Kamarupa

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Kamarupa Kingdom

350–1140
The 7th and 8th century extent of Kamarupa kingdom, located on the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, what is today modern-day Assam, Bengal and Bhutan.[1] Kamarupa at its height covered the entire Brahmaputra Valley, North Bengal, Bhutan and northern part of Bangladesh, and at times portions of West Bengal and Bihar.[2]
The 7th and 8th century extent of Kamarupa kingdom, located on the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, what is today modern-day Assam, Bengal and Bhutan.[1] Kamarupa at its height covered the entire Brahmaputra Valley, North Bengal, Bhutan and northern part of Bangladesh, and at times portions of West Bengal and Bihar.[2]
CapitalPragjyotishpura
Haruppeswara
Durjaya
Common languagesKamarupi Prakrit, Sanskrit, Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman[3]
Religion
Hinduism, Tribal religion[4]
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy[5]
Historical eraClassical India
• Established
350
• Disestablished
1140
Succeeded by
Ahom kingdom
Kamata kingdom
Kachari kingdom
Chutiya Kingdom
Baro Bhuyans
Today part ofIndia
Bhutan
Bangladesh
Nepal
The findspots of inscriptions[6] associated with the Kamarupa kingdom give an estimate of its geographical location and extent.

Kamarupa (/ˈkɑːməˌrpə/; also called Pragjyotisha or Pragjyotisha-Kamarupa), an early state[7] during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, was (along with Davaka) the first historical kingdom of Assam.[8]

Though Kamarupa prevailed from 350 CE to 1140 CE, Davaka was absorbed by Kamarupa in the 5th century CE.[9][10] Ruled by three dynasties from their capitals in present-day Guwahati, North Guwahati and Tezpur, Kamarupa at its height covered the entire Brahmaputra Valley, North Bengal,[11] Bhutan and northern part of Bangladesh, and at times portions of what is now West Bengal, Bihar and Sylhet.[2][12]

Though the historical kingdom disappeared by the 12th century to be replaced by smaller political entities, the notion of Kamarupa persisted and ancient and medieval chroniclers continued to call this region by this name.[13] In the 16th century the Ahom kingdom came into prominence and assumed for itself the political and territorial legacy of the Kamarupa kingdom.[14]

Etymology[edit]

Pragjyotisha seems to have been the name of the city and the adjoining areas (city-state) while Kamarupa came to be the name of the country later and used synonymously.[15] The earliest use of the name Kamarupa to denote the kingdom is from the 4th-century.[16] The 10th-century Kalika Purana mentioned that country got its name from Kamadeva (Kama), who regain his form (Rupa) back from ashes here.[17]

Antecedents[edit]

Kamarupa is not included in the list of sixteen Mahajanapadas from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE;[18] nor does it or the northeast Indian region find any mention in the Ashokan records (3rd century BCE)[19]—it was not part of the Mauryan Empire.[20] The 3rd-2nd century BCE Baudhayana Dharmasutra mentions Anga (eastern Bihar), Magadha (southern Bihar), Pundra (northern Bengal) and Vanga (southern Bengal), and that a Brahmana required purification after visiting these places[21]—but it does not mention Kamarupa, thereby indicating it was beyond the ambit and recognition of the Brahminical culture in the second half of the first millennium BCE.[22]

Early dated mentions come from the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century) and Ptolemy's Geographia (2nd century) which call the region Kirrhadia after the Kirata population.[23] Arthashastra (early centuries of the Christian era[24]) mentions "Lauhitya",[25][better source needed] which is identified with Brahmaputra valley by a later commentator.[26] These early references speak about the economic activity of a tribal belt, and had nothing to say about their kingdoms.[27]

The earliest mention of a kingdom comes from the 4th-century Allahabad inscription of Samudragupta that calls the kings of Kamarupa and Davaka frontier rulers (pratyanta nripati).[28] The Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited the kingdom in the 7th century, then ruled by Bhaskaravarman.[29] The corpus of Kamarupa inscriptions left by the rulers of Kamarupa at various places in Assam and present-day Bangladesh are important sources of information. Nevertheless, local grants completely eschew the name Kamarupa; instead they use the name Pragjyotisha, with the kings called Pragjyotishadhipati.[30]

Boundaries[edit]

Over the course of its prevalence, the boundaries of Kamarupa fluctuated.[31] Most estimates about the boundaries are drawn from textual references of Kalika Purana and Yogini Tantra but are not based on any inscriptional records.[32] From the 10th century Kalika Purana and 16th century Yogini Tantra two different region are defined as Kamarupa, the first region include the boundaries Karatoya to the west and Lalitakanta to the east.[33] The second region include Karatoya to the west and Dikkaravasini to the east.[34] The former represented the Hinduised part of Kamarupa and the latter from Lalitakanta to Dikkaravasini represented the non-Hinduised tribal region which included vast area of middle and upper Assam coming into contact with the former over the course of time.[35] On the whole, the western boundary is assumed to be the historical Karatoya River. The eastern border to be either the Dikrang River[36] or the temple of the goddess Tamreshvari (Pūrvāte Kāmarūpasya devī Dikkaravasini, given in Kalika Purana) near present-day Sadiya.[37][38] The southern boundary to be near the border between the Dhaka and Mymensingh districts in Bangladesh. Thus based on the textual reference from Kalika Purana and Xuanzang, it is considered to span the entire Brahmaputra valley and Northeast India and at various times thought to include parts of present-day Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nepal.[39] Various epigraphic records found scattered over the regions are used to postulate the size of the kingdom.[1] The kingdom is believed to have broken up entirely by the 13th century into smaller kingdoms

State[edit]

The extent of state structures can be culled from the numerous Kamarupa inscriptions left behind by the Kamarupa kings as well as accounts left by travellers such as those from Xuanzang.[40] Governance followed the classical saptanga structure of state.[41]

Kings and courts: The king was considered to be of divine origin. Succession was primogeniture, but two major breaks resulted in different dynasties. In the second, the high officials of the state elected a king, Brahmapala, after the previous king died without leaving an heir. The royal court consisted of a Rajaguru, poets, learned men and physicians. Different epigraphic records mention different officials of the palace: Mahavaradhipati, Mahapratihara, Mahallakapraudhika, etc.[citation needed]

Council of Ministers: The king was advised by a council of ministers (Mantriparisada), and Xuanzang mentions a meeting Bhaskaravarman had with his ministers. According to the Kamauli grant, these positions were filled by Brahmanas and were hereditary. State functions were specialised and there were different groups of officers looking after different departments.[citation needed]

Revenue: Land revenue (kara) was collected by special tax-collectors from cultivators. Cultivators who had no proprietary rights on the lands they tilled paid uparikara. Duties (sulka) were collected by toll collectors (Kaivarta) from merchants who plied keeled boats. The state maintained a monopoly on copper mines (kamalakara). The state maintained its stores and treasury via officials: Bhandagaradhikrita and Koshthagarika.[citation needed]

Grants: The king occasionally gave Brahmanas grants (brahmadeya), which consisted generally of villages, water resources, wastelands etc. (agraharas). Such grants conferred on the grantee the right to collect revenue and the right to be free of any regular tax himself and immunity from other harassments. Sometimes, the Brahmanas were relocated from North India, with a view to establish varnashramdharma. Nevertheless, the existence of donees indicate the existence of a feudal class. Grants made to temples and religious institutions were called dharmottara and devottara respectively.[citation needed]

Land survey: The land was surveyed and classified. Arable lands (kshetra) were held individually or by families, whereas wastelands (khila) and forests were held collectively. There were lands called bhucchidranyaya that were left unsurveyed by the state on which no tax was levied.[citation needed]

Administration: The entire kingdom was divided into a hierarchy of administrative divisions. From the highest to the lowest, they were bhukti, mandala, vishaya, pura (towns), agrahara (collection of villages) and grama (village). These units were administered by headed by rajanya, rajavallabha, vishayapati etc.[41] Some other offices were nyayakaranika, vyavaharika, kayastha etc., led by the adhikara. They dispensed judicial duties too, though the ultimate authority lay with the king. Law enforcement and punishments were made by officers called dandika, (magistrate) and dandapashika (one who executed the orders of a dandika).[citation needed]

Political history[edit]

Kamarupa, first mentioned on Samudragupta's Allahabad rock pillar as a frontier kingdom, began as a subordinate but sovereign ally of the Gupta empire around present-day Guwahati in the 4th century.[42] It finds mention along with Davaka, a kingdom to the east of Kamarupa in the Kapili river valley in present-day Nagaon district, but which is never mentioned again as an independent political entity in later historical records. Kamarupa, which was probably one among many such state structures, grew territorially to encompass the entire Brahmaputra valley and beyond. As the Gupta Empire weakened, the Varmans, of indigenous origin, began asserting themselves politically by performing horse sacrifices and culturally by claiming semi-divine origins.[43] Under the rule of Bhaskaravarman Kamarupa reached its political zenith and the lineage of the Varmans from Narakasura, a demon, became a fixed tradition.[44] The Mlechchha dynasty, another set of indigenous rulers and the Pala dynasty that followed, too asserted political legitimacy by asserting descendancy from Narakasura.[45]

Varman dynasty (c. 350 – c. 650)[edit]

Pushyavarman (350–374) established the Varman Dynasty, by fighting many enemies from within and without his kingdom; but his son Samudravarman (374–398), named after Samudragupta, was accepted as an overlord by many local rulers.[49] Nevertheless, subsequent kings continued their attempts to stabilise and expand the kingdom.[50] The Nagajari Khanikargaon rock inscription of 5th century found in Sarupathar in Golaghat district of Assam adduces the fact that the kingdom spread to the east very quickly. Kalyanavarman (422–446) occupied Davaka and Mahendravarman (470–494) further eastern areas.[9] Narayanavarma (494–518) and his son Bhutivarman (518–542) offered the ashwamedha (horse sacrifice);[51] and as the Nidhanpur inscription of Bhaskarvarman avers, these expansions included the region of Chandrapuri visaya, identified with present-day Sylhet division. Thus, the small but powerful kingdom that Pushyavarman established grew in fits and starts over many generations of kings and expanded to include adjoining possibly smaller kingdoms and parts of Bangladesh.

After the initial expansion till the beginning of Bhutivarman's reign, the kingdom came under attack from Yasodharman (525–535) of Malwa, the first major assault from the west.[52] Though it is unclear what the effect of this invasion was on the kingdom; that Bhutivarman's grandson, Sthitavarman (566–590), enjoyed victories over the Gauda of Karnasuvarna and performed two aswamedha ceremonies suggests that the Kamarupa kingdom had recovered nearly in full. His son, Susthitavarman (590–600) came under the attack of Mahasenagupta of East Malwa. These back and forth invasions were a result of a system of alliances that pitted the Kamarupa kings (allied to the Maukharis) against the Gaur kings of Bengal (allied with the East Malwa kings).[53] Susthitavarman died as the Gaur invasion was on, and his two sons, Suprathisthitavarman and Bhaskarvarman fought against an elephant force and were captured and taken to Gaur. They were able to regain their kingdom due probably to a promise of allegiance.[54] Suprathisthitavarman's reign is given as 595–600, a very short period, at the end of which he died without an heir.

Supratisthitavarman was succeeded by his brother, Bhaskarvarman (600–650), the most illustrious of the Varman kings who succeeded in turning his kingdom and invading the very kingdom that had taken him captive. Bhaskarvarman had become strong enough to offer his alliance with Harshavardhana just as the Thanesar king ascended the throne in 606 after the murder of his brother, the previous king, by Shashanka of Gaur. Harshavardhana finally took control over the kingless Maukhari kingdom and moved his capital to Kanauj.[55] The alliance between Harshavardhana and Bhaskarvarman squeezed Shashanka from either side and reduced his kingdom, though it is unclear whether this alliance resulted in his complete defeat. Nevertheless, Bhaskarvarman did issue the Nidhanpur copper-plate inscription from his victory camp in the Gaur capital Karnasuvarna (present-day Murshidabad, West Bengal) to replace a grant issued earlier by Bhutivarman for a settlement in the Sylhet region of present-day Bangladesh.[56]

Mlechchha dynasty (c. 655 – c. 900 CE)[edit]

After Bhaskaravarman's death without an heir and a period of civil and political strife the kingdom passed into the hands of Salasthambha (655–670), possibly as erstwhile local governor[57] and a member of an aboriginal group called Mlechchha (or Mech). This dynasty too drew its lineage from the Naraka dynasty, though it had no dynastic relationship with the previous Varman dynasty. The capital of this dynasty was Haruppeshvara, now identified with modern Dah Parbatiya near Tezpur. The kingdom took on feudal characteristics[58] with political power shared between the king and second and third tier rulers called mahasamanta and samanta who enjoyed considerable autonomy.[59] The last ruler in this line was Tyāga Singha (890–900).

Pala dynasty (c. 900 – c. 1100)[edit]

After the death of Tyāgasimha without an heir, a member of the Bhauma family, Brahmapala (900–920), was elected as king by the ruling chieftains, just as Gopala of the Pala Empire of Bengal was elected. The original capital of this dynasty was Hadapeshvara, and was shifted to Durjaya built by Ratnapala (920–960), near modern Guwahati. The greatest of the Pala kings, Dharmapala (1035–1060) had his capital at Kamarupanagara, now identified with North Guwahati. The last Pala king was Jayapala (1075–1100).

Around this time, Kamarupa was attacked and the western portion was conquered by the Pala king Ramapala.

Breakup and End of Kamarupa[edit]

Western Kamarupa[edit]

Ramapala could not keep control for long, and Timgyadeva (1110–1126) ruled western Kamarupa independently for some time. His son Kumarapala sent Vaidyadeva against Timgyadeva who installed himself at Hamshkonchi in the Kamrup region. Though Vaidyadeva maintained friendly relationships with Kumarapala, he styled himself after the Kamarupa kings issuing grants under the elephant seal of erstwhile Kamarupa kings and assuming the title of Maharajadhiraja, though he did not call himself Pragjyotisadhipati like the Kamarupa kings did. He controlled a portion of Kamrup, Goalpara and North Bengal but not Kamarupanagara, the seat of the last Kamarupa kings.[60]

Central Kamarupa[edit]

It is estimated that with the withering away of the Kamarupa kingdom, parts of Kamrup, Darrang and Sonitpur districts on the north bank of the Brahmaputra river came under the control of one Bhaskara.[61] A single inscription (1185) gives a list of four rulers that have been called the Lunar dynasty—Bhaskara, Rayarideva, Udayakarna and Vallabhadeva—with their reign dated to 1120–1200.[62]

Southern Kamarupa[edit]

In the Sylhet region, there emerged rulers called Kharabana, Gokuladeva, Narayana and Kesavadeva.[61]

Kamarupa Proper[edit]

Kamarupa proper was confined to the south bank of Brahmaputra, with the power center still at Kamarupanagara,[63] with three rulers associated with it: Prithu, Samudrapala and Sandhya.[64]

In 1206 the Turko Afghan Bakhtiyar Khalji passed through Kamarupa against Tibet which ended in disaster, the first of many Turko-Afghan invasions. The ruler of Kamarupa at this point was Raja Prithu (d. 1228, called Britu in Tabaqat-i Nasiri),[65] who is sometimes identified with Visvasundara, the son of Vallabhadeva of the Lunar dynasty, mentioned in the Gachtal inscription of 1232 A.D.[66] Prithu withstood invasions (1226–27) from Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah of Gauda[65] who retreated back to his capital to defend it from Nasiruddin Mahmud but was defeated, captured and killed in 1228.[67] Nasir-ud-din installed a tributary king but after his death in 1229 the control of Kamarupa lapsed back to local rulers.[68]

Beginning of Kamata[edit]

From among the local rulers, there emerged a strong ruler named Sandhya (c.1250–1270), the Rai of Kamrup, with his capital at Kamarupanagara, the seat of the last Pala kings. Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Iuzbak, a governor of Gaur for the Mamluk rulers of Delhi, attempted an invasive attack on Sandhya's domain in 1257; and Sandhya, with the help of the spring floods that same year, captured and killed the Sultan.[69] Subsequent to this attack, Sandhya moved his capital from Kamarupanagara to Kamatapur (North Bengal) and established a new kingdom, that came to be called Kamata.[70]

At that time, western Kamarupa was the domain of the Koch and Mech peoples.[71] In other parts of the erstwhile Kamarupa the Kachari kingdom (central Assam, South bank), Baro Bhuyans (central Assam, North bank), and the Chutiya kingdom (east) were emerging. The Ahoms, who would establish a strong and independent kingdom later, began building their state structures in the region between the Kachari and the Chutiya kingdoms in 1228.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b (Dutta 2008:281), reproduced from (Acharya 1968).
  2. ^ a b Sircar (1990a), pp. 63–68.
  3. ^ "... (it shows) that in Ancient Assam there were three languages viz. (1) Sanskrit as the official language and the language of the learned few, (2) Non-Aryan tribal languages of the Austric and Tibeto-Burman families, and (3) a local variety of Prakrit (ie a MIA) wherefrom, in course of time, the modern Assamese language as a MIL, emerged." (Sharma 1978, pp. 0.24-0.28)
  4. ^ (A)ccording to the Yogina Tantra—a product of seventeenth-century Assam—the entire religion of Kamarupa is itself described as kirata dharma, that is, the religion of the northeast hill tribes,."(Urban 2011:237)
  5. ^ "The government of Kamarupa state was absolute monarchy in nature with the king at the top of the political structure." (Boruah 2005:1465)
  6. ^ Lahiri (1991), pp. 26–28.
  7. ^ "Pragjyotisa-Kamarupa had emerged as an 'early state' by covering a large part of present north-east India, part of neighbouring west-Bengal and Bangladesh in the period between the 4th to the 12th century." (Boruah 2005:1464)
  8. ^ Suresh Kant Sharma, Usha Sharma - 2005,"Discovery of North-East India: Geography, History, Culture, ... - Volume 3", Page 248, Davaka (Nowgong) and Kamarupa as separate and submissive friendly kingdoms.
  9. ^ a b "As regards the eastern limits of the kingdom, Davaka was absorbed within Kamarupa under Kalyanavarman and the outlying regions were brought under subjugation by Mahendravarman." (Choudhury 1959, p. 47)
  10. ^ "It is presumed that (Kalyanavarman) conquered Davaka, incorporating it within the kingdom of Kamarupa" (Puri 1968, p. 11)
  11. ^ "According to the Kalika Purana and the Yogonitantra, the ancient Kamarupa included, besides the districts of modern Assam, Cooch-Behar, Rang-pura, Jalpaiguri and Dinajpur within its territory." (Saikia 1997, p. 3)
  12. ^ "Before (the 10th century), copper plate inscriptions indicate that land around the Kushiara was more densely populated, because Kamarupa kings had granted large tracts of land to immigrant brahmans and their supporting castes, to make this region part of Assam (Khanda Kamarupa). (Ludden 2003:5081)
  13. ^ In the medieval times the region between the Sankosh river and the Barnadi river on the northern bank of the Brahmaputra river was defined as Kamrup (or Koch Hajo in Persian chronicles)(Sarkar 1990:95)
  14. ^ "They also looked upon themselves as the heirs of the glory that was ancient Kamarupa by right of conquest, and they long cherished infructuously their unfulfilled hopes of expanding up to that frontier." (Guha 1983:24). 'An Ahom force reached the banks of the Karatoya in hot pursuit of an invading Turko-Afghan army in the 1530s. Since then "the washing of the sword in the Karatoya" became a symbol of the Assamese aspirations, repeatedly evoked in the Bar-Mels and mentioned in the chronicles." (Guha 1983:33)
  15. ^ "The earliest name of Assam is Pragjyotisha, i.e. the territory of around the city of that name, while Kamarupa, later used as the name of the country, (was a) synonym of Pragjyotisha." (Sircar 1990a:57)
  16. ^ (Sirkar 1990a:57)
  17. ^ Barua, Birinchi Kumar; Kakati, Banikanta (1969). A cultural history of Assam - Volume 1. p. 15.
  18. ^ "Kamariipa was not included in the 16 Mahajanapadas during the time of the Buddha."(Shin 2018:28)
  19. ^ (Puri 1968, p. 4)
  20. ^ "(T)he north-eastern region was outside the Maurya Empire." (Shin 2018:28)
  21. ^ "Angas, Magadhas, Pundras and Vangas are mentioned in the Baudhiiyana Dharmasiitra (1.2.14-6) dated to the period between the early third and mid-second centuries BCE. The Angas and Magadhas lived in eastern and southern Bihar respectively, and the Pundras and the Vangas in northern and southern Bengal, respectively. . It is prescribed that a brahmana must have purification by the performance of punastoma or sarvarishtha after visiting their places. (Shin 2018:28)
  22. ^ (Shin 2018:28)
  23. ^ "The Periplus of the Erythraen Sea (last quarter of the first century A.D) and Ptolemy's Geography (middle of the second century A.D) appear to call the land including Assam Kirrhadia after its Kirata population." (Sircar 1990:60–61)
  24. ^ "...the Arthashastra in its present form has to be assigned to the early centuries of the Christian era and the commentaries to much later dates." (Sircar 1990, p. 61)
  25. ^ Niśipada Caudhurī (1985), Historical archaeology of central Assam, p.2
  26. ^ "If we go by Bhattaswamin's commentary on Arthashastra Magadha was already importing certain items of trade from this [Brahmaputra] Valley in Kautilya's days" (Guha 1984, p. 76)
  27. ^ "Kautilya's Arthashastra, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, the Geography of Ptolemy and other early literary works only speak of economic pursuits of the tribal belt of the north-eastern region...but had nothing to say about their kingdoms." (Shin 2018, p. 28)
  28. ^ (Sharma 1978, p. xv)
  29. ^ Bhushan 2005, p. 21.
  30. ^ "The name Kamarupa does not appear in local grants where Pragjyotisha alone figures with the local rulers called Pragjyotishadhipati." (Puri 1968, p. 3)
  31. ^ "As to the spatial extent of I<amatiipa, it is futile to project any fixed boundary on it. The sphere of its political influence constantly changed, and the kingdom itself never constituted a single entity." (Shin 2018:40)
  32. ^ "Based on these textual references, the so-called traditional boundary of Kāmarūpa is postulated. However, no inscriptional and material evidence confirms this conjecture"(Shin 2018:40)
  33. ^ "Kamarupa was defined as a region extending from the Karatoya in the west up to that place in the east Ganga, where goddess Lalitakanta resided."(Shin 2018:40)
  34. ^ " At the same time, the Kalikapurana gives us a different reference elsewhere that Kamarupa was triangular in shape and also 100 yojanas in length from the Karatoya to DikkaravasinI"(Shin 2018:40)
  35. ^ "In other words, the former represented the realm of the tribal non-sedentary society, covering a vast area in the middle and upper Brahmaputra Valley, and the latter that of the Brahmanical sedentary society, occupying a small part of the region"(Shin 2018:41)
  36. ^ "There are, however, two rivers of the name Dikrang; one flowing on the east of Narayanpur in North Lakhimpur and the other in Sadiya. Dikkaravasini is perhaps the Dikrang river"(Dutta 2008:181)
  37. ^ "...the temple of the goddess Tameshwari (Dikkaravasini) is now located at modern Sadiya about 100 miles to the northeast of Sibsagar" (Sircar 1990a:63–64)
  38. ^ "(T)he kingdom is demarcated as in the East, the Dikkaravasini and the river Dikshu (identified with Tamreswari temple and river Dibang of the Sadiya region respectively)" (Boruah 2007:32)
  39. ^ "(T)he kingdom of Kamarupa extended up to the river Karatoya in the west and included Manipur, Jaintiya, Cachar, parts of Mymensingh, Sylhet, Rangpur and portions of Nepal and Bhutan." (Baruah 1995:75)
  40. ^ Choudhury, P. C., (1959) The History of Civilization of the People of Assam, Guwahati
  41. ^ a b Puri (1968), p. 56.
  42. ^ "Royal history of Cooch Behar". coochbehar.nic.in. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  43. ^ "The fact that they are supposed descent from the demon Naraka probably indicates the indigenous origin Of the ruling family, though converted to the orthodox brahmanical religion (Majumdar 1962: 88). As Gupta rightly pointed out, it is possible that when Gupta power weakened, the Varman rulers asserted themselves not only politically by performing horse sacrifices, but also culturally by announcing their semidivine origin." (Shin 2011:177)
  44. ^ "In this context, a suitable sacred genealogy for the great king, Bhaskaravarman was probably reformulated and became a fixed tradition."(Shin 2011:178)
  45. ^ "It may be suggested that a story was fabricated by the brahmanas at the court of these kings to explain away their aboriginal origins (Sircar 1990b: 124), though the content of story was not known due to the corroded portion [of the inscription]. Nevertheless, the Mlecchas also sought their political validation from the lineage of Naraka." (Shin 2011:177)
  46. ^ "639 Identifier Documentation: aho – ISO 639-3". SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics). SIL International. Retrieved 29 June 2019. Ahom [aho]
  47. ^ "Population by Religious Communities". Census India – 2001. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 1 July 2019. Census Data Finder/C Series/Population by Religious Communities
  48. ^ "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
  49. ^ Lahiri (1991), p. 68.
  50. ^ Lahiri (1991), p. 72.
  51. ^ (Sircar 1990b:101)
  52. ^ (Lahiri 1991:70). Though the first evidence is from the Mansador stone pillar inscription of Yasodharman, there is no reference to this invasion in the Kamarupa inscriptions.
  53. ^ (Sircar 1990b:106–107)
  54. ^ (Sircar 1990b:109)
  55. ^ (Sircar 1990b:113)
  56. ^ Sircar (1990b), p. 115.
  57. ^ (Lahiri 1991:76)
  58. ^ Lahiri (1991), pp. 77–79.
  59. ^ Lahiri (1991), p. 78.
  60. ^ (Boruah 2011:80)
  61. ^ a b (Boruah 2011:81)
  62. ^ (Sircar 1992:166)
  63. ^ " The original Pragjyotisa-Kamarupa kingdom, after Jayapala could continue its political hold over a small area on the south bank of the Brahmaputra with its power centre at Kamarupanagara." (Boruah 2011:82)
  64. ^ "Extant sources speak of three rulers after Jayapala who had ruled Pragjyotisa-Kamarupa till the mid 13th century. They were Prithu, Samudrapala and Sandhya." (Boruah 2011:82)
  65. ^ a b "[Prithu] is believed to be the Kamarupa ruler who had to face and had successfully repulsed the first two Turko-Afghan invasions which came from Bengal in 1205-06 and in 1226-28 AD." (Boruah 2011, p. 82)
  66. ^ "Visvasundara (son and successor of Vallabhadeva), (?) was perhaps to be identified with Prithu or Bartu of Minhaj." (Sarkar 1992:37–38) (Note:11)
  67. ^ (Sarkar 1992:38)
  68. ^ "Notwithstanding the attempts by some of (Iuzbak's) daring predecessors to subjugate Kamarupa between Karatoya and Barnadi, it was still virtually a land unknown to the Sultans of Bengal, politically it was not unified but parceled among the Bodo, Koch and Mech Baro-Bhuyans, constituting a loose confederacy under the strongest of them." (Sarkar 1992:38)
  69. ^ (Sarkar 1992, pp. 39–40)
  70. ^ (Kamarupa) was reorganized as a new state, 'Kamata' by name with Kamatapur as capital. The exact time when the change was made is uncertain. But possibly it had been made by Sandhya (c. 1250 – 1270) as a safeguard against mounting dangers from the east and the west. Its control on the eastern regions beyond the Manah (Manas river) was lax."(Sarkar 1992, pp. 40–41)
  71. ^ "The description of (Bakhtiyar Khalji's) disastrous campaign provides us with some information about the populations (Siraj 1881: 560-1):... Konch, sometimes written Koch, (the same hesitation occurs in Buchanan-Hamilton’s manuscripts), is what we today write as Koch. Mej or Meg is the name we write as Mech. We can safely conclude that these names described important groups of people in the 13th century, in the area between the Ganges and the Brahmaputra." (Jaquesson 2008:16–17)

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