Kanlaon Volcano

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This article is about the volcano. For the Visayan god, see Kan-Laon. For the city, see Canlaon.
Kanlaon Volcano
Mount Canlaon.JPG
Kanlaon Volcano as seen from the east
Elevation 2,435 m (7,989 ft)
Prominence 2,435 m (7,989 ft)
Listing Ultra prominent peaks
Kanlaon Volcano is located in Philippines
Kanlaon Volcano
Kanlaon Volcano
Map of the Philippines
Location Negros Island, Philippines
Coordinates 10°24′42″N 123°07′54″E / 10.41167°N 123.13167°E / 10.41167; 123.13167Coordinates: 10°24′42″N 123°07′54″E / 10.41167°N 123.13167°E / 10.41167; 123.13167
Type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Negros Volcanic Belt
Last eruption November 2015
Map showing major volcanoes of the Philippines.

Kanlaon Volcano, also spelled as Kanla-on or Canlaon, is an active volcano on Negros island in central Philippines. The stratovolcano straddles the provinces of Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental, approximately 30 km (19 mi) southeast of Bacolod, the capital and most populous city of Negros Occidental.

The volcano is a favorite spot for mountain climbers and is the centerpiece of Mount Kanlaon Natural Park, a national park originally established on August 8, 1934.[1][2] It is one of the active volcanoes in the Philippines and part of the Pacific ring of fire.

Physical features[edit]

Kanlaon has a peak elevation of 2,435 m (7,989 ft) with a base diameter of 30 km (19 mi) and is dotted with pyroclastic cones and craters. Just below and north of the summit is the active Lugud crater. North of Lugud is a 2 by 0.8 km (1.24 by 0.50 mi) caldera, known as Margaja Valley, with a crater lake.[3]

The volcano has three hot springs on its slopes: Mambucal Hot Springs on the northwest, Bucalan Hot Spring, and Bungol Hot Spring. Its adjacent volcanic edifices are Mount Silay and Mount Mandalagan, north of Kanlaon.

The city center of Canlaon, the city that has jurisdiction on the Negros Oriental side of the mountain, lies on its lower slope about 8.5 km (5.3 mi) ESE of the summit.[3]


The most active volcano in central Philippines, Kanlaon has erupted 26 times since 1919. Eruptions are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ash falls near the volcano. In 1902, the eruption was classified as strombolian, typified by the ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs.[3]

Volcanic activity at Kanlaon is continuously monitored by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), the government's bureau that monitors the volcano and earthquakes in the country. Kanlaon Volcano Observatory is located at the campus of La Carlota City College in the barangay of Cubay, La Carlota in Negros Occidental province.[3]

1996 Kanlaon Incident[edit]

On August 10, 1996, 24 mountain climbers hiked at the volcano when Kanlaon erupted without warning, killing British student Julian Green and Filipinos Noel Tragico and Neil Perez, who were trapped near the summit. The authorities rescued the 17 others, including 10 Belgians, another Briton and six Filipinos. The 17 were identified as Belgians Frederick Carraso, Philipp Couche, Caroline La Grange, Sophie La Benne, Darmien Gaitan, David Ryckaert, Florence De Corte, Jean Francois Ossengeld, Caroline Verlinde and Delthme Ferrant, Briton Gordon Cole and Filipinos Pepito Ibrado, Wovi Villanueva and Albert Devarras.

One of the Belgians, Caroline Verlinde, said she and her group were about to leave a site near the crater rim when suddenly the volcano ejected ash and stone. She ran to a tree for cover and saw her friends being hit by falling stones. She said their Filipino guide told them the smoke billowing out from the crater "was just hard."

Recent volcanic activity[edit]


On June 3, 2006, Kanlaon again exhibited restiveness and spewed steam and ash. Alert Level 1 was issued on June 12, 2006.


On February 10, 2008 PHIVOLCS issued an alert stating that the seismic network at Kanlaon Volcano recorded a total of 21 low frequency volcanic earthquakes (LFVQ) during the past 24 hours. Due to the increasing number of recorded volcanic earthquakes, PHIVOLCS raised Kanlaon Volcano’s alert status from Alert Level 0 to Alert Level 1, which means the volcano is at slightly elevated unrest and volcanic activity could lead to steam and ash ejections.[4] A 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) was maintained around the volcano, as sudden explosions may occur without warning, but no eruptions occurred.


In the 8 days from 23 August to 1 September, 257 volcanic earthquakes were recorded. Usual seismic activity during quiet periods is 0 to 4 quakes in any 24-hour period. Epicenters of the recorded quakes were clustered at the north-west slope which may indicate movement of an active local fault at the slope induced by pressure beneath the volcano. Surface observations did not show any significant change in the steam emission from the crater. PHIVOLCS maintained the alert status at Level 0.[5]


On November 23, Kanlaon had a small, steam-driven explosion. PHIVOLCS raised the alert level to 1 (mild restiveness) [6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "NIPAS's 202 Initial list of components". Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. Retrieved on 2011-08-13.
  2. ^ "Protected Areas of Region 6". Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. Retrieved on 2011-08-13.
  3. ^ a b c d "Kanlaon Volcano Page". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology.
  4. ^ Phivolcs Kanlaon Update
  6. ^ "Phivolcs: Alert level 1 raised as Kanlaon Volcano spews ash". CNN Philippines. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 

External links[edit]