Kanger

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Kashmiri Ornamental Kanger

A kanger (Kashmiri: कांगर (Devanagari), کانگر (Nastaleeq); also known as kangri or kangid or kangir)[1] is an earthen pot woven around with wicker filled with hot embers used by Kashmiris and Himachalis beneath their traditional clothing to keep the chill at bay,[2] which is also regarded as a work of art.[3] In Kashmir, it is normally kept inside the Phiran, the Kashmiri cloak,[4] or inside a blanket.[5] If a person is wearing a jacket, it may be used as a hand warmer.[6] It is about 6 inches (150 mm) in diameter and reaches a temperature of about 150 °F (66 °C). It comes in different variants, small ones for children and large ones for adults. In Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh, the Kangri is used as a personal heater, albeit now the use has declined there to almost non-existent.

Background[edit]

After the earthen pots are moulded, and backed, the artisans complete the wickerwork around them,[7] by erecting two arms to handle the pot, proping the back side with strong wicker sticks, and colour it (optionally)to give an aesthetically delicate shape.[8] The final product then goes to the market.

History[edit]

It is generally believed that Kashmiris learnt the use of the kangri from the Italians who were in the retinue of the Mughal emperors, and usually visited the Valley during summer.[9] In Italy (where a similar device was known as a scaldino)[10] and Spain, braziers were made in a great variety of shapes and were profusely ornamented. Historical data, however, contradicts the claim that kangri came to Kashmir from Italy, but it is known that it was used in the time of the Mughal Empire.[11] Those visiting Kashmir for the first time during the winter season are surprised to find people carrying firepots in their hands or in their laps[12] but every Kashmiri knows how to handle the apparatus with care. It is a part of Kashmiri tradition and even in modern times it sees a huge demand, and is even used in public or private offices during winters.

Current use[edit]

A candidate for the world's largest kangri

Kashmiri Pandits burn kangri on the occasion of a local festival called Teela Aetham, marking the end of winter season.[13] Isband (Peganum harmala), aromatic seeds believed to push away negative energies, are burnt in a kanger to mark a good beginning to a party.[14]

Beyond Kashmir, people of the erstwhile Hill states of Himachal, Uttarakhand, and some parts of Nepal also use versions of Kangri.

In 2015, a shopkeeper in Srinagar commissioned a kangri, described as the world's largest, to attract customers to his textile shop. Kashmir Life reported that the size, over a metre long, posed technical challenges to the wicker-weavers.[15]

Legacy[edit]

This Kashmiri proverb, "what Laila was on Majnun’s bosom (Legendary Lovers), so is the Kanger to a Kashmiri", sums up the relationship between a Kashmiri and the Kanger and its cultural importance, which is also shown by this verse:[12]

Ai kangri! ai kangri!
Kurban tu Hour wu Peri!
Chun dur bughul mi girimut
Durd az dil mi buree.
(Oh, kangri! oh, kangri!
You are the gift of Houris and Fairies;
When I take you under my arm
You drive fear from my heart.)

Medical hazards[edit]

Regular use of the kanger can cause a specific skin cancer known as kangri cancer.[16] This effect was first studied by W. J. Elmslie in 1866 and was thought to be caused by burns,[5] but it is now thought to be the result of a carcinogenic distillation product of woodcoal.[17][contradictory]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Khan, Mohammad Ishaq (1978). History of Srinagar, 1846-1947. Aamir Publications. p. 85. OCLC 5220131. 
  2. ^ Qadri, M. Afzal; G̲h̲ain He Gūrkū (1997). Cultural Heritage of Kashmir. University of Kashmir. p. 31. OCLC 39292540. 
  3. ^ Raina, A. N. (1981). Geography of Jammu and Kashmir. National Book Trust. p. 144. OCLC 9260048. 
  4. ^ Hueper, Wilhelm C. (1942). Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases. C. C. Thomas. p. 293. OCLC 5639833. 
  5. ^ a b Mayer, Ishtiaq Ahmad (2007). Medical Geography. APH Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-81-313-0268-2. 
  6. ^ Isaac, John; Art Davidson (2008). Vale of Kashmir. W. W. Norton. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-393-06525-1. 
  7. ^ Murray-Aynsley, Harriet Georgiana Maria Manners-Sutton; George Christopher Molesworth Birdwood (1900). Symbolism of the East and West. Redway. p. 208. OCLC 60177010. 
  8. ^ Singh, Kumar Suresh (1993). Basketry in India. Ministry of Human Resource Development (India). p. 28. OCLC 30361817. 
  9. ^ India Quarter Master General's Dept. (1991). Gazetteer of Kashmir and Ladak. Sang-e-Meel Publications. p. 476. ISBN 978-969-35-0104-9. 
  10. ^ MacGregor, Charles Metcalfe; F. Maisey; Charles Ellison Bates (1995). Central Asia. Barbican. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-900056-30-4. 
  11. ^ Mattoo, A. Majid (1988). Kashmir under the Mughals, 1586-1752. Golden Horde Enterprises. p. 137. OCLC 19811895. 
  12. ^ a b Vigne, G. T. (1844). Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, Iskardo, the Countries Adjoining the Mountain-course of the Indus, and the Himalaya, North of the Panjab ...: With Map. Henry Colburn. p. 317. OCLC 5970833. 
  13. ^ T.N. Dhar. "The Festivals of the Kashmiri Pandits". 
  14. ^ Rajesh Bhat (2 December 2007). "Warm up to kangri". 
  15. ^ Aafaq, Zafar (17 January 2016). "The ‘Biggest Kanger’ and the Sales Thereof". Kashmir Life. KL NEWS NETWORK. Retrieved 10 November 2016. 
  16. ^ Raven, Ronald William (1957). Cancer. Butterworth. p. 277. OCLC 2730378. 
  17. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants (1972). Particulate Polycyclic Organic Matter. National Academy of Sciences. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-309-02027-5.