
2007 — 100.2
2008 — 162.9
2009 — 173.3
2010 — 275.5
2011 — 372.5
2012 — 438.8
2013 — 470.4
2014 — 478.1
2015 — 496.3
Machine-building and metalworking
Mechanical engineering and metal processing form the foundation of Kaluga Region’s industrial manufacturing. Kaluga Region’s machine building complex is characterized by broad variety of its manufactured products:
- cars and trucks (Volkswagen Group Rus LLC, PCMA Rus LLC, Volvo Vostok JSC);
- automotive electronic equipment (KZAE JSC, Autoelektronika JSC, Continental Automotive Systems Rus LLC);
- reinforcing bars, angle plates, channel bars (NLMK Kaluga LLC);
- turbines and turbo generators (Kaluga Turbine Plant JSC);
- gas turbine engines and two-wheel tractors (KADVI JSC);
- television sets and domestic washing machines (Samsung Electronics Rus Kaluga LLC);
- radio electronics and telecom switching equipment, special communications equipment (Kalugapribor JS, KEMZ JSC, KNIITMU JSC);
- military industrial equipment (Typhoon JSC, Technologiya ORPE, KNIRTI JSC, KZTA JSC);
- vacuum tubes and quantum technical equipment (Vockhod KRLZ JSC);
- instruments and equipment for nuclear power plants and radiochemical manufacturing (Signal Instrumental Plant JSC);
- locomotives, machines and power hand tools for retairs and maintenance of rail tracks (Lyudinovo Locomotive Plant JSC,Kalugaremputmash JSC, Remputmash Kaluga Plant JSC, Kalugatransmash JSC);
- measuring instruments (Prompribor NPO JSC, Metra NPP LLC);
- cooker hoods (Elmat JSC);
- steel tubing, aluminum sections, greenhouses (Agrisovgaz LLC);
- metal structures and sandwich panel buildings (Ruukki Rus LLC);
- cast iron, cast steel and non-ferrous casting products (Krontif Center JSC, Kirov Plant JSC, Speclit JSC);
- cable products (Lyudinovokabel Plant JSC, Transvok JSC).
One of the high potential sectors in industrial development of Kaluga Region is the chemical industry and, specifically, pharmaceutics. In the national “Strategy for Development of the Pharmaceutical Industry of the Russian Federation in the Period up to 2020”, Kaluga Region is identified as one of the constituent subjects where the combination of scientific, educational and manufacturing facilities is most efficient for development of the pharmaceutical segment. Kaluga Region is forming its pharmaceutical cluster on the basis of enterprises specializing in development of scientific ideas and introduction of new technologies. The cluster currently has 62 participants. The region cooperates with major international pharmaceutical corporations. Scientific research is concentrated in Obninsk - the first Russian science-city.
Manufacture of Finished Dosage Forms:
- Hemofarm (STADA Group, Germany) has been operating in Kaluga Region since 2007, and was the first Russian company to start exporting medical products not only to Europe, but also to USA;
- Berlin-Chemie/Menarini, Menarini Group (Italy);
- Novo Nordisk (Denmark);
- Nearmedic PHARMA (Russia);
- Astra Zeneca (Sweden-UK). Experimental manufacturing of pharmaceutical substances and development of technologies for biopharmaceutics:
- BION LLC chemical and pharmaceutical company;
- Medbiopharm NPK LLC;
- MIR-PHARM JSC. Sterilization of pharmaceutical substances and final dosage forms, pharmaceutical waste from companies of the Kaluga biopharmaceutical cluster;
- Omitex NPP LLC.
- Nestle Russia LLC;
- Moscow Efes Brewery JSC (before 01.10.2013 — SABMiller Rus JSC);
- SABMiller Rus ZAO;
- Obninsk Meat Processing Plant JSC;
- Invest Alliance LLC;
- Zuegg Russia LLCО;
- Obninsk Dairy Plant — branch of Wimm-Bill-Dann JSC;
- MosMedynAgroprom JSC — manufacturer of dairy products;
- Agro-Invest LLC – all year vegetable production;
- F-TROUT LLC – salmon farm;
- EcoNiva APK Holding LLC – dairy and beef cattle breeding, crop farming, professional seed breeding;
- Verniy Put LLC – mushroom farm.
Consumer goods manufacturers in Kaluga region include about 250 companies and organizations of various ownership, including 11 large and medium-sized companies. The following large companies operate in the key sectors of the consumer goods manufacture:
- Ermolino OJSC, textiles;
- Runo OJSC, textiles;
- Sukhinichi Clothing Factory, clothing;
- Ludinovo Clothing Factory LLC, clothing;
- Yukhnovo Clothing Factory LLC, clothing;
- KALITA OJSC, shoes;
- Kaluga Shoes LLC;
- Forio LLC, shoes.
In its efforts to diversify the regional economy the government of Kaluga region focuses on the development of various industries. Nowadays companies in Kaluga region manufacture paper, cardboard package, chipboards and wood fiberboards, board packets, bricks, sanitary stoneware, reinforced concrete structures, resins and plastics, pipes, profiles, etc. As regards the region’s industrial development, the key goal of the government of Kaluga region is to improve the investment and business environment in Kaluga region. The regional economic policy aimed to improve the performance of local industrial companies, the quality of their products and their competitive advantages is implemented by the Department of Industry, Transport and Communication of the regional Ministry of Economic Development.
Kaluga Region is among the leaders by volume of foreign investments. The region has adopted an effective strategy for investment development and has created an attractive investment climate. Key points of its investment strategy include establishment of production plants within industrial parks and the special economic zone, low investment risks, tax benefits and legally formalized administrative support from regional authorities and dedicated development institutions (Kaluga Region Development Corporation, Agency for Regional Development, Agency for Innovative Development and Industrial Logistics).
The main product that the region offers to investors is the possibility to establish their facilities in 12 industrial parks or one of the two sites of its special economic zone. A-Park and B-Park projects provide brownfields. Overall, there are 155 active investment projects currently in the region .
Nine production plants were launched in 2015.
|Company||Launch date||Field of operation|
|Rosva Industrial Park|
|Rosva Biotechnological Complex JSC||June||advanced wheat processing|
|Kaluga Special Economic Zone (Lyudinovo site)|
|Agro-Invest LLC||October||all year vegetable production|
|Grabtsevo Industrial Park|
|Novo Nordisk Production Support LLC||April||insulin manufacturing|
|Volkswagen Group Rus LLC||September||engine manufacturing|
|Vorsino Industrial Park|
|Omega Lease Kaluga LLC||March||second stage of production and logistics complex|
|AstraZeneca Industries LLC||October||medicinal product manufacturing|
|Triada-Impex JSC||December||manufacturing of specialized mixtures for construction|
|Obninsk Industrial Park|
|NEARMEDIC PHARMA LLC||June||medicinal product manufacturing|
|CMK LLC (Cellino S.R.L.)||April||automotive component manufacturing|
More results for 2015:
1.1800 new jobs created.
2.Actual amount invested under investment projects in 2015 (estimate) – around 40 billion rubles.
3.61 investment projects in negotiation portfolio.
4.Eight protocols of intent signed; 18 new investment projects included in the register of Kaluga Region’s investment projects.
5.Three industrial parks (Grabtsevo, Rosva, Kaluga-South) have passed review and will be certified in 2016 in accordance with Russian Government Regulation No.794.
6.Kaluga special economic zone was expanded by allocation of sites in Borovsk Districts (in cooperation with SEZ JSC).
7.Three investors (EcoDSK Lyudinovo LLC, Vodostop LLC, Krasin Pencil Factory LLC) have passed the review of the expert council of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development and were granted the official status of special economic zone residents. Implementation of these projects will begin in 2016.
8.New industrial park Meschovsk with an area of 58 hectares created in Meschovsk District.
Kaluga Region has a number of rapidly developing clusters: automotive, pharmaceutical, transport and logistics, agricultural and IT.
In 2007-2015, Kaluga Region based automotive manufacturers produced more than 1,146 thousand automobiles, including 1,127 thousand passenger cars and 19,4 thousand trucks. The share of automotive companies in overall industrial output of Kaluga Region in 2015 was over 33.1 %.
3 OEM plants:Volkswagen, PCMA RUS, Volvo
Volkswagen. In February 2016, Volkswagen Group Rus produced its millionth car, a special edition Allstar Volkswagen Polo painted an exclusive Copper Orange, with a locally manufactured 1.6 l 110 HPS petrol engine.
The plant in Kaluga was opened in 2007. In October 2009, full-cycle production was launched. The plant currently manufactures Volkswagen Polo, Volkswagen Tiguan and ŠKODA Rapid.
PCMA RUS. The automotive plant is located in Rosva Industrial Park. Investments in production have so far reached 550 million euro. The plant formerly worked as a semi knocked-down (SKD) assembly facility. In July 2012, it began full cycle manufacturing of Peugeot 408, in November 2012 — Mitsubishi Outlander, in April 2013 - Citroen С4, and in July— Mitsubishi Pajero Sport. The plant’s production facilities allow it to manufacture up to 125,000 cars per year.
Volvo.Volvo Group has several projects in Kaluga Region (Kaluga-South Industrial Park):
- VOLVO TRUCKS truck manufacturing plant (Volvo and Renault), which Volvo’s experts recognize as the most advanced facility in the VOLVO TRUCKS global plant network;
- Volvo Truck Center Kaluga – truck service and maintenance center;
- Volvo customs department;
- Volvo Construction Equipment excavator plant;
- Volvo Group Cab Factory – manufacturer of cabs for Volvo and Renault trucks
27 automotive component manufacturers:
- FUCHS OIL LLC – lubricating oil;
- Continental Kaluga LLC – tires;
- ContiTech (branch of Continental Kaluga LLC) – air conditioning and power steering systems;
- Continental Automotive Systems RUS LLC – automotive electronic systems;
- FAURECIA AUTOMOTIVE DEVELOPMENT LLC – exhaust systems;
- FAURECIA AUTOMOTIVE DEVELOPMENT LLC – automotive interior elements;
- Becema Kaluga JSC – truck attachments;
- Mercator Kaluga LLC – truck attachments;
- Gestamp-Severstal-Kaluga LLC – automotive body components;
- Severstal-Gonvarri-Kaluga LLC – steel processing services;
- Magna Automotive Rus JSC branch – bumpers and frontal modules;
- YAPP Rus Automotive Systems LLC – plastic fuel tanks;
- Benteler Automotive LLC – suspension components;
- Reydel Automotive Rus LLC – automotive interior elements;
- Fuyao Glass Rus LLC – automotive glass;
- MAHLE RUS LLC – filters, heat regulators, turbochargers and car engine components; logistics
- HP Pelzer Rus LLC – sound insulation;
- Cherdelle Kaluga LLC – seat frames;
- Toyota Tsusho RUS LLC – organization of logistics processes;
- LIR LLC – automotive seats;
- CIE-AVTOCOM Kaluga LLC – windshield wipers, windshield washer systems, climate control systems.
- HT & L FITTING RUS LLC – tire assembly;
- Bosal LLC – exhaust systems;
- AD Plastic Kaluga JSC – plastic automotive components;
- Jervazi Vostok LLC – cabs for cars and trucks;
- CMK LLC (Cellino S.R.L.) – fuel tanks for trucks;
- AIS Automotive Interior Systems GmbH – plastic components.
Specialists for the automotive cluster are trained at the Automotive Industry Training Center established in 2007. The center is fully equipped with the most modern machinery. Trainees are offered nearly 100 training programs. The center has more than 30 laboratories and workshops. So far, it has trained about 12,000 specialists for the automotive industry. An important part of the center’s operation is its collaboration and joint projects with suppliers of equipment and technologies, as well as European educational organizations. Development of Kaluga’s automotive cluster includes improvement of the local logistical infrastructure, with research and development underway to upgrade the technical characteristics of existing products and products just entering the automotive market.
Pharmaceutics, Biotechnology and Biomedicine Cluster
In 2012, the program for the development of the innovative regional cluster of “Pharmaceutics, Biotechnology and Biomedicine” won the competition organized by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia to select pilot regional innovative cluster development programs. The core of the pharmaceutical cluster is formed by two centers:
- Kaluga (Grabtsevo and A Park Industrial Parks)— production base;
- Obninsk (industrial zone, Obninsk high-tech park and Vorsino Industrial Park)innovative development, including development of small and medium companies. An important link is the A. Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Center — a branch of the National Medical Radiological Research Center of the Ministry of Healthcare of Russia, which is to become the base for a federal high-tech innovative center of medical radiology.
Development of the pharmaceutical cluster has three principal directions:
- manufacturing of pharmaceutical products;
- manufacturing of substances;
- research in pharmaceutics, biotechnologies and biomedicine.
- Khemopharm LLC (a division of STADA CIS, a company of STADA AG, Germany): drugs manufacture;
- Novo Nordisk Production Support LLC (a division of Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark): insulin production;
- NIARMEDIK PHARMA LLC (Russia): manufacture of original drugs;
- Berlin Pharma CJSC (a division of Berlin-Chemie AG, Germany, a company of Menarini Ind, Italy): manufacture of solid dosage forms;
- AstraZeneca Industries LLC (a division of AstraZeneca Ind (UK): manufacture of innovative drugs;
- Sfera-Pharm LLC (Russia): manufacture of medical intravenous solutions, small and medium-sized businesses developing new bio- and pharmaceutical medicines;
- Mir-Pharm LLC;
- Obninsk Chemical and Pharmaceutical Company CJSC;
- Medbiopharm Group;
- BION Group.
- HEMOFARM LLC (structural unit of STADA CIS, part of STADA AG, Germany) — manufacturing of medicinal products
- Novo Nordisk Production Support LLC (branch of Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark) — manufacturing of insulin
- NEARMEDIC PHARMA LLC (Russia) — manufacturing of original medicinal preparations
- Berlin Pharma JSC (branch of Berlin-Chemie AG (Germany), part of Menarini Ind (Italy) — manufacturing of solid-dosage forms
- Astra Zeneca Industries LLC (branch of Astra Zeneca Ind (UK) — manufacturing of innovative medicinal preparations
- Sfera-Pharm LLC (Russia) — manufacturing of medicinal intravenous solutions
Small and medium innovation companies (38, as of January 2016) specializing in development and creation of new bio and pharmaceutical products:
- Mir-Pharm LLC
- Obninsk Chemical and Pharmaceutical Company JSC (OCPC JSC)
- Medbiopharm Group
- BION Group
The regional pharmaceutical cluster manufactures 109 kinds of medicinal products. Over 80% of the cluster’s output is finished pharmaceutical products.
- Puschino Scientific Center under the Russian Academy of Sciences (Puschino, 9th Scientific and Research Institute of Molecular Biology, Biological *Technologies and Biomedicine under the Russian Academy of Sciences);
- ORKHIMED Non-Profit Partnership (Russia’s 14 leading academic institutes operating in the field of chemistry and chemical biology);
- The Department of Fundamental Medicine of the Lomonosov Moscow State University;
- Managing company of the Biotechnological Business Incubator of the Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Science and Training
- Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Energy, a branch of the MIFI National Nuclear Research University with a medical department;
- The Tsiolkovsky State University in Kaluga;
- The Karpov Scientific and Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, a branch of the Russian State Scientific Center;
- The Medical Radiology Scientific Center under the Russian Ministry of Public Health;
- The Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Energy.
- Park of Active Molecules, center for innovation biopharmaceutics (supported by Medbiopharm SC and its partners)
- Regional Engineering Center (REC) in pharmaceutics
- NEARMEDIC PHARMA LLC in Obninsk – a new universal GMP plant for full cycle manufacturing of original biomedical preparations – joint project of NEARMEDIC PLUS LLC and ROSNANO JSC
- Innovation laboratories and research and production facilities of Mir-Pharm LLC, BION LLC, Obninsk Chemical and Pharmaceutical Company LLC
At the beginning of 2015, the innovation portfolio of Kaluga Region’s pharmaceutical companies included 31 new project. More than 15 drugs have reached the stages of pre-clinical and clinical trials. In the next 3 years, Kaluga’s pharmaceutical companies will be annually brigning 2-3 new medicinal products on the Russian market.
Transport and Logistics
Modernization of the logistics infrastructure, creation of new hubs, terminals and reconstruction of motorways are among priority directions for the region’s development. Kaluga Region has several advantages. The first of them is its geographic position – the region borders with Moscow and, possessing an impressive transit potential, has every chance to become a key logistics center for the entire Central Federal District. The second is its reliable partners. The region cooperates with major logistics operators: GEFCO, Green Logistics, Rhenus Logistics, TransContainer, etc. The third is its consistent strategy for further development of the cluster. The region has built multimodal transport and logistics terminals, customs and warehousing complexes, is developing its motorway, railway and airport infrastructure, i.e. forming the infrastructure required to insure process continuity – from receipt of raw materials to delivery of finished products to consumers.
Freight Village Rosva was created to optimize logistics for residents of Kaluga Region's industrial parks (Grabtsevo, Rosva, Kaluga-South). Today, FV Rosva is one of the key objects in the distribution network covering the entire Central Federal District. Its 5-hectare auto terminal is equipped with specialized cargo lifts, weighing equipment, radiation control system and an x-ray screening complex. The terminal is divided into two zones: customs point of the Kaluga Customs Authority and excise post of the Central Excise Authority. The 3-hectare container terminal includes a cargo park (6 dedicated railway lines with combined length of 10 km), a lot for container storage, a customs post, access roads, etc. The terminal can process up to 150,000 TEU per year (Kalmar reach stackers).
Freight Village Vorsino is located in the north of Kaluga Region, 70 km from the Moscow Ring Road and 90 km from Kaluga, in immediate proximity to the M-3 Ukraine federal highway and the Moscow-Kiev railway line. FV Vorsino is included in the general plan for development of the Moscow Railway Hub and the program for development of the Moscow Transport Hub. FV Vorsino has been recognized as a strategically important logistics center at the level of the RF Government. The total area of the freight village is 450 hectares. The total length of the access railway line is 838.19 long meters, and of its on-site rail lines – 9,193 long meters. The current capacity of the container terminal is 300,000 TEUs per year and will expand to 1,500,000 TEUs per year. The amount invested in the project so far is 1.2 billion euro, including 250 million euro invested in the construction of the logistics park. In January 2016, Freight Village Vorsino became part of the New Silk Road infrastructural project. Transit of cargo from North-East China and South Korea is organized through Dalian port, the Chinese Eastern Railway and the Trans-Siberian Railway. Route advantages:
- increase in the volume of exports of Russian goods to Asia;
- creation of a major distribution center;
- expansion of existing production facilities and creation of new ones;
Kaluga International Airport is located in the immediate proximity to Grabtsevo Industrial Park. Kaluga region as represented by the Ministry of Economic Development of Kaluga region is the key shareholder in possession of 99.99% of the shares. The investment project of Kaluga International Airport will require global transformations. In 2014 the runway reconstruction will be totally completed. Over the following 2 to 3 years all the required infrastructure facilities will be built and certified. Key figures:
Airport Complex Area: 200 ha
Runway dimensions: 2,200х45 m
Inbound aircraft takeoff weight: class 2:
Capacity: 100 passengers per hour;
Passenger turnover: up to 500,000 passengers per year in to period to 2030;
The airport complex can accommodate the following aircraft: Airbus A 319, Boeing 737 and similar aircraft (64 t).
Ermolino Airportis located 95 km from the Moscow center, 60 km from Vnukovo International Airport, 5 km from the M-3 Ukraine federal highway, and 5-6 km from the nearest railway station Balabanovo. The airport belongs to the interior forces of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs. The Federal Agency of Air Transport and the Russian Ministry of Transportation have granted permission to build a civilian international airport on the basis of the Yermolino aerodrome.
Kaluga Region is the 4th in the Central Federal District by volume of residential construction per capita. In 2015, the region exceeded the target of 750,000 sq.m for commissioning of housing approved by the Russian Ministry of Construction, Housing and Municipal Services, setting a regional record of 795,000 sq.m. Kaluga was in the lead with nearly 356,000 sq.m of housing commissioned against the planned target of 264,000 sq.m, delivering 152 % against 2014. Construction was completed on a number of highly significant projects, including the regional infectious diseases hospital in Kaluga, a general outpatient hospital in Balabanovo, Kaluga airport, the regional archive building and a number of sports centers. The region also leads by the level of gasification, which is at 81% and 66% in rural areas. In 2015, a total of 1.7 billion rubles were invested in the gasification program, contributed by Gazprom JSC, the regional budget and other sources. As a result, more than 432 km of gas pipes were build, and 34 rural settlements with nearly 3,500 residents got to see the “blue flame” for the first time.
In 2015, corporate investments in the electric power industry exceeded 2.5 billion rubles. More than 8,000 utility connections were made, including over 5,500 for benefit recipients. In line with the program “Energy Conservation and Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Kaluga Region”, the region allocated budget funds for modernization of three boiler-houses in Peremyshl and Ulyanovsk Districts and Maloyaroslavets and repair of 27 boiler-houses. 1,200 apartments were transferred to individual heating supply. The region is home to the world’s first nuclear power plant — Obninsk NPP, launched in 1954.
The World Organization of Creditors (WOC) determined the nominees for the "Investment Angel Award" as follows:
- The Most Attractive Region for Investors – Kaluga Oblast
- Investment Protection and Promotion -- Regional Development Agency of Kaluga Oblast
- The Best Foreign Investor -- Volkswagen, Novo Nordisk
The following development institutions have been created to support the implementation of investment policies of the Oblast Administration:
This is a government entity responsible for development of industrial parks and engineering infrastructure. Objective: establishment of new and development of the existing industrial parks, and construction of engineering infrastructure in the industrial parks.
This is a government entity responsible for provision of non-discriminative access to the logistic and railroad infrastructure. Objectives: establishment of logistic and customs terminals, and construction and operation of railroads in the industrial parks.
- The Regional Development Agency of Kaluga Oblast (autonomous entity of Kaluga Oblast)
This is a state entity responsible for provision of expert advice to investors in the process of implementation of investment projects. Objectives: attraction of investments in the economy of Kaluga Oblast, and promotion of the oblast into the international market.
The five existing thermal power stations operating in the oblast generated a total of 407 mln kWt/h of electricity in 2005. The Federal Grid Company and the power generation systems of the neighboring regions meet most of the power demand (up to 90%). The volume of supplies of the energy resources in the oblast: natural gas – 1,640 mln m³ (2005), electric power – 4,520 mln kWt/h (2004). The first nuclear power station in the world — Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, which was put into operation in 1954 is located in Kaluga Oblast.
Power transmission systems and pipelines
A 500/220/10 kV Kaluzhskaya substation is located near the town of Maloyaroslavets. It is connected through a 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line to the Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant, and there is a plan to connect it in the future to the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant and Vladimirskaya substation (currently, the 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line is connected to Chagino-Mikhailovo 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line. In addition, there is a 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line going through the territory of the oblast connecting the Tula and Ryazan (Mikhailovskaya substation) systems to Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant.
Kaluga is part of the Transneftproduct system which supplies oil products through the pipeline of Plavsk fuel pumping station.
Moscow – Bryansk gas main is passing through the territory of the oblast. There is an underground gas storage facility located near Rezvan village.
Agriculture has a special role in the regional economy. The agricultural production accounts for more than 8.1% of the GRP. Rural population is 242, 600 or 24% of the total population of the Kaluga Oblast. The total agricultural output in 2012 reached RUR 262 bln. Agricultural land accounts for 1,821,000 hectares of the total land resources of Kaluga Oblast. Among them cultivated land amounts to 1,145,000 hectares, including 857,100 hectares of arable land.
Dual purpose cattle breeding is the principal line of the agricultural business. Modern pig factories supply pork to the internal market providing retail trade with chilled meat and pork pre-fabricated products. Among them, Russian-Thai Joint Venture Charoen Pokphand Foods OOO (Dzerzhinsky District), Kharchevnikov Peasant Farm Enterprise OOO (Ulyanovsky District), Tonoyan Peasant Farm Enterprise OOO (Babynino District) to be mentioned. As of January 1, 2013, the total livestock equaled 132,400, including cattle stock – 57,400, pig stock – 74,100, poultry stock – 3,800,000. Total milk output in 2012 equaled 234,000 tons. Average milk output per cow amounted to 4, 700 kg. Kaluga Oblast is ranked eighth among seventeen federal subjects of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation by milk output per day. Robotized milking operation is implemented at industrial scale in Alyeshinskoye OOO (Meshchovsk District), Bebelevo OOO (Ferzikovo District), and Lespoir OOO (Sukhinichi District). Poultry farming is also well-developed in Kaluga Oblast. Major poultry meat producers are Kaluzhskaya Poultry Farm OAO, Radon Poultry Farm OOO (Dzerzhinsky District), Belousovo Poultry Farm OOO (Zhukov District). Samson-Farm OOO (Medyn District) is specialized in guinea fowl breeding.
Horticulture accounts for 10.2% of the total agricultural output. Grain farming, potatoes growing and vegetable farming are the most important sectors. Total grain output in 2013 was 165,700 tons (in weight after processing). Crop yield amounted to 21.5dt/ha. The major grain producers are Lenin Collective Farm (Zhukov District), SKhA Moscow (collective farm) (Borovsk District), Tsvetkov Plemzavod OAO (Maloyaroslavets District), Mayak Collective Farm (Peremyshl District), and Agroresurs OOO (Sukhinichi District). The highest grain crop yield (10,764 tons) was harvested in Mosmedynagroprom OAO (Medyn District). Total output in 2013: potatoes – 335,400 tons, field vegetables – 98,000 tons, greenhouse vegetables – 6,600 tons. Potatoes yield – 144.0 dt/ha, field vegetables yield –178.0 dt/ha. The major potatoes producers are Aurora OOO (Babynino District), Slavyansky Kartofel OOO (Duminichi District), Ordzhonikidze Kolkhoz ZAO (Kozelsk District), Rodina FSUAE (Maloyaroslavets District), Marx Agricultural Production Cooperative and Rus Agricultural Production Cooperative (Khvastovichi District), Mayak Collective Farm and Kaluzhskaya Niva OOO (Peremyshl District). The major producers of greenhouse vegetables are Teplichny OAO (Kaluga), Obninsky Teplichny Kombinat OOO, Maloyaroslavetsky Teplichny Kombinat OOO. Stable supplies of field vegetables performed by suburban Plodoovoshchnoye Khozyastvo-Monastyrskoye Podvorye OOO.
Agro-industrial complex of Kaluga Oblast is represented by 332 entities involved in agricultural activity, 45 large and medium scale enterprises in food and processing industry, 2248 peasant (farming) enterprises, 117, 800 smallholdings. Total investments of large and medium scale enterprises in food and processing industry in 2012 amounted to RUR 283,000,000.
Agro-food infrastructure and logistics
This sector is represented by promising agricultural and food processing projects:
- K-Agro – agro-industrial park oriented for processing of agricultural products produced in the oblast;
- Detchino – agro-technology center, where 5 major European companies operating in the agricultural business are located – Grimme, Lemken, Big Dutchman, Wolf System, and Russian-German Holding Econiva;
- SME Park – a park for small and medium enterprises, established as an efficient distribution center of agricultural products and providing storage facilities.
State support within the frame of state programs is provided to all agricultural enterprises. The Kaluga Oblast Agricultural Development Center has a role of operator providing free consultancies to agricultural enterprises. Total volume of state support as of 01.10.2013 amounted to RUR 339.2 mln, including RUR 136.9 mln from the federal budget and RUR 202.3 mln from the oblast budget.
M3 "Ukraine" is the main automobile highway, with a traffic density of up to 13,800 vehicles/day, which passes through the towns of Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga, Sukhinichi, and Zhizdra. An equally important role is played by Moscow - Warsaw federal highway, with a traffic density of up to 11,500 vehicles/day, which passes through Belousovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Medyn, Yukhnov, and Spas-Demensk. In addition, there is also a highway of regional importance Vyazma-Kaluga-Tula-Ryazan, with a traffic density of up to 6,750 vehicles/day, and the road section M3 "Ukraine" which passes through the town of Balabanovo. The total length of automobile roads with hard surface is 6,564 km. The density of hard surface road network of common use is 165 km per 1,000 km².
The trunk railroad Moscow – Kiev is passing through Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, and Sukhinichi. In addition, there are also important single-track diesel locomotive lines located in the oblast, including Vyazma - Kaluga - Tula (through Myatlevo, Polotnyanny Zavod, Pyatovky, and Kaluga), Sukhinichi – Smolensk (through Spas-Demensk), Sukhinichi—Roslavl (through Kirov), Sukhinichi – Tula (through Kozelsk), Kozelsk – Belyov, Vyazma – Bryansk (through Kirov and Ludinovo), and Bryansk - Dudorovsky. There is a large locomotive and diesel multiple unit depot located in Kaluga. The total length of the railroads of common use is 872 km. The density of the railroads of common use is 29 km per 1000 km².
There are four airfields in the oblast, including Grabtsevo airport located near the city of Kaluga (closed in 2008), military airfields in the town of Ermolino, and a large military airfield in Shaikovka.
The part of the Oka river flowing from Kaluga is one of the domestic waterways of Russia. There are tourist cruises from Serpukhov to Tarusa and from Serpukhov to Velegozh. In addition, there are two motor ships “Louch” operating along the Kaluga—Aleksin route. The total length of the navigable and conditionally navigable waterways is 101 km. Of special importance is Moscow - Kaluga express (3 departures a day, time en route - 2 hours and 40 minutes).
The city transportation in Kaluga is remarkable for its trolleybus system.
There is a well-developed modern telecommunications infrastructure in Kaluga Oblast. There are a total of 210 companies providing telecommunication services in the territory of the oblast.
Cell services and the Internet
Around 90% of the oblast's territory is covered by cellular services. Cellular services are provided by five cellular service operators, including: the branch of Mobylnye TeleSystemy OAO in Kaluga (MTS), Vympel-Kommunikatsii KF OAO (Beeline), Megafon Kaluga RO TSF OAO, Smolenskaya Sotovaya Svyaz KF ОАО (TELE-2), and the branch of Astrata ZAO in Kaluga Oblast (Sky Link). The number of cellular service users in the territory of the oblast is 1.6 mln, or 1.6 active SIM-cards per capita (including children and elderly people). There are 44 cable and wireless Internet service providers in the territory of Kaluga Oblast. CentrTelecom KF OAO is the main cable Internet service provider in the urban centers and municipalities of the oblast. More than 70% of the population are using Internet services.
As of the beginning of 2010, there were 340,700 public telephone connections in the oblast. On a per capita basis, there 34 telephone connections per 100 people, which is one of the highest rates among the 18 federal subjects of the Central Federal District of Russia. Around 90% of the public telephone services in the territory of the oblast is provided by the Kaluga branch of CentrTelekom OAO. Completion of the construction of three fiber-optic lines currently planned for 2011 will make it possible to cover the entire territory of Kaluga Oblast by digital telephone services. With a view to providing the residents of the oblast with high-speed access to the Internet, CentrTelecom KF OAO implemented a new fiber-optical communication line (FTTB)-based Internet access technology, also known as Household Optics.
There are 450 postal offices in the territory of Kaluga Oblast, including 349 stationary postal offices in the rural areas, of Russian Post. The comparative analysis of the postal services network shows that in terms of the technological intensiveness and staffing levels, the postal services network in Kaluga Oblast is one of the most advanced in the Central Federal District of Russia. Currently, there are 121 modern POS terminals used in the postal offices of Kaluga Oblast for drawing cash from plastic cards, and there are also 670 postal cash terminals. A chain of 205 Internet cafes (400 seats) was established. The post offices have access to high-speed telecommunication channels, which enables them to electronically process payment of utility bills, and also provide instant money transfer services.
Television and radio broadcasting
The Kaluga Oblast Radio and Television Broadcasting Center, the branch of Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network (FGUP), is the main operator broadcasting television and radio programs in the oblast. As of 2007, 100% of the oblast territory has been covered by television broadcasting services. TV programs of the regional television company and radio local news programs are broadcast in the entire territory of the oblast through satellite transmission equipment. In addition, cable television networks are being developed in the oblast. Starting from 2013, a federal project will be launched to introduce digital television and radio broadcasting with an increased number of TV and radio channels and improved quality of services.
Science, education, and culture
As of the beginning of the 2009-2010 academic year, there were 403 public day-time general education institutions for 85,500 students. As of 2009, there were 27 higher education institutions. As of 2009, there were 413 day-time general education institutions. In 2007, a center for training of car manufacturing industry specialists was established. Special classes with instruction in the French, German, and English languages were opened for children of foreigners working in Kaluga Oblast. The first Science Town – Obninsk that was established in Russia is situated in Kaluga Oblast. It carries out research in the areas of atomic power, space and telemechanic technologies, and radio equipment and instrument making industry. These are some of the major scientific institutions of the oblast:
- Physics and Energy Institute named after A.I. Leypunsky State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation
- The Obninsk branch of Physics and Chemical Institute named after L.Y. Karpov State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation.
- Technologiya Obninsk Scientific Production Company State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation.
- Kaluga Scientific Research and Radio Technology Institute Federal Scientific and Production Center
- Medical Radiological Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
- Electronic Equipment Scientific Research Center
- Space Materials Science of the Crystallography Institute named after A.V. Shubnikov of the Russian Academy of Sciences Scientific Research Center
- Specialized Space Equipment Design Bureau of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
- KNIITMU Federal State Unitary Enterprise
- All-Union Physiology, Biochemistry, and Animal Food Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Hydro Meteorological Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Electronic Equipment Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Agricultural Radiology and Agro-Ecology Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Agricultural Meteorology Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Timber Processing Scientific Research Institute
These are the main education institutions of the oblast:
- Kaluga State University named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky
- Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering
- Kaluga branch of the Moscow State Technical University named after N.E. Bauman
- Kaluga branch of the Agricultural University
Kaluga Oblast is one of the 15 federal subjects in which the subject “Basics of the Orthodox Culture” was introduced in the regional curriculum as of September 1, 2006. There is Kaluga Oblast Dramatic Theater named after A.V. Lunacharsky in the oblast.
Tourism and recreation
The most popular among tourists are the administrative center Kaluga, Optina Pustyn monastery, the City of Military Glory - Kozelsk, Obninsk Science Town, the towns of Maloyaroslavets and Meschovsk where Napoleon’s army was stopped, the Goncharovs country estate in the Polotnyany Zavod, Svyato-Tikhonova Pustyn monastery and Svyato-Pafnutyev Borovsky monastery, the town of Tarusa, and Vorobyi zoo. A number of various tourist paths have been opened in the unique nature reserves—Ugra National Park and Kaluzhskye Zaseki. There are 15 health centers and summer resorts with over 3,500 beds in Kaluga Oblast. The most popular among holidaymakers are the following health centers: Vyatichi, Beryozovaya Roscha, Vorobyevo, Zvezdny, and Signal. The State Space History Museum named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky that was established in 1967 in Kaluga attracts many visitors of all ages. The Oblast Ministry for Sports, Tourism, and Youth Policy adopted a program for the development of tourism for 2011-2016. The main objective of the program is to achieve a threefold increase in the number of tourists visiting the oblast through creation of tourism development centers. One of the most popular tourists locations is Dzerzhinsky district where Svyato-Tikhonova Pustyn monastery and Ugra National Park are situated, and where Arkhstoyanie and musical festivals are held in Matovo village.
These are some of the regular events that are organized for tourists:
- Arkhistoyanie festival
- Pustye Kholmy festival
- Bike festival in Maloyaroslavets
- Belyi Krolik festival
- Mir Gitary festival
- Zheleznye Devy rock music festival (in Kaluga)
As early as the 16th century, Kaluga was a major commercial port acting as a connecting link between Lithuania and Moscow. Back then, the city exported wooden utensils known far beyond the provincial boundaries. Starting in the 1680s, stone churches were built on the sites of wooden churches. By the latter half of the 18th century, there were 183 stone and 2235 wooden buildings in Kaluga. The 17th-century Korobov mansion with its semidomes and patterned cornices is a fine example of the civil architecture of the period. Many other buildings of so-called "workplaces" have also been preserved. These include several administrative buildings connected by arches e.g. the Zolotarev town estate, the Bilibin merchant mansion, and the Inn Court comprising several trading houses designed by the famous architect P.R. Nikitin.
Kaluga Football Club autonomous non-for-profit organization was established in December 2009 by the Ministry of Sports, Tourism and Youth Policy of Kaluga Oblast, the City Administration of Kaluga, and Galantus&K OOO. The Trustee Council is chaired by Kaluga Oblast Governor Anatoly D. Artamonov.
Kaluga Football Club won the tenth place in the Championship of Russia in the Center zone (2nd Division) of the 2010 season. As a result of the support that the Specialized Youth Football School of Olympic Reserve is receiving from the Kaluga Football Club, it is able to represent Kaluga Oblast in the Championship of Russia in four age groups. The trainings and football games of the official rounds of the Championship of Russia are held at the football stadium of Annenki Children and Youth Sports School.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Kaluga CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Kaluga Oblast is the fundamental law of the oblast. The Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
The Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast
Baburin Viktor Sergeevich – the Chairman of the Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast.
2004 Legislative Assembly Elections
The first elections were conducted based on a mixed voting system: 20 seats were allocated through party lists, and another 20 seats—through single-seat constituencies. United Russia political party won in the party-lists elections in which it received 40% of the votes (10 seats). United Russia also won elections in 12 single-seat constituencies and it now has a majority of votes in the parliament (22 out of 40).
- КPRF — 13.4% of the votes (3 seats)
- "Rodina" — 11.2% (3 seats)
- LDPR — 9,9% (2 seats)
- Yabloko — 6.3% (2 seats)
- Agrarian Party — 4.7% (did not receive a sufficient number of votes to win seats)
- Soyuz Pravyh Sil won four seats in the Legislative Assembly through single-seat constituencies elections, which will make it possible for this party to form its own fraction in the Legislative Assembly.
2010 Legislative Assembly Elections of the 5th Convocation
The elections were won by United Russia party which received 53.45% of the votes. This allowed this party to win 22 seats in the oblast parliament.
- Kaluga Oblast Branch of KPRF—21.17% of the votes (9 seats)
- Kaluga Oblast Branch of Spravedlivaya Rossiya— 11.2% (4)
- Kaluga Oblast Branch of LDPR—11.93% (5)
- Patrioty Rossii – 1.86% (did not receive a sufficient number of votes to win seats)
- Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935) — a Russian and Soviet self-trained scientist, researcher, and school teacher.
- Saint Ambrose of Optina (1812–1891) — a minister of the Russian Orthodox Church, Hieromonk.
- Pavel M. Golubitsky (1845–1911) — a Russian inventor of telephony and a public figure.
Born on the territory of modern Kaluga Oblast
- Valentin D. Berestov (1928—1998), Russian poet, writer, translator
- Georgy Zhukov (1896—1974), Soviet military leader, the Marshal of the Soviet Union (as of 1943)
- Eudoxia Lopukhina (1669—1731), Tsarina, the first wife of Peter the Great
- Alexandra V. Prokoshina (1918—2005), singer
- Yevdokiya Streshneva (1608—1645), Tsarina, the second wife of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov
- Alexander N. Terenin (1896—1967), Russian physio-chemist
- Pafnuty Chebyshev (1821—1894), Russian mathematician and mechanical engineer
- Mikhail Yanshin (1902—1976), Soviet actor and film director
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kaluga Oblast.|
- Law #423-OZ
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 3.2
- Official website of the Governor of Kaluga Oblast. Anatoly Dmitriyevich Artamonov (Russian)
- Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 26.1
- Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 18.1
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Kaluga Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения (Russian)
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №423-ОЗ от 3 июня 2013 г. «О гимне Калужской области». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: Официальный сайт Законодательного Собрания Калужской области, 3 июня 2013 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. Law #423-OZ of June 3, 2013 On the Anthem of Kaluga Oblast. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
- Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. №473 27 марта 1996 г. «Устав Калужской области», в ред. Закона №681-ОЗ от 27 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Калужской области». Опубликован: "Весть", №79, 9 апреля 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. #473 March 27, 1996 Charter of Kaluga Oblast, as amended by the Law #681-OZ of February 27, 2015 On Amending the Charter of Kaluga Oblast. ).