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|Nickname(s): "Leather City of the world"; "Manchester of the East"|
|District||Kanpur Nagar District
Kanpur Dehat District
|• Mayor||Shri Jagat Vir Singh Drona|
|• Deputy Mayor||Shri Haji Suhail Ahmed|
|• Metropolis||302 km2 (117 sq mi)|
|Elevation||126 m (413 ft)|
|• Official||Hindi, English, Urdu, Awadhi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
• 209 2xx
• 209 3xx
• 209 4xx
|Coastline||0 kilometres (0 mi)|
|Sex ratio||0.855 ♂/♀|
|Precipitation||980 millimetres (39 in)|
|Avg. annual temperature||22.0 °C (71.6 °F)|
|Avg. summer temperature||48.7 °C (119.7 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||7 °C (45 °F)|
Kanpur (// pronunciation (help·info); formerly Cawnpore) is the largest city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanpur Nagar district and Kanpur division.
Kanpur has an area of over 605 km2 with an approximate population of 5.03 million inhabitants in its area. It is administratively divided into 6 zones and 110 wards with a ward population range of 19,000 to 30,000. It is the 75th largest city in the world.
The name is believed to have derived from Karnapur (meaning "town of Karna", one of the heroes of the Mahabharata). Another theory is that it came from the nearby town of Makanpur, earlier known as Khairabad, where the Sufi saint of the Madariya Sufi order, Badiuddin Zinda Shah Madar, settled.
In 1207, Raja Kanh Deo of the Kanhpuria clan established the village of Kanhpur, which later came to be known as Kanpur. The area that is now Kanpur was ruled by rulers of Kannauj, Harsha Vardhan, Mihir Bhoja, Jai Chand and early Muslim rulers through the Sur Dynasty. The first mention of Kanpur was made in 1579 during Sher Shah's regime.
In May 1765, Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab of Awadh, was defeated by the British near Jajmau. From 1773 to 1801, it was part of the Oudh kingdom and then came into the hands of the British. At this time, the British realized the strategic importance of the site of Kanpur. European businessmen had, by this time, started establishing themselves in Kanpur. In order to ensure protection for their lives and property, the European businessmen shifted the 'Awadh local forces' to here in 1778. Kanpur passed into British hands under the treaty of 1801 with Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh.
In the 19th century, Kanpur was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857 900 British men, women and children were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa. They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad.
Though controversy surrounds what exactly happened at the Satti Chaura Ghat, and who fired the first shot, it is known that, soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at by the rebel sepoys and were either killed or captured. Some of the British officers later claimed that the rebels had, on purpose, placed the boats as high in the mud as possible, to cause delay. They also claimed that Nana Sahib's camp had previously arranged for the rebels to fire upon and kill all the English. Although the East India Company later accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, no evidence has ever been found to prove that Nana Sahib had pre-planned or ordered the massacre. Some historians believe that the Satti Chaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion, and not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib and his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four male survivors of the massacre, believed that the rank-and-file sepoys who spoke to him did not know of the killing to come.
Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar (the ladies' home). After some time, the commanders of the rebels decided to kill their hostages. The rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders and butchers from the nearby town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on 18 July. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby. The British under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel Sepoys and those civilians caught in the area, including women, children and old men. The Kanpur Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance.
1858 picture of Sati Chaura Ghat where a massacre of the British took place
The city's coordinates are 26.4670° North and 80.3500° East. The Government of Uttar Pradesh has carved out the new district of Kanpur Dehat from the old Kanpur Rural district. Kanpur, along with Allahabad and Fatehpur, are part of the Lower Doab, which in antiquity was known as the Vatsa country. It is surrounded by two main rivers of India, the Ganga in the northeast and the Pandu River (Yamuna) in the south. The districts surrounding Kanpur are Hamirpur in the south and Unnao in the north-east. The arid region of Bundelkhand lies just south of Kanpur. Kanpur district along with Kanpur Dehat district lie between the fertile Doab region of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers. The river Yamuna marks the boundary between the Avadh and Bundelkhand regions. Kanpur City comes under the Indo-Gangetic plains of India.
Kanpur features an atypical version of a humid subtropical climate that resembles the climate of Delhi to some degree. It has one of the lowest temperatures in the northern plains during the winter season and is one of the warmest during the summer season. Unlike many other cities with a humid subtropical climate, Kanpur features long and very hot summers, mild and relatively short winters, dust storms and a monsoon season. Kanpur lies in the northern plains of India, which witness extremes of temperature. It can drop to a minimum of 0 °C in the winters while it goes up to 48 °C in summers. Kanpur experiences severe fog in December and January, resulting in massive traffic and travel delays. In summer excessive dry heat is accompanied by dust storms and Loo, traits more commonly seen in desert climates. Rains appear between July and September almost at the end of regular monsoon season. Some rainfall is recorded during the harvest season of March–April. Snowfall has never occurred in the city. There are sometimes hailstones accompanied with rain in the winter season during the month of January but sometimes hailstorms have also occurred in the months of March and April. In January 2002, the city witnessed a heavy hailstorm which left the city streets white with ice pieces and in 2009 when the last hailstorm was recorded. Dust storms are frequent during the months of April–June. These dust storms are sometimes accompanied with light drizzles. Such dusty winds raise the level of particulates in the atmosphere resulting in severe air pollution and increasing health hazards. Sometimes the speed of winds exceeds 100 km/h in the outer areas of the city. Kanpur City lies on the right bank of the river Ganga, which is elevated very high from the river, which is the reason that the city never floods. Some of the rural outskirts of the city lie on the flood-prone areas of the Ganga, and it often floods the villages on its banks during the monsoon season. The Left bank sandy areas on the banks of the Ganga are cultivated to produce summer fruits like watermelon. The dry and hot Loo winds help the growth of watermelon which results in its great yield. The average rainfall recorded in the city is 885 mm.
|Climate data for Kanpur|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.1
|Average high °C (°F)||23.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.9
|Record low °C (°F)||1.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||18.7
|Average rainy days||1.9||1.5||1.0||0.8||1.2||4.6||13.7||10.7||6.8||2.1||0.4||0.7||45.5|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
||GT Amusement Park Town (GTAPT)||Gangotri Township||Shuklaganj|
|New Kanpur City||Kanpur Cantonment|
|Rawatpur, shivrajpur , bilhaur , kannuj||Fazalganj||Govind Nagar|
Flora and fauna
|Kanpur City officials|
Captain Jagatveer Singh Dron
|Chief Metropolitan Magistrate||
Pradeep Kumar Jayant
Dr Roshan Jacob
Meditation Center at Rooma in Kanpur
Muslim Orphanage at Kanpur, built during the British Raj
Ghats at the Ganga near Kanpur
Bithoor, near Kanpur
|Source: Census of India|
As per 2011 census Kanpur city has a population of 2,701,324.The total population of the district is 4,524,324 out of which males were 24,59,806 and females were 21,21,462. The literacy rate was 70.76 per cent.
The majority of Kanpur's population comprises people from Central and Western Uttar Pradesh. However, Punjabis and Anglo-Indians have also settled in large numbers in areas of Swaroop Nagar, Tilak Nagar, Azad Nagar and Civil Lines. While the majority of the population is Hindu, there is a significant Muslim minority population. There are also small groups of Sikhs, Jains, Christians and Buddhists. As per 2011 census literacy rate of Kanpur is 82.42% (http://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/131-kanpur.html).
In Kanpur, the banking services were availed by only 61 percent of the households (Census 2001). About 8 percent of the households did not possess basic assets such as vehicles (bicycles, scooter, moped, car, jeep, etc.), televisions and radios. Katiyabaaz (Powerless), a 2014 Indian documentary film deals with the issue of power theft in the city of Kanpur.
The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam, includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometer around KNN boundary and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it extends to Murtaza Nagar, in the west its limit is up to Akbarpur, Kanpur Dehat Nagar Panchayat limit, in the eastern side the limit has been expanded on the road leading to Fatehpur and in extended up to. The metropolitan region area includes the area of Shuklaganj Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Unnao Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Akbarpur Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) and Bithoor Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) area. In 1997-98, total metropolitan region area has increased to 89131.15 hectare out of which 4,743.9 hectare (5.31%) was non-defined (prohibited area) and rest 29,683 hectare and 54,704 hectare (61.39%) was urban and rural area respectively.
The city has had chronic problems with maintaining local roads. There are several important National Highways that pass through Kanpur.
|NH No||Route||Total Length|
|NH 2||Delhi » Mathura » Agra » Kanpur » Allahabad » Varanasi » Mohania » Barhi » Palsit » Dankuni (near Kolkata)||2542|
|NH 25||Lucknow » Kanpur » Jhansi||352|
|NH 86||Kanpur » Hamirpur » Mahoba » Chhatarpur » Sagar » Bhopal » Indore||674|
|NH 91||Ghaziabad » Aligarh » Etah » Kannauj » Kanpur||405|
|NH 157 (Proposed)||Kanpur » Raebareli » Sultanpur » Shahganj » Azamgarh » Gaura Barhaj » Siwan » Muzaffarpur||581|
The Inter State Bus Station (ISBT) of Kanpur officially named as the "Shaheed Major Salman Khan Bus Station". It is locally known as the "Jhakarkati Bus Station" enquiry number: 0512 2328381. It provides buses to important cities of India. The other bus stations are:
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is all set to develop a four-lane outer ring road along the periphery of Kanpur with an aim to prevent traffic congestion in the industrial city caused by long-distance heavy vehicles. The new road, which will help the heavy vehicles to bypass the city, will be developed on a "Built, Operate and Transfer" (BOT) basis under the phase-VII of National Highways Development Programme (NHDP).
- Kanpur Dehat (Lok Sabha constituency)
- Ethnic communities in Kanpur
- Kanpur Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency)
- List of cities in Uttar Pradesh
- List of engineering colleges in Kanpur
- Renamed places in Kanpur
- List of twin towns and sister cities in India
- Second Battle of Cawnpore
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- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
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- Potholed roads, eight to ten hours long power cut, overflowing drains and contaminated drinking water tell the tale of the Industrial town, which is fast turning into a big slum. Siddiqui, Faiz Rahman (29 April 2014). "'Outsider' Joshi takes on 'local' Jaiswal". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014.
- "UPSRTC". UPSRTC. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
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- Singh, Surendra Nath (1990). Planning & development of an industrial town: a study of Kanpur. Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-7099-241-9.
- Silas, Sandeep (2005). "44. Manchester of the East: Kanpur". Discover India by Rail. Sterling Publishers. ISBN 81-207-2939-0.
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