This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
|Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 80°19′55″E / 26.449923°N 80.331874°E|
|Named for||Raja Kanh Deo|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Kanpur Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Pramila Pandey (BJP)|
|• Municipal commissioner||Shivasharanappa G N, IAS|
|• Police commissioner||B. P. Jogdand, IPS|
|• Urban||485 km2 (187 sq mi)|
|• Metro||891 km2 (344 sq mi)|
|Elevation||126 m (413 ft)|
|• Urban||3,812,000 (estimated)|
|• Metro||4,026,000 (estimated)|
|• Metro Rank||11th|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
2080XX and 2092XX
|Vehicle registration||UP-77, UP-78 and UP-35|
|GDP Nominal (Kanpur Nagar District)||₹49,700.65 crore (US$6.2 billion) (2020-21)|
|GDP Per Capita||₹87,295.51 (US$1,100)|
|Sex ratio||855 ♀ / 1000 ♂|
Kanpur, formerly Cawnpore (/kɑːnˈpʊər/ pronunciation (help·info)), is a large industrial city located in the central-western part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Founded in 1207, Kanpur became one of the most important commercial and military stations of British India. Kanpur is also the financial capital of Uttar Pradesh. Nestled on the banks of Ganges River, Kanpur has been the major financial and industrial centre of North India and also the ninth-largest urban economy in India. Today it is famous for its colonial architecture, gardens, parks and fine quality leather, plastic and textile products which are exported mainly to the West.
It is known for its rich cultural heritage, bustling markets, vibrant nightlife, beautiful parks and gardens, delicious cuisine and much more. The city is home to historical monuments such as the Jajmau Ghat which dates back to 17th century AD.
Kanpur is also home to several historical sites such as the Bithoor Museum, Bhitargaon Temple, European Cemetry and Nanarao Park.
Kanpur also hosts various events throughout year.
It is the 10th most populous city and the 9th most populous urban agglomeration in India (Census of India, 2011). Kanpur was an important British garrison town until 1947, when India gained independence. The urban district of Kanpur Nagar serves as the headquarters of the Kanpur Division, Kanpur Range and Kanpur Zone.
With the first woollen mill of India, commonly known as the Lal Imli (literally meaning "Red Tamarind", for a brand produced by the mill) by the British India Corporation established here in 1876 by Alexander MacRobert. The eastern and northern façades of the mill are reminiscent of the Palace of Westminster, due to their architecture, proximity to the Ganges river and with the north-east corner of the mill being topped by a clock tower similar to Big Ben in London. This similarity underscores the city's importance and prestige during the British times, which extends till date; making the Lal Imli — a great highlight of the city. The city is also widely regarded as the "Leather City of the World" and is predominantly nicknamed as the "Manchester of the East", for its chemical, textile and leather industries.
According to 2011 Indian census, it is the most populous urban city and the largest urban agglomeration in Uttar Pradesh while the population of city and its suburb were around 5 million making it the eighth-most populous metropolitan area in India. Furthermore, it is considered the world's most polluted city by particulate matter concentration. In 2018, Kanpur was considered by the World Health Organization as the city with the world's worst air pollution.
In 1207, Raja Kanh Deo of the Kanhpuriya clan of Rajputs established the city of Kanhpur and made it his capital, which later came to be known as Kanpur.
In the 19th century, Cawnpore was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the First Indian War of Independence of 1857, 900 British men, women and children were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa. They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad.
Though controversy surrounds what exactly happened at the Satti Chaura Ghat, and who fired the first shot, it is known that, soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at by the sepoys and were either killed or captured. Some of the British officers later claimed that the sepoys had, on purpose, placed the boats as high in the mud as possible, to cause delay. They also claimed that Nana Sahib's camp had previously arranged for the sepoys to fire upon and to kill all of the English. Although the East India Company later accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, no evidence has ever been found to prove that Nana Sahib had planned or ordered the massacre. Some historians believe that the Satti Chaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion and not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib or of his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four male survivors of the massacre, believed that the rank-and-file sepoys who spoke to him did not know of the killing to come.
Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar (the ladies' home). After some time, the commanders of the rebels decided to kill their hostages. The rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders and butchers from the nearby town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on 18 July. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby. The British, under General Neill, retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel sepoys and those civilians caught in the area, including women, children and old men. The Cawnpore Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance. "Remember Cawnpore" became a British war cry for the rest of the war.
The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam, includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometres around KNN boundary and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it extends to Murtaza Nagar, in the west its limit is up to Akbarpur, Kanpur Dehat Nagar Panchayat limit, on the eastern side the limit has been expanded on the road leading to Fatehpur and in extended up to. The metropolitan region area includes the area of Shuklaganj Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Unnao Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Akbarpur Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) and Bithoor Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) area. In 1997–98, total metropolitan region area has increased to 89131.15 hectare out of which 4,743.9 hectare (5.31%) was non-defined (prohibited area) and rest 29,683 hectare and 54,704 hectare (61.39%) was urban and rural area respectively.
Like most of lowland northern India, Kanpur has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa) bordering on a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) under the Köppen climate classification.
|Climate data for Kanpur Airport (1981-2010, extremes 1901-2006)|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.1
|Average high °C (°F)||22.3
|Average low °C (°F)||8.2
|Record low °C (°F)||1.6
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||9.2
|Average rainy days||0.8||0.8||0.4||0.3||0.8||2.9||9.6||9.0||6.1||1.4||0.3||0.2||32.6|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||59||46||34||27||31||45||74||77||72||62||62||62||54|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
|Religion in Kanpur (2011)|
|Other or not stated||0.47%|
As per the provisional results of 2011 census, Kanpur Nagar district has a population of 4,581,000. The literacy rate was 79.65 per cent and sex ratio was 862. There are 35 Parsis in Kanpur with their Fire temple at The Mall. Hinduism is a majority in Kanpur with a sizeable minority of Muslims. Sikhs, Christians and Buddhists are below 2 percent.
Although final data of census 2023 is yet to be declared, population of Kanpur Nagar District is projected as 63,67,963 in year 2023 (estimation as per aadhar ‘UIDAI’ data).
As per 2011 Census, population of Kanpur city and its suburbs was 30,15,645 making it the largest urban agglomeration of Uttar Pradesh. Thereafter, urban area of Kanpur city has expanded to a large extent. However, limits of its urban area is still pending for approval by the Government. Tentatively population of Kanpur city and Kanpur metropolitan area in 2023 is projected as 38,12,000 and 40,26,000 respectively as per the data available so far.
Awadhi is the native dialect. Hindi and Urdu are the predominant languages in the city. Punjabi is spoken by 1.25%, while Bengali is spoken by over 11,000 people in the city.
Government and politics
|Divisional Commissioner||Raj Shekhar|
|Additional Director General, Kanpur Zone||Avanish Chandra|
|Inspector General, Kanpur Range||Alok Singh|
|DIG/Senior Superintendent of Police||Sonia Singh|
|Vice Chairman, Kanpur Development Authority||Kinjal Singh|
|Municipal Commissioner||Avinash Singh|
|District Judge||Shashi Kant Shukla|
|Chief Metropolitan Magistrate|
Kanpur division which consists of six districts, and is headed by the divisional commissioner of Kanpur, who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of high seniority, the commissioner is the head of local government institutions (including municipal corporations) in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, and is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the division. The district magistrate of Kanpur reports to the divisional commissioner. The current commissioner is Dr. Raj Shekhar.
Kanpur district administration is headed by the district magistrate of Kanpur, who is an IAS officer. The DM is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversees the elections held in the city. The DM is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city. The DM is assisted by a chief development officer; four additional district magistrates for finance/revenue, city, land acquisition, and civil supply; one city magistrat; and seven additional city magistrates. The district has three tehsils viz. Sadar, Bilhaur and Ghatampur, each headed by a sub-divisional magistrate. The current DM is Mr. Vishak G
Kanpur municipality was established on 22 November 1861, and was upgraded to a municipal corporation in 1959. The local government of Kanpur is governed under the Municipal act for the state, Uttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1959.
The area under the municipal limits of Kanpur city, or Kanpur Municipal Corporation, is spread over an area of 260 square km. It oversees civic activities in the city. The head of the corporation is the mayor, but the executive and administration of the corporation are the responsibility of the municipal commissioner, who is an Uttar Pradesh government-appointed Provincial Civil Service officer of high seniority. The executive wing is headed by municipal commissioner, Avinash Singh and has the following departments: Revenue, City Cleansing, Engineering, Marg Prakash, Health, Accounts, Personnel/HRD, Swasthya Vibhag, Education, Mukya Nagar Lekha Vibhag, Pariyojna, Udyan Vibhag, Chikitsa Vibhag, Encroachment & Cattle Catching Department. There is also an executive committee present in the city.
The development of infrastructure in the city is overseen by Kanpur Development Authority (KDA), which comes under the Housing Department of Uttar Pradesh government. The divisional commissioner of Kanpur acts as the ex-officio Chairman of KDA, whereas a vice chairperson, a government-appointed IAS officer, looks after the daily matters of the authority. The current vice-chairman of Kanpur Development Authority is K. Vijayendra Pandian.
The municipality receives revenue from general tax, advertisement tax, income from municipal properties, grants from state government etc.
Law and order
The Kanpur District Court is headed by the district judge of Kanpur, who is assisted by numerous additional district judges, civil judges (senior division) and additional civil judges. Kanpur is a notified metropolitan area by UP Government under Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, and therefore has a chief metropolitan magistrate, who is assisted by several metropolitan magistrates. The 2017 district judge was Shashi Kant Shukla, and the chief metropolitan magistrate was Shabistan Aquil.
Kanpur district comes under the Kanpur Police Zone and Kanpur Police Range, Kanpur Zone is headed by an additional director general-ranked Indian Police Service (IPS) officer, and the Kanpur Range is headed inspector general-ranked IPS officer. The current ADG, Kanpur Zone is Avanish Chandra, and IG, Kanpur Range is Alok Singh.
The district police is headed by a deputy inspector general/senior superintendent of police (DIG/SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by seven superintendents of police or additional superintendents of police for east, west, south, rural area, crime, traffic and modern control, who are either IPS officers or Provincial Police Service (PPS) officers. Each of the several police circles is headed by a circle officer (CO) in the rank of deputy superintendent of police. The current DIG/SSP is Sonia Singh.
The city is divided into 6 zones and 110 wards with a ward population range of 19,000 to 26,000 and 110 corporators directly elected from each ward. As mandated by the 74th constitutional amendment, there were 11 ward committees in Kanpur municipal corporation in 1991. Local elections were last held in 2022, when the mayor, Pramila Pandey from the BJP, was re-elected. The previous mayor had been Captain (retired) Jagatvir Singh Drona. As of 2006, Kanpur Municipal Council has an elected mayor-in-council system.
Kanpur Nagar district encompasses one Lok Sabha constituency and ten Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha constituencies[citation not found]. The city of Kanpur has one representative member of parliament in Lok Sabha for Kanpur, Satyadev Pachauri.
The first development plan of the city was created by the Kanpur Development Board in 1943. This was followed by the masterplan being designed by the Town and Country Planning Department from 1962 to 1991, which was adopted after the establishment of the Kanpur Development Authority in 1974. The most recent masterplan is the Draft Master Plan of 2021 .
Electricity is supplied to the city by Kanpur Electricity Supply Company (KESCO), which is under the Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Ltd (UPPCL). Fire services are under the state, Uttar Pradesh Fire Service.
Water supply, sewerage is done by the Jal Kal vibhag of KMC. Infrastructure development and maintenance is done by the state's body, UP Jal Nigam. The piped water supply of Kanpur City was started in 1892. After construction of Ganga Barrage on the river, a permanent and reliable source for the water supply got available to provide 1600 mld raw water. The city also receives water from the catchment areas of rivers Ganga and Pandu. However, while the total water supply requirement is 600 mld only 385 mld of potable water is being supplied. The city loses water due to leaky pipes and contamination of natural water sources. There is a severe water crisis in Kanpur.
In 2015, Ganga Pollution Control Unit in Kanpur got about Rs 200 crores to make 4 STPs functional. The city then reported having 3 STPs for domestic waste. In 2017, there was only one sewage treatment plant for waste from tanneries, biggest source of industrial pollution to the Ganga, was to be replaced by a newer one costing 400 cr as the old one could only treat 9 MLD at the most. 823.1 MLD of untreated sewage and 212.42 MLD of industrial effluent flow into the river. In 2019, another STP costing worth Rs 816.25 was to be set up. As of 2020, While the government has stopped pollution from Kanpur's biggest drain, Sishamau, of Kanpur's 48 drains, eight still have no devices to stop effluents.
Solid waste management is handled by the KMC. As of 2015, Kanpur generates 1,500 tonnes of solid wastes from domestic and industrial sources, 64,000 tonnes of hazardous waste annually which includes metals and waste generated by tanneries, dye industries and chemical industries; while coal ash produced in Kanpur amounts to 71,000 tonnes per annum.
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Airport or Kanpur Military Airport has direct scheduled commercial non-stop flights to New Delhi, Mumbai, and Bangalore only. The nearest International Airport is the Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport in Lucknow, which is around 77.1 km from Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.
Kanpur Central is a major railhead and is among the busiest railway stations in the country. Rail routes connect it to all major cities in the state and the country. It is an A-1 category railway station coming under the Prayagraj railway division of North Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. Around 300 trains pass through the station daily. Other major railway stations serving the city include Kanpur Anwarganj, Govindpuri, Panki, Kalyanpur, Rawatpur, Chandari, Kanpur Bridge and Chakeri.
The city has had chronic problems with maintaining local roads. There are several important National Highways that pass through Kanpur.
|NH No||Route||Total Length|
|NH 19||Delhi » Mathura » Agra » Kanpur » Allahabad » Varanasi » Mohania » Aurangabad » Barhi » Palsit » Asansol » Kolkata||1435|
|NH 27||Porbandar » Udaipur » Kota » Shivpuri » Jhansi » Kanpur » Lucknow » Darbhanga » Alipurduar » Guwahati » Silchar||3507|
|NH 34||Gangotri Dham » Rishikesh » Haridwar » Bijnore » Ghaziabad » Aligarh » Kannauj » Kanpur » Hamirpur » Mahoba » Chhatarpur » Jabalpur » Lakhnadon||1426|
|NH (Proposed)||Kanpur » Raebareli » Sultanpur » Shahganj » Azamgarh » Gaura Barhaj » Siwan » Muzaffarpur||581|
|NE 6 Lucknow-Kanpur Expressway (Proposed)||Kanpur » Lucknow||62|
The UPSRTC Inter State Bus Station (ISBT) of Kanpur officially named as the "Shaheed Major Salman Khan Bus Station". It is locally known as the "Jhakarkati Bus Station". It provides buses to important cities of India. Other UPSRTC controlled Important Bus stations are Chunniganj Bus Stand for Farrukhabad, Bareilly and Uttranchal routes, Naubasta Bus Stand for Hamirpur route, Fazalganj is another hub for Private carriers.
In 2011 it was reported by The Indian Express that "The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is all set to develop a four-lane outer ring road along the periphery of Kanpur with an aim to prevent traffic congestion in the industrial city caused by long-distance heavy vehicles. The new road, which will help the heavy vehicles to bypass the city, will be developed on Built, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis under the phase-VII of National Highways Development Programme (NHDP)"
The Kanpur Metro is a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Kanpur. The metro is owned and operated by the Uttar Pradesh Metro Rail Corporation (UPMRC). It consists of two lines- Orange Line and Blue Line. The priority corridor of the Orange Line, which connects IIT Kanpur to Motijheel was inaugurated by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi on 28 December 2021.
Education and research
Prestigious public engineering institution Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur is located in Kanpur city. It was one of the first Indian Institutes of Technology established in 1959, created with the assistance of a consortium of nine US research universities as part of the Kanpur Indo-American Programme (KIAP).
Other educational institutions in the city include three state universities. Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University is one of the largest universities in northern India catering to urban and rural students offering professional and academic courses in the disciplines of Arts, Science, Commerce, Law, Engineering, Biotechnology, Computer Applications, Management and Medicine.
Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology is an agricultural university named after the Indian revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad which caters to the needs of the farming community of 29 districts of Uttar Pradesh.
Harcourt Butler Technical University (HBTI) offers Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral programs in engineering, as well as Masters programs in Business Administration, and Computer Applications. Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology for Handicapped, an institution to provide technical education to specially-abled students inaugurated by former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in 1997, is also situated in Kanpur.
There is also private universities in the city like: Rama University part of the Rama Group. There are several good private Technical and Management institutions in the city.
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College (GSVM Medical College) is a state-run medical college in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. It was founded in 1956 and named after Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, a freedom fighter and journalist from Kanpur. Lala Lajpat Rai Hospital, which is also known as Hallet Hospital, is associated with GSVM, Kanpur.
- Kanpur Dehat (Lok Sabha constituency)
- List of cities in Uttar Pradesh
- List of engineering colleges in Kanpur
- List of people from Kanpur
- Renamed places in Kanpur
- List of twin towns and sister cities in India
- Second Battle of Cawnpore
- ^ "Kanpur India - Kanpur Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur City, Kanpur Guide, Kanpur Location". Iloveindia.com. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- ^ "Nick Name of Indian Places". Facts-about-india.com. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- ^ a b c d "Kanpur Smart City". kanpursmartcity.org.
- ^ "Kanpur City Info". August 2020.
- ^ https://updes.up.nic.in/updes/data/dist_domestic_product/dist_domestic_product_2020_21.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- ^ "Development of Human Development Index at District Level for EAG States" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- ^ "Welcome to Kanpur Logistics Park Pvt. Ltd". klpl.in.
- ^ "From Kanhiyapur to Kanpur in 210 years | Kanpur News - Times of India". The Times of India. 24 March 2013.
- ^ "Kanpur". ramblinginthecity.
- ^ "Top 7 Places To Visit In Kanpur - Trans India Travels". www.transindiatravels.com. 6 December 2016.
- ^ Dasgupta, Neha (16 May 2018). "With world's worst air, Indian city struggles to track pollution". Yahoo News. United States. Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
"Indian city struggles with 'world's worst air'". The Washington Post. United States. 16 May 2018. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- ^ "Kanpur History - History of Kanpur City- History of Kanpur India". Journeymart.com. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- ^ "Man" (PDF). Dspace.wbpublisher.gov.in. p. 479. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- ^ Wright, Caleb (1863) . Historic Incidents and Life in India. J. A. Brainerd. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-135-72312-5.
- ^ Sen, Surendra Nath (1995) . Eighteen Fifty-seven. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 145. ISBN 978-81-230-0093-0.
- ^ Dalrymple, W. 2007. The Last Mughal. The Fall of a Dynasty: Delhi, 1857, Alfred Knopf, New York
- ^ "Final Report : Kanpur City" (PDF). Jnnurm.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- ^ "Station: Kanpur (A) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 387–388. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M217. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- ^ a b "Table C-01 Population by Religion: Uttar Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
- ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- ^ "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). Provisional population totals, census of India 2011. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- ^ "Appeal – Cawnpore Parsee Anjuman, Kanpur | Parsis, Iranis, Zarathushtis - ALL Under One Roof". Zoroastrians.net. 5 February 2014. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- ^ "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue (Town level): Uttar Pradesh". www.censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
- ^ a b c "Contact Details Of Commissioners and District Magistrates Of U.P." Department of Home and Confidential, Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- ^ a b c जिलाधिकारी/मंडलायुक्त की सूची [List of District Magistrates and Divisional Commissioners]. Department of Appointments and Personnel, Government of Uttar Pradesh (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 10 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- ^ a b c "Administrative Officers of Kanpur Nagar". Kanpur Nagar District website. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b "Officers posted at Kanpur Zone". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b "Officers posted at Kanpur Range". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b c d "Officers posted at KANPUR NAGAR". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b "Contact Us". Kanpur Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b "List of IAS officers who are Vice Chairmen of Development Authorities". Department of Appointment and Personnel, Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- ^ a b c d "Home Page". Kanpur Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b वरिष्ठ अधिकारी [Senior Officers]. Kanpur Municipal Corporation (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b "PCS OFFICERS (Posted as HOD)". Department of Appointment and Personnel, Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- ^ a b c d "Judicial Officers in Kanpur Nagar". Allahabad High Court. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b "CONSTITUTIONAL SETUP". Government of Uttar Pradesh. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- ^ Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th ed.). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. pp. 563–572. ISBN 9788125019886.
- ^ Singh, G.P. (1993). Revenue administration in India: A case study of Bihar. Delhi: Mittal Publications. pp. 26–129. ISBN 978-8170993810.
- ^ Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd ed.). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 5.1–5.2. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- ^ Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th ed.). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. pp. 573–597. ISBN 9788125019886.
- ^ Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd ed.). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 6.1–6.6. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- ^ Singh, G.P. (1993). Revenue administration in India: A case study of Bihar. Delhi: Mittal Publications. pp. 50–124. ISBN 978-8170993810.
- ^ a b "Work Distribution :-". Kanpur Nagar district website. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b "Chapter IV: GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF KANPUR REGION" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "Uttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act" (PDF).
- ^ "District Handbook - Town Amenities - Row 409". Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "KMC: Organisational Structure". Kanpur Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "Corporators spit fire, officers play truant". Hindustan Times. 1 January 2006. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ TNN (25 October 2013). "Kanpur Municipal Corporation's executive panel to discuss new proposals today". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "About KDA". Kanpur Development Authority. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- ^ a b c "Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM (complete document)" (PDF). India Environment Portal.
- ^ "mayor_corporators". kmc.up.nic.in. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "Ward power" (PDF).
- ^ "Kanpur Municipal Corporation Nagar Nigam elections result 2017: Full List of ward-wise winners". The Financial Express. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM" (PDF). Kanpur Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "RashmiAshttJJT/61009264 Chapter 5: Land use" (PDF). Shodhganga.
- ^ "Official Website of Town And Country Planning Department , Uttar Pradesh, India. / Introduction of Development Area Kanpur". uptownplanning.gov.in. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "UP: State Power Employees Protest Against Privatisation of PuVVNL". NewsClick. 30 September 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "Welcome to Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited, Government of Uttar Pradesh, India. / About UPPCL / Agencies under the Administrative Control". www.upenergy.in. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "UP Fire Services". upfireservice.gov.in. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "Jal Kal". Jal Kal. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "Official Website of Jal Nigam, Uttar Pradesh | About Department | About Jal Nigam, Uttar Pradesh". jn.upsdc.gov.in. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ a b c d e "Kanpur City Development Plan" (PDF). Rcues Lucknow. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "The water crisis is another alarm bell". Avenue Mail. 4 September 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ a b Shukla, Neha (21 September 2015). "New sewage treatment plants on Ganga in Kanpur". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ Koshy, Jacob (15 December 2017). "New ₹400-cr effluent treatment plant to come up in Kanpur". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "Sewage treatment plant worth Rs 816.25 cr to come up in Kanpur". www.projectstoday.com. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "New Ganga law will define cleanliness levels, make polluters pay". Hindustan Times. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ "Workshop organised by CSE and Govt. of UP" (PDF). Centre for Science and Environment. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ "A miserable place to live". www.downtoearth.org.in. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- ^ TN (7 November 2010). "Around 300 trains pass through Kanpur Central daily". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- ^ Potholed roads, eight to ten hours long power cut, overflowing drains and contaminated drinking water which lead to bad health and contagious diseases tell the tale of the Industrial town, which is fast turning into a big slum. Siddiqui, Faiz Rahman (29 April 2014). "'Outsider' Joshi takes on 'local' Jaiswal". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015.
- ^ "UPSRTC". UPSRTC. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- ^ "Kanpur to get outer ring road to bypass traffic blues". Indianepress.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- ^ "PM Modi takes Metro ride in Kanpur after inauguration of first section | Watch". Hindustan Times. 28 December 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
- ^ Norman Dahl: Kanpur Indo-American Program; http://csg.csail.mit.edu/Dahl/kiapbooklet.pdf Archived 12 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Financial Statements and Performance Indicators. Jump up ^ Kelkar, P.K. (17 March 2006). "IIT Kanpur — History". IIT Kanpur
- ^ Private University Uttar Pradesh; http://www.ugc.ac.in/privateuniversitylist.aspx?id=33&Unitype=3 Archived 7 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- Kanpur city portal
- Kanpur Dehat portal
- kanpur Smart city
- Kanpur News
- In Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1834, as an illustration to Letitia Elizabeth Landon's poem The Missionary.:
- Cawnpore painted by Samuel Prout and engraved by C Mottram.