Kamikaze-class destroyer (1905)
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Japanese destroyer Ushio at Vladivostok 1920
|Operators:||Imperial Japanese Navy|
|Preceded by:||Harusame class|
|Succeeded by:||Umikaze class|
|In commission:||16 August 1905 - 1 April 1928|
|Beam:||6.57 m (21.6 ft)|
|Draught:||1.8 m (5.9 ft)|
|Propulsion:||2-shaft reciprocating, 4 coal-fired boilers, 6,000 ihp (4,500 kW)|
|Speed:||29 knots (54 km/h)|
|Range:||850 nmi (1,570 km) at 11 kn (20 km/h)|
The Kamikaze-class destroyers (神風型駆逐艦 Kamikaze-gata kuchikukan)(""divine wind"") were a class of 32 torpedo boat destroyers (TBDs) of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Kamikaze class of destroyers were the first destroyers to be mass-produced in Japan. The class is also sometimes referred to as the Asakaze class. This class of destroyer should not be confused with the later Kamikaze-class destroyers built in 1922, which participated in the Pacific War.
The Kamikaze-class destroyers were part of the 1904 Imperial Japanese Navy Emergency Expansion Program created by the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War. Twenty-five vessels were ordered, and an additional four vessels were ordered in 1905, and three more in 1906, bringing the total to thirty-two ships. The Japanese governmental shipyards were overwhelmed with the volume of construction, and for the first time civilian shipyards were also assigned to produce warships.
In terms of design, the Kamikaze-class ships were substantially identical to the previous Harusame class, in terms of hull design and external appearance, retaining the flush deck design with a distinctive "turtleback" forecastle inherited from the Ikazuchi class, as well as the four-smokestack profile. However, with operational experience gained in the Russo-Japanese War, the Kamikaze class employed shorter smokestacks with spark and glow arrestors to give the ships a more stealthy capability for night combat operations.
Internally, design and production issues still existed with the Japanese copies of the Yarrow water-tube boilers in the coal-fired triple expansion steam engines, which could produce only 6,000 shaft horsepower (4,500 kW); however, with the final three vessels (Uranami, Isonami, Ayanami), many problems had been resolved, and the engines modified to be run on heavy fuel oil as well as coal.
Armament was the similar in layout to the previous Harusame class, but with larger secondary guns; i.e. two QF 12 pounder mounted on bandstands on the forecastle and fantail, four additional short barrel 12 pounder guns (two sited abreast the conning tower, and two sited between the funnels, and two single tubes for 18-inch (460 mm) torpedoes).
Only two Kamikaze-class vessels were completed in time to see combat service in the Russo-Japanese War.
Considered too small, unsuitable for heavy seas, and obsolete by the time of completion, the Kamikaze-class destroyers were quickly removed from front-line combat service after the end of the war, and were de-rated to third-class destroyers on 28 August 1912. Asatsuyu was wrecked off Nanao Bay on 9 November 1913.
However, despite the re-classification, all remaining vessels saw service in World War I. Shirotae was lost in combat on 3 September 1914 off Tsingtao ( ), while in combat against the German gunboat SMS Jaguar. This was the first significant warship loss by Japan during World War I.
List of ships
|Kanji||Name||Builder||Laid down||Launched||Completed||Fate||Name meaning|
|神風||Kamikaze||Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan||1904-08-20||1905-07-15||1905-08-16||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|初霜||Hatsushimo||Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan||1904-08-20||1905-05-13||1905-08-18||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|First frost (October)|
|弥生||Yayoi||Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan||1904-08-20||1905-08-07||1905-09-23||Retired 1924-12-01
|Month of born plants(March)|
|如月||Kisaragi||Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan||1904-09-10||1905-09-06||1905-10-19||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|朝風||Asakaze||Mitsubishi shipyards, Nagasaki, Japan||1904-12-30||1905-10-28||1906-04-01||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
struck 1928-04-01, scuttled 1929-08-01
|白露||Shiratsuyu||Mitsubishi shipyards, Nagasaki, Japan||1905-02-25||1906-02-12||1906-08-23||Reserves 1924-12-01
|白雪||Shirayuki||Mitsubishi shipyards, Nagasaki, Japan||1905-03-24||1906-05-19||1906-10-12||Reserves 1924-12-01
|松風||Matsukaze||Mitsubishi shipyards, Nagasaki, Japan||1905-09-25||1906-12-23||1907-03-15||Reserves 1924-12-01
|Wind to pines in coast|
|春風||Harukaze||Kawasaki Dockyards, Kobe, Japan||1905-02-16||1905-12-25||1906-05-14||Reserves 1924-12-01
|時雨||Shigure||Kawasaki Dockyards, Kobe, Japan||1905-06-03||1906-03-12||1906-07-11||Scrapped 1924-12-01||East Asian rainy season|
|朝露||Asatsuyu||Osaka Iron Works, Osaka, Japan||1905-04-28||1906-04-02||1906-11-16||Wrecked at Nanao Bay 1913-11-09
|疾風||Hayate||Osaka Iron Works, Osaka, Japan||1905-09-25||1906-05-22||1907-06-13||BU 1924-12-01||Fresh breeze|
|追手||Oite||Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-08-01||1906-01-10||1906-08-21||BU 1924-12-01||Pursuer（an army of the front）|
|夕凪||Yūnagi||Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan||1906-01-20||1906-08-22||1906-12-25||BU 1924-12-01||An evening calm|
|夕暮||Yūgure||Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-03-01||1905-11-17||1906-05-26||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
struck 1928-04-01, scuttled 1930-01-23
|夕立||Yūdachi||Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-03-20||1906-03-26||1906-07-16||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|三日月||Mikazuki||Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-06-01||1906-05-26||1906-09-12||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
struck 1928-04-01, scuttled 1930-07-21
|A sickle moon|
|野分||Nowaki||Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-08-01||1906-07-25||1906-11-01||BU 1924-12-01||A gale between grass (autumn typhoon)|
|潮||Ushio||Kure Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-04-12||1905-08-30||1905-10-01||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|子日||Nenohi||Kure Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-06-25||1905-08-30||1905-10-01||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|Pine of New Year's Day|
|響||Hibiki||Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-09-28||1906-03-31||1906-09-06||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|白妙||Shirotae||Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-03-24||1906-07-30||1907-01-21||Combat loss off Shantung Peninsula 1914-09-04
written off 1914-10-29
|初春||Hatsuharu||Kawasaki Dockyards, Kobe, Japan||1905-11-11||1906-05-21||1907-03-01||Retired 1924-12-01
|Early spring (New Year)|
|若葉||Wakaba||Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-05-20||1906-11-25||1906-02-28||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|初雪||Hatsuyuki||Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan||1905-09-11||1906-03-08||1906-05-17||Minesweeper 1924-12-01
|The first snow of the year|
|卯月||Uzuki||Kawasaki Dockyards, Kobe, Japan||1906-03-22||1906-09-20||1907-03-06||BU 1924-12-01||Month of Deutzia (April)|
|水無月||Minatsuki||Mitsubishi shipyards, Nagasaki, Japan||1906-02-25||1906-11-05||1907-02-14||Minesweeper 1924-12-01, renamed W-10 1928-08-01
retired 1930-06-01, scuttled 1931-05-28
|Month of the submerged rice field (June)|
|長月||Nagatsuki||Uraga Dock Company, Japan||1905-10-28||1906-12-15||1907-07-31||Minesweeper 1924-12-01, renamed W-11 1928-08-01
|Month of long night (September)|
|菊月||Kikutsuki||Uraga Dock Company, Japan||1906-03-02||1907-04-10||1907-09-20||Minesweeper 1924-12-01, renamed W-12 1928-08-01
|Month of chrysanthemum (September)|
|浦波||Uranami||Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan||1907-05-01||1907-12-08||1908-10-02||Minesweeper 1924-12-01, renamed W-8 1928-08-01
utility vessel 1930-06-01
|Wave in an inlet|
|磯波||Isonami||Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan||1908-01-15||1908-11-21||1909-04-02||Minesweeper 1924-12-01, renamed W-7 1928-08-01
utility vessel 1930-06-01
|Wave on a sea shore|
|綾波||Ayanami||Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan||1908-05-15||1909-03-20||1909-06-26||Minesweeper 1924-12-01, renamed W-9 1928-08-01
utility vessel 1930-06-01
- Evans, David (1979). Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887–1941. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-192-7.
- Howarth, Stephen (1983). The Fighting Ships of the Rising Sun: The Drama of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1895–1945. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-11402-8.
- Lyon, David (2006). The First Destroyers. Mercury Books. ISBN 1-84560-010-X.
- Jentsura, Hansgeorg (1976). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-893-X.
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