Kalvari-class submarine

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This article is about the modern Scorpène-class submarine variant; see Kalvari-class submarine (1967) for its namesake Foxtrot-class predecessors.
INS Kalvari Sea Trial.JPG
INS Kalvari during sea trials
Class overview
Name: Kalvari class
Builders: Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:  Indian Navy
Succeeded by: Project 75I-class submarine
In commission: Mid-2017
Building: 4
Planned: 6[1]
Completed: 2
General characteristics
Type: Attack submarine
Displacement: 1,870 tonnes (2,060 short tons) (AM-2000)
Length: 61.7 m (202 ft) (AM-2000)
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft)
Draught: 5.8 m (19 ft)
Propulsion: Diesel-electric, batteries, and AIP
  • 20 knots (37 km/h) (submerged)
  • 12 kn (22 km/h) (surfaced)
  • 6,500 nmi (12,000 km) at 8 kn (15 km/h) (surfaced)
  • 550 nmi (1,020 km) at 5 kn (9.3 km/h) (submerged)
  • 40 days (compact)
  • 50 days (normal)
  • 50+21 days (AIP)
Test depth: 350 metres (1,150 ft) [2]
Complement: 31
Armament: 6 x 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes for 18 heavyweight torpedoes/Varunastra torpedo or SM.39 Exocet antiship missiles, 30 mines in place of torpedoes

The Kalvari class is a class of submarines based on the Scorpène-class submarine being built for the Indian Navy. It is a class of diesel-electric attack submarine which is designed by French naval defence and energy company DCNS and being manufactured by Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai.

Project history[edit]

In 2005, India chose the Scorpène design; purchasing six submarines for US$3 billion ($500 million per boat) under Project 75 (P75). The project was necessitated by the dwindling number of submarines in the Indian Navy. Indian Navy needed replacement for the older Sindhughosh (Kilo) and Shishumar (U209) class of submarines. The Scorpène design won the deal, defeating the rival U214 because of the capability to fire Exocet anti-ship missiles and an agreement on the air-independent propulsion (AIP).[3] The submarines are to be manufactured under a technology transfer agreement by the state-owned Mazagon Docks in Mumbai.[4] India plans to incorporate the DRDO-developed air independent propulsion (AIP) system onto the last two submarines being built and also to equip the P75I submarines, of which the DCNS is participating in the tender process.[5]

Construction of the first submarine started on 23 May 2009. The project is running four years behind schedule. Once the new government under Prime Minister Narendra Modi took over, the project was reviewed and necessary action was taken to make up for the delay.[6]

It was reported in November 2014, that the DRDO-developed AIP system for the last two Scorpène submarines for the Indian Navy has been developed and is ready for testing in February 2015.[7] The government was finalizing an order for additional three more Kalvari class submarines but in September 2016, the NDA government decided not to buy them.[8][9]

The first Scorpène submarine, INS Kalvari (named after a deep sea tiger shark),[10] was undocked from the pontoon on 6 April 2015 and launched on 28 October 2015. It completed the Basin trials and Harbor acceptance trials in April 2016 and commenced sea trials on 1 May 2016.[11]

The Indian Navy's USD300 million purchase of 98 torpedoes from WASS (a Finmeccanica/Leonardo company) remains suspended, as it is linked to the ongoing investigation into the EUR750 million (USD861 million) import of 12 AW101 helicopters from AgustaWestland (a Finmeccanica company facing corruption charges).[12] The Defense minister Manohar Parikkar under the new NDA government, said that the torpedoes for the submarine will be procured from other companies.[13] The submarine will be able to be armed with MBDA's tube-launched Exocet SM-39 anti-ship missiles. The SeaHake torpedoes from Germany's Atlas Elektronik and France's F21 torpedoes may be considered.[14] Indigenous torpedoes are under development by the DRDO and await testing. DRDO is given the go ahead to make indigenous torpedoes for both Scorpene class and Kilo class of submarines.[15][16][17]

On 2 March 2017, INS Kalvari test fired a Exocet SM39 Block 2 anti-ship missile in the Arabian Sea.[18][19] Admiral Lanba confirmed that an indigenous torpedo was fired from INS Kalvari during the final stages of trials.[20][21]

Ships of the class[edit]

The hull fabrication of all six submarines is now complete. The first Scorpène submarine was delivered in September 2016, delivery of successive boats have been compressed to nine months and the project is expected to be completed by 2020.[22]

Name Pennant Builder Homeport Launched Commissioned Status
Flight I (Without AIP)[23]
INS Kalvari S50 Mazagon Dock Limited 28 October 2015[11] July-August 2017 (expected)[24][25] In sea trials
INS Khanderi S51 12 January 2017[26] December 2017 (expected)[25] In sea trials[27]
INS Vela[28] S52 October 2017 (expected)[29] Under-construction
S53 S53 Under-construction
Flight II(With AIP)[23]
S54 S54 Mazagon Dock Limited Under-construction
S55 S55 Under-construction


  1. ^ "India Drops Plans to Add 3 More French Stealth Attack Submarines". The Diplomat. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  2. ^ "Scorpene 1000". DCNS. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  3. ^ "Exocet Missiles, AIP Swing India Submarine Order". defense-aerospace.com. 13 September 2005. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  4. ^ "First Scorpene submarine to become reality soon". Deccan Herald. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  5. ^ Anandan, S. (25 March 2014). "DRDO developing onboard equipment monitoring system for submarines". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  6. ^ Pandit, Ranjat (28 August 2014). "Defence minister Arun Jaitley reviews delayed Scorpene submarine project". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  7. ^ "Indian-built Scorpene to carry critical DRDO system (Air Independent Propulsion)". DefenceRadar.com. 3 November 2014. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  8. ^ "India To Purchase 3 More French ‘Scorpene’ Submarines". InSerbia News. Retrieved 2015-12-25. 
  9. ^ "India finalizing plans to order three more Scorpene submarines - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-03-31. 
  10. ^ Banerjee, Ajay (6 April 2015). "Parrikar undocks Scorpene sub". The Tribune. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  11. ^ a b "Maiden Sea Trial of Kalvari - First Scorpene Class Submarine | Indian Navy". indiannavy.nic.in. Retrieved 2016-05-05. 
  12. ^ "India's first Scorpene boat begins sea trials without primary weapons | IHS Jane's 360". Janes.com. Retrieved 2016-05-05. 
  13. ^ "Manohar Parrikar interview: ‘I believe in performance, not dressing up’". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2017-01-02. 
  14. ^ "India Has Alternative For Finmeccanica Torpedoes Says Parrikar". Businessworld.in. 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2017-01-02. 
  15. ^ "DRDO gets nod to make torpedoes for Indian submarines". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2016-07-18. 
  16. ^ "NSTL to develop optic-guided heavyweight torpedoes". The Hindu. 2016-07-28. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2016-07-28. 
  17. ^ "Indian Navy gears up to induct more submarines, warships in 2017". 2 January 2017. 
  18. ^ "India test-fires anti-ship missile from lead Kalvari-class submarine | IHS Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 2017-03-04. 
  19. ^ "Navy successfully test-fires anti-ship missile from Kalvari submarine - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-03-04. 
  20. ^ First ‘Made in India’ submarine joins Navy in a month
  21. ^ "Torpedo Firing Trials of Kalvari | Indian Navy". www.indiannavy.nic.in. Retrieved 2017-05-29. 
  22. ^ "‘We see a bright future for defence ship construction’". The Financial Express. 2016-01-02. Retrieved 2016-01-02. 
  23. ^ a b "India to make additional Scorpene subs: Parrikar". Tribuneindia.com. 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2017-01-02. 
  24. ^ "First indigenous submarine Kalvari to be inducted in Indian Navy by July-August". Retrieved 2017-06-05. 
  25. ^ a b "Scorpenes no more". Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  26. ^ "Second Scorpene class submarine Khanderi to be launched on Jan 12". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2017-01-09. 
  27. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/first-new-conventional-submarine-to-be-commissioned-in-july-august/articleshow/58930934.cms
  28. ^ "Indian Navy to induct Scorpene class submarines Kalvari and Khanderi this year: Rear Admiral Mohit Gupta". The Financial Express. 2017-01-20. Retrieved 2017-01-20. 
  29. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/first-new-conventional-submarine-to-be-commissioned-in-july-august/articleshow/58930934.cms