In 1898, Sun Yat-sen encountered Kaoru in Yokohama's Chinatown. In 1901, Sun requested that Kaoru's father to allow her to marry him, but was refused because of the great age difference between Sun and Kaoru (at the time, Sun was 37 while Kaoru was only 13). One year later, Sun Yat-sen proposed marriage again. In 1903 their wedding ceremony was held in Yokohama. At the time, Sun was still married to his first wife, Lu Muzhen.
In 1906 they had a daughter, Fumiko; however, Sun left Japan before her birth. Kaoru later remarried twice, while Fumiko was adopted by a family surnamed Miyagawa.
- 李敖 (1987). 《李敖論孫中山》 (in Chinese). 臺灣: 全能出版社.
- 陳錫祺 (1991). 《孫中山年谱長編》, 第1卷 (in Chinese). 中國: 中华书局. ISBN 9787101006858.
- 李吉奎 (1996). 《孙中山与日本》 (in Chinese). 中國: 广东人民出版社. ISBN 9787218022437.
- 苗體君 (2005). 《炎黃縱橫》〈孫中山一生的婚姻〉2005年12期 (in Chinese). 中國: 福建省炎黄文化研究会.
- 孫中山在日本的一段情緣 後輩過著平凡生活 (in Chinese). 文化中國-中國網. 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- 孙中山82岁日本外孙受邀明年访问武汉(组图) (in Chinese). 新浪网. 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
- 久保田文次 (2011-12-20). 《辛亥革命と孫文》 (in Japanese). 日本: 汲古書院. ISBN 9784762925962.