Kameoka abuts Kyoto to the east and is located to the north of Osaka. It is on the border line between former Tanba and Yamashiro providences. Together with Nantan city, the region is known as Southern Tanba, Kuchitan or Nanatan. For centuries, Kameoka served as a key transportation point to connect San'in region and Tanba providence with Kyoto. Today, the city serves as one of the fastest growing suburbs of Metro Kyoto, and Metro Osaka.
Kameoka is notable as the launch point for Hozugawa Kudari, a boat ride down the Hozu River. It is also the location of Anaoji Temple, one of the 21 temples in western Japan authorized to issue amulets in the name of the Boddhisattva Kannon.