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Kanem may refer to:

  • Kanem-Bornu Empire, existed in modern Chad and Nigeria known to Arabian geographers from the 9th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900
  • Kanem Prefecture, of former prefectures of Chad
  • Kanem Region, a region of Chad created in 2002 from the former Prefecture of Kanem
  • Kanem Department, one of three departments which make up the Kanem Region in Chad
  • Kanem, a historic Chinese county which is now part of the Dongfang City in Hainan Province, China