Kameyama Station was opened on December 25, 1890, as a station on the Kansai Railway. The Kansai Railway was nationalized on October 1, 1907, and the station became part of the Imperial Government Railways (IGR) system. A new station building was completed on November 3, 1913. The IGR became Japan National Railways (JNR) after World War II. The station was absorbed into the JR Central network upon the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987. A new station building was completed in 2012.