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close air support
Offensive counter air
|Size||Air Force Wing|
Battle of the Netherlands
Battle of Belgium
Battle of France
Battle of Britain
Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of Normandy
Kampfgeschwader 77 (KG 77) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II. Its units participated on all of the major fronts in the European Theatre until its dissolution in 1944. It operated all three of the major German bomber types; the Dornier Do 17, Heinkel He 111 and the Junkers Ju 88.
- 1 History
- 2 Wartime service
- 3 Commanding officers
- 4 References
Kampfgeschwader 77 was formed on 1 May 1939 at Praha-Kbely, Kampfgeschwader 77</ref> in Czechoslovakia with Stab./KG 77 and I Gruppe. II Gruppe at Praha-Kbely on the same date. The unit was allocated to Luftflotte 4, and equipped with the Do 17Z, while III./KG 77 was not made operational until 26 August 1939, again in Königgrätz, now Hradec Králové. While training in the summer of 1939 the Geschwader "worked up" on the Dornier Do 17Z and He 111.
During the Polish campaign I. and III. Gruppes of KG 77 took part in combat operations. Operating from Breslau-Schöngarten (today Copernicus Airport Wrocław), I./KG 77 committed 108 bombers to the campaign. Operating from Breslau under Luftflotte 4. The unit participated in the Battle of Bzura, and carried out raids in the areas of Galicia, Radom, Kielce and Warsaw against rail, airfield and troop targets.
Denmark and Norway
The unit did not participate in Operation Weserübung but instead spent the spring training and resting in preparation for the decisive western offensive in 1940.
France and the Low Countries
The Unit committed 111 bombers to the campaign. From its base at Werl it operated over Belgium and northern France, attacking French armour targets in the Reims and Amiens area. KG 77 supported the German Army during the Battle of Dunkirk, and it supported the southern offensive, Fall Rot until the French surrender. Its most notable action during the campaign was its part in Operation Paula, an all-out attack on Paris airfields, 3 June 1940.
Over Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic 1940–41
In mid-July 1940 all three gruppen returned to Germany to convert to the Junkers Ju 88. When III./KG 77 returned to France in late August (it was still based at Regensburg on 26 August) it had 35 Ju 88s operational. This gruppe suffered losses of 9 Ju 88s on a single mission against Gravesend on 18 September, one of the highest losses of any gruppe in a single mission. I./KG 77 in conjunction with II. and III. gruppe supported operations during the Blitz. On 27 September I./KG 77 lost six J 88s when raiding London, while II./KG 77 lost another six on the same night.
During 1941 the Geschwader also took part in the Battle of the Atlantic. It attempted to support the German battleship Bismarck during her Atlantic operation during 26–28 May 1941. However, the unit was unable to intervene before she sank. The Geschwader did manage to sink the Royal Navy destroyer HMS Mashona on 28 May 1941, as the British forces withdrew to port.
Daylight and night attacks were undertaken over the British Isles again from 27 July - 13 August 1942.
I and III./KG 77 were the only units committed to Operation Barbarossa, with a total of 59 Ju 88s. The Geschwader supported Army Group North's drive into the Baltic states and took part in the Siege of Leningrad. During this period I./KG 77 helped defeat a strong Soviet counter-attack by the 11th Army and 34th Army. KG 77 also supported Operation Beowulf, the invasion of the Baltic islands of Osel, Moon and Dago.
During the battle for Estonia it inflicted severe losses on Soviet shipping, with the same dive-bombing tactics used over Norway, France and Britain. KGr 806 sank the Soviet destroyer Karl Marx on 8 August 1941 in Loksa Bay, Tallinn. On 28 August the Ju 88s had more success when KG 77 and KGr 806 sank the 2,026 grt steamer Vironia, the 2,317 grt Lucerne, the 1,423 Atis Kronvalds and the ice breaker Krisjanis Valdemars (2,250 grt). The rest of the Soviet "fleet", were forced to change course. This took them through a heavily mined area. As a result, 21 Soviet warships, including five destroyers, struck mines and sank. On 29 August, the Ju 88s accounted for the transport ships Vtoraya Pyatiletka (3,974 grt), Kalpaks (2,190 grt) and Leningradsovet (1,270 grt) sunk. Furthermore, the ships Ivan Papanin, Saule, Kazakhstan and the Serp i Molot were damaged. Some 5,000 Soviet soldiers were lost. KG 77 was largely withdrawn from Russia, although I./KG 77 continued to operate on the Eastern Front until July 1942, supporting German forces during Operation Seydlitz and the Second Battle of Kharkov.
Mediterranean and North Africa
I./KG 77 was reformed as I./KG 6 on 31 August 1942, after the unit ceased operations over Great Britain. However I./KG 77 was reformed again on 10 September 1942. The Kampfgeschwader carried out operations in the Mediterranean and North Africa until June 1943, taking part in the Siege of Malta and the Second Battle of El Alamein. The unit also resisted the Allied invasion of Sicily, probably destroying the U.S. Liberty ship SS Robert Rowan on 11 July. KG 77 made constant night attacks against Allied Naval forces from 10 July - 25 August 1943. After retraining naval attack methods, the unit could now operate with effective torpedo methods. I./KG 77 operated from Salon in southern France from March - July 1944, attacking American convoys of the coast of Algeria.
Western Front 1943–44
KG 77's primary responsibility was anti-shipping in the English Channel. Committed under the command of Luftflotte 3, KG 77 supported the German Army, although at night to avoid overwhelming Allied air superiority forces, until 1 September 1944, when it was no longer mentioned on Luftflotte 3's order of battle.
- Oberst Heinrich Seywald 1 May 1939 - 13 September 1939 (possibly acting CO)
- Oberst Wolff von Stutterheim 14 September 1939 - 20 March 1940
- Oberst Dr. Johan-Volkmar Fisser 21 March 1940 - 31 May 1940 (possibly acting CO)
- Major-General Wolff von Stutterheim (promoted) 31 May 1940 - 15 June 1940 (Wounded in action, died 3 December 1940)
- Major-General Heinz-Hellmuth von Wühlisch 21 June 1940 - 1 August 1940
- Oberstleutnant Johann Raithel 1 August 1940 - 13 March 1942
- Major Arved Crüger 13 March 1942 - 22 March 1942
- Major Wilhelm Stremmler 12/15 February 1943 - 20 July 1944
II. Gruppe/KG 77
- Oberstleutnant Augustin 1 May 1939 – November 1939
- Oberstleutnant Karl Angerstein, 3 November 1939 – 8 January 1940
- Major Behrendt, 1940
- Hauptmann Dietrich Peltz, 13 March 1941 – 30 September 1941
- Hauptmann Heinrich Paepcke, October 1941 – 17 October 1942
- Hauptmann Eberhard Stüwe, - July 1944
- de Zeng et al. Vol 1 2007, p. 260.
- de Zeng et al. Vol 1 2007, pp. 252-256.
- de Zeng et al. Vol 1 2007, p. 252.
- de Zeng et al. Vol 1 2007, p. 252, 260.
- Bergström 2007, p. 36.
- Bergström 2007, p. 60.
- de Zeng et al. Vol 1 2007, p. 252.
- de Zeng et al. 2007, p. 251.
- Bergström, Christer (2007a). Barbarossa - The Air Battle: July–December 1941. London: Chervron/Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2.
- Bergström, Christer (2007b). Stalingrad – The Air Battle: 1942 through January 1943. Midland Puplishing, Hinkley. ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4
- Bergström, Christer (2015). The Battle of Britain: An Epic Conflict Revisited. Casemate: Oxford. ISBN 978-1612-00347-4.
- Bergström, Christer; Mikhailov, Andrey (2001). Black Cross / Red Star Air War Over the Eastern Front, Volume II, Resurgence January–June 1942. Pacifica, California: Pacifica Military History. ISBN 978-0-935553-51-2.
- Cull, Brian; Lander, Bruce; Weis, Heinrich (1999). Twelve Days in May. London: Grub Street Publishing (UK), ISBN 978-1902304120
- de Zeng, H. L; Stankey, D. G; Creek, E. J. (2008). Bomber Units of the Luftwaffe 1933-1945; A Reference Source, Volume 2. Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 978-1-903223-87-1
- Goss, Chris. (2010). The Luftwaffe's Blitz: The Inside Story, November 1940—May 1941. Crecy, Manchester. ISBN 978-0-85979-148-9
- Goss, Chris (2007). Sea Eagles Volume Two: Luftwaffe Anti-Shipping Units 1942–45. Burgess Hill: Classic Publications. ISBN 978-1-9032-2356-7.
- Hayward, Joel S (1998). A. Stopped At Stalingrad. Univ. of Kansas; Lawrence. ISBN 978-0-7006-1146-1
- Hooton, E.R. (1994). Phoenix Triumphant: The Rise and Rise of the Luftwaffe. Arms & Armour, ISBN 1854091816.
- Hooton, E.R. (1997). Eagle in Flames: The Fall of the Luftwaffe. Arms & Armour Press. ISBN 1-86019-995-X
- James, T.C.G and Cox, Sebastian. The Battle of Britain. Frank Cass, London. 2000. ISBN 978-0-7146-8149-8
- Mackay, Ron (2011). The Last Blitz: Operation Steinbock, the Luftwaffe's Last Blitz on Britain – January to May 1944. Red Kite. ISBN 978-0-9554735-8-6
- Mason, Francis (1969). Battle Over Britain. McWhirter Twins, London. ISBN 978-0-901928-00-9
- Muller, Richard (1992). The German Air War in Russia. Nautical & Aviation Publishing. Baltimore, Maryland. ISBN 1-877853-13-5
- Parker, Nigel (2013). Luftwaffe Crash Archive: Volume 1: A Documentary History of Every Enemy Aircraft Brought Down Over the United Kingdom, September 1939 – 14 August 1940. Red Kite, London. ISBN 978-1906592097
- Wakefield, Ken (1999). Pfadfinder: Luftwaffe Pathfinder Operations Over Britain. NPI Media Group. ISBN 978-0-75241-692-2
- Shores, Christopher F.; Ring, Hans; Hess, William N. (1975). Fighters Over Tunisia. London, UK: Neville Spearman. ISBN 978-0-85435-210-4.