Kalyani (raga)

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Kalyani
ArohanamS R₂ G₃ M₂ P D₂ N₃ 
Avarohanam N₃ D₂ P M₂ G₃ R₂ S
EquivalentLydian mode

Kalyani is a melakarta raga (parent musical scale) in the Carnatic music. It was called Kalyan but is now more popularly called Yaman in Hindustani Music. Its Western equivalent is the Lydian mode.

Kalyani in Carnatic music[edit]

In South Indian weddings it is a very prominently played raga. The word Kalyani means she who causes auspicious things. It is the 65th melakarta raga under the Katapayadi sankhya. It is also called Mechakalyani. The notes for Kalyani are S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3. Kalyani is the first Prathi Madhyama raga that was ever discovered. It was obtained by the process of Graha Bhedam or modal shift of tonic of the ancient Shadja Grama.[1]

Specifics on this raga[edit]

Kalyani has scope for elaborate alapana. One should not remain too long on panchamam (pa) or alternate between shadjamam and panchamam too frequently. Kalyani is prominently known among the public. It is often performed at the beginning of concerts because it is considered auspicious.[1] This raga is very special because it is sung with all higher notes.

Structure and lakshana[edit]

Kalyani scale with Shadjam at C

It is the 5th ragam in the 11th chakra Rudra. The mnemonic name is Rudra-Ma. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gu mi pa dhi (or 'di') nu.[2] Its arohana-avarohana structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

The notes used in this scale are shadjam, chatushūruti rishabam, antara gandharam, prati madhyamam, chatushruti dhaivatam, kakali nishadam. It is a Sampurna raga in Carnatic music, that is to say, has all the seven notes: Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni. It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Sankarabharanam, which is the 29th melakarta. This raga is very significant to the chart, because it is sung with all higher notes.

Janya ragams[edit]

Kalyani has many janya ragams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Hamir Kalyani, Mohanakalyani, Saranga, Sunadavinodini and Yamuna Kalyani are very popular. See List of Janya Ragams for full list of rāgams associated with Kalyani.

Popular compositions[edit]

Nearly every significant Carnatic composer (including the Trinity of Carnatic music) has composed several pieces in the Kalyani ragam. Kalyani is also considered one of the "major" ragams of Carnatic music along with Sankarabharanam, Todi and Kharaharapriya (the set of "major" rāgams is an informal grouping of the most popular ragams used for elaboration and exploration, and which often form the centerpiece of a Carnatic music concert in the form of a Ragam Tanam Pallavi (RTP) or a kriti). See next section for further information on relationships between these ragams.

Here is a short list of compositions in Kalyani.

  • Vanajāksha, an Ata tala varnam and Needu Charana composed by Pallavi Gopala Iyer.
  • Nidhi chāla sukhamā, Etavunnārā, Sundari nī Divya, Ammā Rāvammā, Sandehamu Elara, Bhajana Seyave and Vāsudēvanyani by Tyagaraja in Telugu
  • Kamalāmbāṃ bhajarē ,Bhajarē Re Chittha, Shiv aKameshwarim Chintayeham by Muthuswami Dikshitar in Sanskrit
  • Kantimati Karunamrta by Subbarama Dikshitar
  • Himādri sutē pāhimaṃ, Birāna varālichi, and Talli Ninnu Nēranammi by Syama Sastri in Telugu
  • Adrisutavara, Pankaja lōcana, Pahimaṃ Śri Vāgīśvari(Navarathri second day krithi), Paripahimamayi, Sarasa Suvadana, Sevesyanandureswara by Swathi Thirunal
  • Jaana neenahudo By Vyasatirtha
  • Anandateerthara Aradhaneyidu By Vidyaprasanna Teertha in Kannada
  • Nannu brovamani cheppave, Bhajare sriramam by Bhadrachala Ramadasu
  • Kelano Hari Talano, Nambi Kettavarillavo, kallu sakkare koLLiro, Anjikinyatakayya, Dayamado Ranga by Purandara Dasa
  • Tiliyado Ninnata By Kallur subbanna dasa in Kannada
  • Panduranga tatpada Palisayya By Sripati Vithala
  • Unnai allal by Papanasam Sivan
  • Sadanandame by Koteeswara Iyer
  • Mahatripurasundari by Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar
  • Tanom nom tara tillana by M Balamurali Krishna
  • Achyutham Keshavam by Mahesh Mahadev in his new ragas Nada Kalyani & Amritha Kalyani sung by Priyadarshini

The most popular film composition set in Kalyani is "Mannavan Vandhanadi Thozhi" by K. V. Mahadevan rendered by P. Susheela,[3]" and Sindhanai Sei Maname by G. Ramanadhan. M. S. Viswanathan has composed numerous songs in Kalyani such as "Isai Ketal Puvi" from the movie Thavapudhalavan, "Indha Mandrathil" from Policekaran Magal, "Maalai Sudum mananaal" from Nichaya Thamboolam, "Kannan Vandhan" from Ramu, "Azhagennum Oviyam Inge", "Paar Magale Paar", "Varuvan Vadivelan", "Maduraiyil Parandha Meenkodi", "Mugathil Mugam paarkalam". "Amma Endrazhaikkaatha Uyirillaye" by Ilayaraja, "Manmadha Pournami" (P. Susheela) in Panchavankadu by G. Devarajan. The track Kalaivaniye in Sindhu Bhairavi is set in the Kalyani rāgam and sung without an avarohaṇam. The Bharathiar composition Veenai Adi Nee Enakku from the movie Ezhavathu Manithan is also set in the Kalyani ragam. The Telugu movie Sankarabharanam has a Shloka "Māṇikya Upalālayanti" set in this ragam. "Aa Nimishathinte" from the Malayalam movie Chandrakantham and "Swarganandini" from Lankadahanam composed by M. S. Viswanathan also set in Kalayani.

Related ragams[edit]

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspects of Kalyani.

Kalyani's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major Melakarta ragams, namely, Hanumatodi, Sankarabharanam, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of Graha bhedam of this ragam refer Related ragams section in Sankarabharanam page.

Film songs[edit]

Tamil[edit]

Song Movie Composer Singer
Sindhanai Sei Maname Ambikapathy G. Ramanathan T. M. Soundararajan
Ennarumai Kadhalikku Vennilaave Ellarum Innattu Mannar T. G. Lingappa
Vennila Vaanil Varum Mannippu S. M. Subbaiah Naidu T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Mannavan Vandhaanadi Thiruvarutchelvar K. V. Mahadevan P. Susheela
Naan Anuppuvadhu Pesum Dheivam T. M. Soundararajan
Kan Pona Pokile Panam Padaithavan Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy
Naan Enna Soliviten Bale Pandiya
Athikkai Kai Kai T. M. Soundararajan, P. B. Sreenivas, P. Susheela, Jamuna Rani
Indha Mandrathil Odi Varum Policekaran Magal P. B. Sreenivas, S. Janaki
Kalaimangai Uruvam Kandu Maganey Kel Sirkazhi Govindarajan, M. L. Vasanthakumari
Mugathil Mugam Paarkalam Thanga Padhumai T. M. Soundararajan, P. Leela
Vetkamaai Irukudhadi Paar Magaley Paar P. Leela, Soolamangalam Rajalakshmi
Paar Magale Paar T. M. Soundararajan, M. S. Viswanathan
Maalai Soodum Mananaal Nichaya Thaamboolam P. Susheela
Isaikettal puvi Thavapudhalavan M. S. Viswanathan T. M. Soundararajan
Madhurayil Parantha Poova Thalaiya
Kettadhum Koduppavane Krishna Deiva Magan
Chithirai Maadham Raman Ethanai Ramanadi P. Susheela
Kannan Vandhan Ramu Seerkazhi Govindarajan, T. M. Soundararajan
Azhagenum Ooviyam Oorukku Uzhaippavan K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Varuvaan Vadivelan Varuvan Vadivelan Vani Jairam
Then Sindhuthey Ponnukku Thanga Manasu G. K. Venkatesh S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Sundari Kannal Oru Seithi Thalapathy Ilaiyaraaja
Yamunai Aatrile Mitali Banerjee Bhawmik
Vellai Pura Onru Puthukavithai K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
Kannale Kadhal Kavithai Athma
Vaidhegi Raman Pagal Nilavu S. Janaki
Janani Janani Thaai Mookaambikai Ilaiyaraaja
Maname Avan Vazhum Pagalil Pournami
Nathiyil Aadum Kaadhal Oviyam S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki, Deepan Chakravarthy
Devan Thantha Veenai Unnai Naan Santhithen S. P. Balasubrahmanyam (Solo Ver), (P. Jayachandran, S. Janaki) (Duet Ver)
Oru Vanavil pole Kaatrinile Varum Geetham P. Jayachandran, S. Janaki
Devan Kovil Deepam ondru Naan Paadum Paadal S. N. Surendar, S. Janaki
Aararo Aararo Anand Lata Mangeshkar
Malaiyoram Mayile Oruvar Vaazhum Aalayam Malaysia Vasudevan, K. S. Chitra
Siru Koottile Ulla Paandi Nattu Thangam K. S. Chitra, Mano
Naan Embathu Nee Allava Soora Samhaaram Arunmozhi, K. S. Chithra
Odai Kuyil Oru Thalattu Padava
Amma Endruzhakatha Mannan K. J. Yesudas
Kalaivaniye Sindhu Bhairavi
Oru Maalai Chandiran Unnai Vaazhthi Paadugiren S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Minmini
Kaatril Varum Geethame Oru Naal Oru Kanavu Ilaiyaraaja, Hariharan, Shreya Ghoshal, Sadhana Sargam, Bhavatharini
Nirpathuve Nadapathuve Bharathi Harish Raghavendra
Yaar Veetil Roja Idaya Kovil S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Vanthal Mahalakshmi Uyarndha Ullam
Vizhigal Meeno Raagangal Maaruvathillai
Aazh Kadalil Raagam Thedum Pallavi T. Rajendar
Pasamalare Neethibathi Gangai Amaran T. M. Soundararajan, P.Susheela
Vaigai nathiyil oru Paravai Natchathiram Shankar–Ganesh S. Janaki
Yaradhu Sollamal Nenjalli Nenjamellam Neeye Vani Jairam
Om Ganapathiye Ganapathiye Marumagal Chandrabose Vani Jairam & Chorus
Putham Puthu Olai Vedham Pudhithu Devendran K. S. Chithra
Azhagu Nilave Pavithra A. R. Rahman
Varaga Nadhikaraiyoram Sangamam Shankar Mahadevan
Enthan Vaanil Kadhal Virus S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Swarnalatha (Humming only)
Kadhal Niagara En Swasa Kaatre Palakkad Sreeram, Harini, Annupamaa
Neethan En Desiya Geetham Paarthale Paravasam P. Balram, K. S. Chitra
Sakthi Kodu Baba Karthik
Methuvagathan Kochadaiiyaan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sadhana Sargam
Ey Maanburu Mangaiye Guru Srinivas, Sujatha Mohan, A. R. Rahman
Yaarumilla Thaniarangil Kaaviya Thalaivan Swetha Mohan, Srinivas
Kathal Ennum Keerthanam En Aasai Rasathi Dr. Chandilyan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chitra
Mudhan Mudhalil Aahaa..! Deva Hariharan, K. S. Chitra
Gokulathu kanna Gokulathil Seethai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chitra, Deva
Enthan Uyire Enthan Uyire Unnaruge Naan Irundhal Krishnaraj, K. S. Chitra
Katrin Mozhi Mozhi Vidyasagar Balram, Sujatha Mohan
Pudhu Malar Thottu Poovellam Un Vasam Sriram Parthasarathy
Naan Mozhi Arindhen Kanden Kadhalai Suresh Wadkar
Oru Theithi Paarthal Coimbatore Mappillai Hariharan, Sadhana Sargam
Yen Pennendru Love Today Shiva Mohammed Aslam, Bombay Jayashri
Kaadhal Aasai Anjaan Yuvan Shankar Raja Yuvan Shankar Raja, Sooraj Santhosh
Never let me go Pyaar Prema Kaadhal Suranjan, Shweta Pandit
Vizhigalin Aruginil Azhagiya Theeye Ramesh Vinayakam
Kannanai Thedi Marupadiyum Oru Kadhal Srikanth Deva Shreya Ghoshal
Mun Andhi 7aum Arivu Harris Jayaraj Karthik, Megha
Mellinamae Mellinamae Shahjahan Mani Sharma Harish Raghavendra
Ennena Seidhom Ingu Mayakkam Enna G. V. Prakash Kumar
Yen Aala Paakkaporaen Kayal D. Imman Shreya Ghoshal, Ranjith
Sara Sara Saara Kaathu Vaagai Sooda Vaa Ghibran Chinmayi

Malayalam[edit]

Song Movie Composer Singer
Mazhavil Kothumbil Adhwaytham M G Radhakrishnan M G Sreekumar
Achyutham Keshavam Sri Shankara Stotra Rathnas Mahesh Mahadev Priyadarshini

Historical information[edit]

Yaman/Aiman is not an ancient raga. It is first mentioned in the literature in the late 16th century, by which time it was very popular: The Sahasras contains 45 dhrupad song-texts for Kalyan and five for Iman-Kalyan. According to Venkatamakhin (1620), Kalyan was a favourite melody to the Arabs, and Pundarika included Yaman among his 'Persian' Ragas.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S R G  P D N 
    • Western: C D E F G A B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:  N D P  G R S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rao, B.Subba (1996). Raganidhi: A Comparative Study of Hindustani And Karnatak Ragas. Volume Three (K to P). Madras: The Music Academy. p. 10.
  2. ^ Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  3. ^ http://www.thamizhisai.com/tamil-cinema/tamil-cinema-001/tc0001_thiruvarut-selvar.php
  4. ^ Bor 1997

Literature[edit]

Bor, Joep (1997), The Raga Guide, Charlottesville,Virginia: Nimbus Records
Kaufmann, Walter (1968), The Ragas of North India, Calcutta: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company.
Bagchee, Sandeep (1998), Nād, Understanding Rāga Music, Mumbai: Eshwar (Business Publications Inc.).
Bhatt, Balvantray (1964–1974), Bhāvaranga, Varanasi: Motilal Barnasidas.
Gandharva, Kumar (1965), Anūparāgavilāsa, Bombay: Mauj Prakashan.
Patwardhan, Vinayak Rao (1961–74), Rāga Vijñāna, Poona: Sangeet Gaurav Granthamala.
Srivastava, Harichandra (1973–79), Rāga Paricaya, Allahabad: SangeetSadan Prakashan.
Telang, Gokulanand; Bhartendu, Banwari Lal (1962), Sangīta Rāga Aṣṭachāpa, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya.
Thakar, Vasant Vaman, Sangīta Rāga Darśana, Prayag: Gandharva Mahavidyalaya Mandal Prakashan.
Rao, B. Subba (1964–66), Raganidhi, Madras: Music Academy.

External links[edit]

  • Moutal, Patrick (1991), Hindustāni Rāga-s Index, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, ISBN 81-215-0525-7