Clockwise from top: Gandhi Circle (formerly Caltex), St. Angelo's Fort, Thavakara Bus Terminal, Sea Pathway, Payyambalam Beach
|Nickname(s): Land of looms and lores|
|Talukas||Kannur, previously known as Chirakkal Taluk|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Kannur Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||E.P.Latha (CPIM)|
|• Deputy Mayor||P K Ragesh|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||KL-13 KL-58 KL-59|
Kannur (IPA: [kaɳɳuːr] ( listen)), formerly known as Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Kannur District and situated 518 km north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. During British rule in India, Kannur was known as Cannanore, which is used now only by the Indian Railways. It is the largest city of the North Malabar region.
Kannur district is known as the land of Looms and Lores, because of the loom industries functioning in the district and ritualistic folk arts held in temples. Kannur is famous for its pristine beaches, Theyyam, its native performing art, and its handloom industry. Kannur is of great strategic military importance. Kannur Cantonment is one of the 62 military cantonments in the country and is the headquarters of the Defence Security Corps and Territorial Army’s 122 Infantry Battalion (under Madras Regiment). Ezhimala Naval Academy (INS) is 35 km north of Kannur City. It is Asia's largest and the world's third largest naval academy. An Indian Coast Guard Academy is approved to be built at Kannur. This academy will be built on the banks of Valapattanam River at Irinave, east of Azhikkal. Kannur Cantonment is one of the important cantonments in India.
The name Kannur may have been derived from Kanathur, an ancient village. Another opinion holds that Kannur was originally a portmanteau derived from two Malayalam words: Kannan (Krishna), a Hindu deity, and Ur (place)—making it "the place of Lord Krishna." One support for this theory is that the deity of the Kadalayi Sriracha Temple was originally installed in a shrine at Kadalayi Kotta in the southeastern part of the present Kannur town. During the British Raj, the city was known as Cannanore, the anglicised form of the Malayalam word Kannur. The above theory is alien to the people of Kannur since Kadalayi and Kanathur are outside of the original ancient Kannur. It is just an assumption of the people outside Kannur, since they see the present day Kannur, which comprises the old city and the modern town. Actually the modern town is part of the place called Chalad, which was outside original Kannur. People above 50 years still remember that
...(twenty years back) people of Chalad used to call the people of Kannur City (old city) Kannurkar (means people of Kannur) which is a real proof that the original Kannur is the Kannur city and its immediate surroundings. In ancient days, a city comprised only a strip of four to five kilometers. The original people of Kannur still say, that Kadalayi and Kanathur are outside the old Kannur area...
As per the Malayalam language which is the native language of Kannur, Kannur means Kann (eye) Ur (land or place). Together it is called Eye of the Land - "Kannaya Ur" = Kannur (Eye of the Land; means the best of the lands = the best land)). Original name Kannur belongs to the old city which is still known as Kannur City. Kannur town is the modern day Kannur town.
Kannur was an important trading center in the 12th century, with active business connections with Persia and Arabia. It served as the British military headquarters on India's west coast until 1887. In conjunction with its sister city, Tellicherry, it was the third largest city on the western coast of British India in the 18th century after Bombay and Karachi.
Kannur is a very ancient city which used to be one of the three important cities of the whole western Indian sub continent 200 years ago; competing with Bombay and Karachi. It is said to be that the Loud Sage - the ship of King Solomon had anchored off the coast of Kannur to gather wood for the construction of the Temple of the Lord. Kannur's name has mentions in the Periplus of the Eritrean Naura and sea, a work of the great Greek antiquity.
The original city of Kannur was under Kerala's only Muslim Royal dynasty called the Arakkal Sultanate and it was their capital. This area is still known as Kannur City. The modern town is referred as Kannur Town. Kannur, as a district and surrounding areas were mostly ruled by the famous Kolathiri rajas (kings). When the state of Kerala was formed the district took the name Kannur, since the administrative offices were established here. Before that, Kannur was under the Chirakkal Taluk of Madras state under British rule. When the British dominated this part of the world, they preferred Madras and Cochin as their major stations and Kannur started to lose its old glory. The people of Kannur are still waiting for their old glory to get back and they feel they are being sidelined because the state administration is located exactly opposite side of the state.
Kannur was known to the Chinese, Greeks, Romans, Persians, Hebrews and Arabs thousands of years back and it was used to be the trading hub for mainly spices, timbers, etc. It was the only place in entire India (!!!) which was targeted by Portuguese, Dutch, French, British and Germans and used for trading by Arabs, Hebrews, Persians, etc. for reasons unknown and no clear history to go back and verify. The border town of Kannur district named Mahe is still called French Mahe, because it was ruled by French and is under Pondicherry not under Kerala Government. The Portuguese built their first fort in Kannur, possibly because Kannur was their main target in India. Since Kannur was the biggest town in the western Indian Sub Continent, up to 200 years back, the city must have been well known outside India and become a target for the European traders. Kannur and its twin sister town Thalassery are well known for their distinct food dishes, which display an elegant combination of food styles from the native territory, as well as from the territories that traded with them.
St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of India. The British conquered it in 1790 and used it as one of their major military stations on the Malabar Coast. During the 17th century, Kannur was the capital city of the only Muslim Sultanate in India, known as Arakkal. During the British Raj, Kannur was part of the Madras province in the North Malabar District.
The guerrilla war by Pazhassi Raja, the ruler of Kottayam province, against the British had a huge impact in the history of Kannur. Changes in the socio-economic and political sectors in Kerala during the initial decades of 20th century created conditions congenial for the growth of the Communist Party. Extension of English education initiated by Christian missionaries in 1906 and later carried forward by government, rebellion for wearing a cloth to cover upper parts of body, installing an idol at Aruvippuram in 1888, Malayali Memorial in 1891, establishment of SNDP Yogam in 1903, activities, struggles etc. became factors helpful to accelerate changes in Kerala society during a short time. Movements for liberation from the colonial rule of British imperialism and struggles launched by these movements grew with them.
Very soon, ideas about socialism and Soviet Revolution reached Kerala. Such ideas got propagated in Kerala through the works of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai, Sahodaran Ayyappan, P. Kesavadev and others.By the beginning of the 1930s some other useful developments were taking place. Important among them was Nivarthana Agitation in Travancore. That was the demand of people suppressed so far as untouchables and weaker sections for participation in government. This brought to the forefront struggles like proportional representation in government and reservation of jobs. This imparted a new enthusiasm among oppressed masses.
- District: Kannur
- Governing Body: Kannur Municipal Corporation
- Taluk/Tehsil: Kannur
- Block: Kannur
- Assembly Constituency: Kannur
- Parliament Constituency: Kannur
- Police Station: Kannur
- Post Office: 670001
- Telephone Exchange: Kannur 0497
- Railway Station: Cannanore Railway Station (CAN)
Kannur, particularly the rural areas, has been referred to as a stranglehold of the left parties - locally known as 'party gramam'. Gramam means 'village' and usually denote local allegiance to only one party. Kannur has a strong presence of trade unions as well as left-leaning organizations. However, other parties also have strong influence.
Kannur is the most politically volatile district in Kerala. Though Kannur is home to highly talented political leaders in the past including very talented two chief ministers Mr. K. Karunakaran and Mr. E. K Nayanar, central ministers E. Ahmed, C. M. Ebrahim, Venugopal, etc., the benefits of development was very slow to reach the place.
5 ministers out of 20 in the present government are from Kannur including the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister, Pinarayi Vijayan from Pinarayi village represents Dharmadam Constituency in Kannur. Since formation of the state, roughly half who occupied the Chief Minister's office had some sort of connection to the district.
Geography and climate
Kannur experiences a rare humid tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification (Am). In April and May, the average daily maximum temperature is about 35 °C (95 °F). Temperatures are low in December and January: about 20 °C (68 °F). Like other areas on the Malabar Coast, this town receives heavy rainfall during the Southwest monsoon. The annual average rainfall is 3438 mm, around 68% of which is received in July.
|Climate data for Kannur (1978–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.8
|Average high °C (°F)||32.7
|Average low °C (°F)||21.5
|Record low °C (°F)||16.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||3.9
|Average rainy days||0.2||0.0||0.5||2.5||7.9||24.2||25.0||21.6||11.2||10.5||5.2||1.3||110.0|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
According to the 2011 census of India, Kannur city has a population of 56,823. Males constitute 46.2% of the population and females 53.8%. Kannur has an average literacy rate of 96.23%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male literacy is 98% and female literacy is 94%. In Kannur, 12% of the population is under six years of age.
Muslims form the majority of the population with 32,026 members forming 56.3% of the population. There are 21,557 Hindus forming 37.9% of the population. Christians form 5% of the population with 2,892 members. Malayalam is the administrative and local language.
Kannur Taluk has 34 villages.
- Anjarakandi,Koodali, Azhikode North, Azhikode South and Chelora
- Chembilode, Cherukkunnu, Cheruthazham and Chirakkal
- Edakkad, Elayavoor, Ezhome, Iriveri, Kadambur and Kadannappally
- Kalliasseri, Kanhirod, Kannadiparamba, Kannapuram
- Kunhimangalam, Madayi, Makrery, Mattool, Mavilayi and Munderi
- Muzhappilangad, Narath, Pallikkunnu and Panapuzha
- Pappinisseri, Puzhathi, Valapattanam and Valiyannur
- St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by the first Portuguese Viceroy of India, Dom Francisco de Almeida. In 1663, the Dutch captured it and then in 1772, they sold the fort to the Arakkal King. In 1790, the British captured it, and it was under the British until 1947.
- Payyambalam Beach is a famous Kannur beach with an unbroken coastline of a few kilometres. From the beach, one can see ships in transit along the Malabar Coast, from beyond Kozhikode moving towards Mangalore, Goa and Bombay (Mumbai). It contains a well laid out garden and the massive landscaped sculpture of mother and child erected by noted sculptor Kanayi Kunhiraman. But it now lies vandalized by miscreants.
- Muzhappilangad Drive-in Beach (4 km length) is in the state of Kerala in southwestern India. It is parallel to National Highway 66 (formerly National Highway 17) between Kannur and Thalassery.
- Arakkal Museum, in Ayikkara, is a museum dedicated to the Arakkal family, the only Muslim royal family in Kerala, South India. The museum is a section of the Arakkalkettu (Arakkal Palace). The Durbar Hall section of the palace has been converted into a museum by the Government of Kerala. It was opened in July 2005 after a massive renovation and is managed by the Arakkal Family Trust.
- Baby Beach is so called because it is smaller than its larger neighbour, Payyambalam Beach. St. Angelo Fort is adjacent to it. The baby beach is part of the Kannur Cantonment and access may be restricted at times.
- Meenkunnu Beach is at Azhikode, just a few kilometres from the town.
- Mapila Bay in Ayikkara, near St. Angelo fort, is a major fishing harbor overlooking the Laccadive Sea.
- The Azhikkal Ferry operates near Azhikode, about 10 km from Kannur town, where the Valapattanam river joins the Laccadive Sea. The Azhikkal ferry gives a magnificent view of the sunset. There is a granite pathway here which stretches 2 km into the sea. Frequent passenger boats are available to Mattool, Parassinikkadavu and Valapattanam from here.
- Parassinikkadavu snake park-famous unique snake farm dedicated for the preservation and conservation of snakes is in Kannur.
- Aralam wildlife sanctuary is famous for elephant, sloth bear, mouse deer etc.
Kannur is assumed to have got the name, the Land of Krishna (Kannande uuru) because of Kadalai Shri Krishna Temple. Shri Rajarajeshwara temple, Parassinikadavu Sree Muthappan Temple and Annapurneshwari Temple, Trichambaram Temple and Madayikavu temple, are the famed temples of the region. The Shri Rajarajeshwara temple is a very important temple in South India, considering the fact, that the devaprasna ritual, to astrologically determine the problems of most of the important South Indian temples is conducted here. Other temples:
- Kottiyoor Vadakkeshwaram Temple
- Kalarivathukkal Bhagavathy Temple
- Tiruvarkadu Bhagavathy Temple (a.k.a Madayi Kavu)
Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam is a huge religious pilgrimage attracting thousands of pilgrims. It is a festival commemorating the Daksha yaga. It is in June–July period of Malayalam calendar for 27 days.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, during the regime of the Kolathiri Rajas, Taliparamba was renowned in Kerala as a seat of learning, enlightenment and culture. The beginning of western education in the district may be traced back to the middle of the 16th century. The first English school, known as the Basel German Mission English School, was started on 1 March 1856 at Thalassery. The Brennen School at Thalassery, the nucleus of the present Government Brennen College, was started in 1862 with a generous donation made by Mr. Brennen, master attendant at Thalassery.
The National Institute of Fashion Technology at Kannur, is one of the premier institutes of fashion designing in India Govt College of Engineering, Kannur is a renowned engineering college in Kerala situated at Mangattuparamba.
Major Government Institutes
- Kannur District has four Kendriya Vidyalaya at Kannur, Keltron Nagar, Payyanur, Ezhimala, and Thalassery.
- Kannur University was established by Act 22 of 1996 of the Kerala Legislative Assembly. The university by the name "Malabar University" had come into existence earlier by the promulgation of an ordinance by the governor of Kerala, on 9 November 1995. The university was inaugurated on 2 March 1996 by the Chief Minister of Kerala. The objective of the Kannur University Act 1996 was to establish in the state of Kerala a teaching, residential and affiliating university so as to provide for the development of higher education in Kasargod and Kannur revenue districts and the Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad district. Kannur University is a multi-campus university.
- Government College of Engineering, Kannur was established in 1986 near Dharmasala,Kannur as a center for imparting engineering education in northern Kerala. The college is among the top ten engineering colleges of the state, providing higher studies in the field of technical education.
- Pariyaram Medical College was established in 1999 near Taliparamba. The medical college is at a distance of 10 km from Taliparamba and 32 km north of Kannur. Kannur Medical College was established in 2006 at Anjarakkandy with a 500-bed hospital.
- The thirteenth National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) Campus in Kannur is located at Anthoor near Dharmasala,Kannur 12 km north of Kannur Corporation.
Kannur is on National Highway 66 or NH 66 (formerly National Highway 17) between Kozhikode and Mangalore. This highway is scheduled to be expanded to four lanes. A bypass for Kannur city is proposed under the NH widening project. Kannur is connected to Kodagu, Mysore and Bangalore in Karnataka by the Thalassery–Coorg–Mysore interstate highway.
Kannur has several private and KSRTC buses plying places inside and outside the district. Kannur is well-connected to its suburbs through several city buses. Kannur city has four bus terminals — Kannur Central Bus Terminal at Thavakkara which is Kerala's biggest bus terminal, Old Bus Stand near the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, City Bus Stand near the District HQ Hospital and the KSRTC bus depo at Caltex Junction (on NH-66). The busiest section of the national highway is between the towns of Puthiyatheru and Thazhe Chovva (about 10.5 km).
Kannur Railway Station is one of the major stations of the Southern Railway, under the jurisdiction of the Palakkad Division. All trains including the Thiruvananthapuram Rajdhani Express and Kochuveli Garib Rath stop at Kannur. Six daily trains and around 15 weekly or bi-weekly trains connect Kannur to the capital Thiruvananthapuram.
Trains starting from Kannur are:
- Kannur - Thiruvananthapuram Jan Shatabdi Express
- Kannur - Yeshwantpur Express (via Palghat and Salem)
- Kannur - Bengaluru City Express (via Mangalore, Mysore)
- Kannur - Ernakulam (Executive Express Thursday, Saturday only)
- Kannur - Alappuzha (Executive Express except Thursday, Saturday)
- Kannur - Ernakulam (Intercity Express)
- Kannur - Coimbatore
- Kannur - Mangalore
- Kannur - Calicut
- Kannur - Shoranur
- Trichur - Kannur
- Kannur - Cheruvathur
- Kannur - Byndoor via Mangalore junction
Kannur South, Chirakkal, Valapattanam and Pappinisseri are minor railway stations near Kannur where only passenger trains stop. A survey for a railway line from Kannur South to Kannur International Airport in Mattannur was announced in the 2011–2012 Union Railway Budget.
Kannur International Airport is being constructed at Mattanur in Kannur District, Kerala, India. It is the fourth international airport in Kerala. The airport will have a 4,000m runway (the longest in the State) and state of the art passenger terminal as well other amenities. It will be well connected by a comprehensive network of roads and a proposal for railway line has also been mooted. In the 2016-17 Union Railway budget, ₹400 crores were dedicated for under Extra Budgetary Resource (EBR) in which a part of the bill will be borne by the State Government towards the railway line.
The Airport's foundation stone was laid by V. S. Achuthanandan, chief minister of Kerala, on 17 December 2010. On February 29 2016, trial landing was conducted. The airport is proposed to operationalize by 2017.
Kannur is an ancient seaport. The nearest all-weather seaport is Mangaluru in Karnataka state. Azhikkal port in Kannur has been included for developing coastal shipping by the Government of India under the National Maritime Development Programme (NMDP). A detailed project report (DPR) has been prepared by ICICI-KINFRA for the development of Azhikkal port. Azhikal port was allocated 50cr for development in the interim budget of 2016 by the Government of Kerala.
Malayalam movie actors Sreenivasan, Vineeth Sreenivasan, Dhyan Sreenivasan, Vineeth, Vineeth Kumar, Samvrutha Sunil, TV Chandran, Manju Warrier, Sreekala Sasidharan, Anju Aravind, Archana Kavi, Kavya Madhavan, Sanusha, Saleem Ahmed, Geethu Mohandas and Sruthi Lakshmi are from Kannur District. So are music composers Kaithapram Damodaran Namboothiri, K. Raghavan, Kannur Rajan, Ramesh Narayanan, Sathyan Edakkad, dancer Shamna Kasim, baby serial actor Niranjana G - Manjurukum kalam fame and singers Ramachandran Cherukunnu Erancholi Moosa, Kannur Shareef and Sayanora.
Many local cable television channels are available in Kannur. The most popular cable channels are City Channel, City Gold, City Juke, Network Channel(s), Zeal Network, Kannur Vision, World Vision, Worldvision Music, Chakkarakkal, and Gramika channel Koothuparamba.
All India Radio is broadcast in Kannur at 101.5 MHz. Private FM radio stations in Kannur include:
- Radio Mango 91.9 (Malayala Manorama Co Ltd)
- Club FM 94.3 (Mathrubhumi Printing And Publishing Co Ltd)
- Red FM 93.5 (Sun Network)
- Best FM 95.0 (Asianet Communications Ltd)
A number of newspapers are published from Kannur, including the Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Chandrika, Kerala Kaumudi, News First, Janmabhumi, Veekshanam, Thejas, and Siraj.
|Laccadive Sea||Kannur Airport|
|Laccadive Sea||Laccadive Sea||Thalassery|
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cannanore.|