List of Ottoman titles and appellations
This is a list of titles and appellations used in the Ottoman Empire. In place of surnames, Muslims in the Empire carried titles such as "Sultan", "Pasha", "Hoca", "Bey", "Hanım", "Efendi", etc. These titles either defined their formal profession (such as Pasha, Hoca, etc.) or their informal status within the society (such as Bey, Hanım, Efendi, etc.).
Usage by Ottoman royalty
The sovereigns' main titles were Khan, Sultan, and Padishah; which were of Turkic, Arabic and Persian origin, respectively. His full style was the result of a long historical accumulation of titles expressing the empire's rights and claims as successor to the various states it annexed or subdued. Beside these imperial titles, "Caesar" of Rome (Kayser-i Rûm) was among the important titles claimed by Sultan Mehmed II after the conquest of Constantinople. Title sultan, originally meaning "authority" or "dominion", used in an ungendered manner to encompass the whole imperial family, men and women, reflected the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as a "family prerogative". Male dynasty member carrying the title before their given name, with female member carrying it after.
|Title||Origin and Meaning||Usage in Ottoman imperial family||Full Title|
|Modern Turkish||Ottoman Turkish|
|Sultan||سلطان||Arabic. Originally meaning "authority" or "dominion"||Used in an ungendered manner to encompass the whole imperial family, men and women, reflected the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as a "family prerogative". Male dynasty member carrying the title before their given name, with female member carrying it after.
The emperors' formal title consisted of Sultan together with Khan. This dual title symbolized the Ottomans' dual legitimating heritage, Islamic and Central Asian.
|Khalifeh||خلیفه||Political and religious successor to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and a leader of the entire Muslim community||Title caliph was claimed by the Ottoman Sultan starting with Murad I since the 14th century, and they gradually came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representative of the Islamic world. The Ottoman claim to caliphate was strengthened when Al Mutawakkil III, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo, formally surrendered the title of caliph as well as its outward emblems—the sword and mantle of Muhammad—to Selim I after Ottoman annexed Mamluks (including two Islamic holy cities Mecca and Madina) in 1517.||see official full style of the Ottoman Sultans|
|Padişah||پادشاه||Superlative royal title, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king". Translated as "emperor" in English.||Title padişah was first adopted by Mehmed II|
|Hazretleri||Honorific Arabic title used to honour a person. The literal translation of Hadrah is "Presence".|
|Men relatives of Ottoman Sultan|
|Şehzade||شاهزاده||Derived from Persian Shahzadeh. Descendant of shah.||Male descendants of a sovereign in the male line. Equivalent with "prince" in English.||Devletlû Najabatlu Şehzade Sultan (given name) Hazretleri Efendi|
|Vali Ahad or Veliahd||Heir apparent of Ottoman. Crown Prince.||Devletlû Najabatlu Valiahd-i Saltanat Şehzade-i Javanbahd (given name) Efendi Hazretleri|
|Sultanzade||Descendant of sultan||Sons of Ottoman princesses||Sultanzade (given name) Bey-Efendi|
|Çelebi||Title borne by sons of the Sultan until the reign of Mehmed II|
|Bey||باي||The word entered English from Turkish bey, itself derived from Old Turkic beg, which - in the form bäg - has been mentioned as early as in the Orkhon inscriptions (8th century AD) and is usually translated as "tribal leader".The dialect variations bäk, bek, bey, biy, bi, and pig all derive from the Old Turkic form. The actual origin of the word is still disputed, though it is mostly agreed that it was a loan-word, in Old Turkic.||Title bey and efendi were part of the title of the husband and sons of imperial princesses. For the grandsons of an imperial princesses, the official style was simply Bey after the name.||
|Damat||داماد||Persian. Bridegroom.||Official Ottoman title describing men that entered the imperial House of Osman by means of marriage. In almost all cases, this occurred when a men married an Ottoman imperial princess.||Damat-i Shahriyari (given name) Bey Efendi, the latter, only if not possessed of a higher rank or title|
|Women relatives of Ottoman Sultan|
|Valide||والده||Ottoman Turkish for mother||Legal mother of reigning sultans. Normally, this title was held by the living mother of a reigning sultan. In special cases, there were grandmothers, stepmothers, or even sisters of a reigning sultan who assumed the title valide sultan and there were women's who didn't held this title when their sons became sultan for some reasons.
This title carried before or after given name and used with other title which normally carried by prominent female member of imperial family (hatun before 16th century and sultan after 16th century).
|Devletlû İsmetlû (given name) Vâlide Sultân Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri|
|Haseki||خاصکي||Chief wives of sultan in 16th and 17th century. This title carried before or after given name and used with title sultan.||Devletlû İsmetlu (given name) Haseki Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri|
|Hatun||خاتون||Female title of nobility and alternative to male "khan" prominently used in the First Turkic Empire and in the subsequent Mongol Empire. It is equivalent to "queen" or "empress" approximately.||Honorific for women during Ottoman period and carried after name. This title also used for Ottoman female member. In 16th century, title sultan carried by prominent members of the imperial family and hatun carried by lesser female member.|
|Kadin||قادين||Title given for main imperial consorts after 17th century, replacing haseki sultan. This title used with title efendi.||see kadinefendi|
|Hanim||خانم||Female royal and aristocratic title derived through an originally East Asian and Central Asian title||Equivalent with "lady" in English. Used for İkbâls and Gözdes with title efendi, daughters of imperial princesses with title sultan, and granddaughters of imperial princesses.||
|Vali Ahad Zevcesi||Wives of Vali Ahad||Veliahd Zevcesi (given name) (rank) Hanımefendi Hazretleri|
During the time of Suleiman
- Agha (Ottoman Turkish: آغا, Modern Turkish: ağa): a general officer.
- Ajem-oghlan (Ottoman Turkish: عجمی اوغلان, Modern Turkish: acemi oğlan): a cadet or apprentice Janissary.
- Akinji (Ottoman Turkish: آقنجى, Modern Turkish: akıncı): the irregular cavalry.
- Ashji-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: آشجی باشی, Modern Turkish: aşcıbaşı): a chief cook
- Azab (Ottoman Turkish: عزب, Modern Turkish: azab): the irregular infantry.
- Berat-emini (Ottoman Turkish: برات امینی): a distributor of ordinances.
- Boluk-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: بولق باشی, Modern Turkish: bölükbaşı): a captain of the Janissaries.
- Bostanji (Ottoman Turkish: بوستانجی, Modern Turkish: bostancı): a gardener; a euphemism for the Sultan's palace guard.
- Bostanji-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: بوستانجی باشی, Modern Turkish: bostancıbaşı): The "chief gardener" and head of the palace guard. Equivalent to the rank of pasha.
- Chakirji (Ottoman Turkish: چاقرجی, Modern Turkish: çakırcı): a falconer.
- Chasneji (Ottoman Turkish: چشنیجی, Modern Turkish: çeşnici): a taster.
- Chasneji-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: چشنیجی باشی, Modern Turkish: çeşnicibaşı): the chief taster.
- Chaush (Ottoman Turkish: چاووش, Modern Turkish: çavuş): an usher.
- Chaush-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: چاووش باشی, Modern Turkish: çavuşbaşı): chief of the Chaushes, and a high court official. Equivalent to the rank of pasha.
- Chelebi (Ottoman Turkish: چلبى, Modern Turkish: çelebi): a gentleman.
- Cheri-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: چری باشی, Modern Turkish: çeribaşı): a petty officer of feudal cavalry.
- Danishmend (Ottoman Turkish: دانشمند, Modern Turkish: danişmend): a master of arts.
- Defterdar (Ottoman Turkish: دفتردار, Modern Turkish: defterdar): a treasurer.
- Defter-emini (Ottoman Turkish: دفتر امینی): a recorder of fiefs.
- Deli (Ottoman Turkish: دلی, Modern Turkish: deli): appellation of a scout or a captain of the Akinji.
- Dervish (Ottoman Turkish: درویش, Modern Turkish: derviş): a member of a Muslim religious order.
- Deveji (Ottoman Turkish: دوه جی, Modern Turkish: deveci): a camel-driver.
- Emin (Ottoman Turkish: آمین, Modern Turkish: emin): an intendant.
- Emir (Ottoman Turkish: امیر, Modern Turkish: emir): a Descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.; a commander, a governor.
- Emir al-Akhor (Ottoman Turkish: امير الآخر, Modern Turkish: ahır bakıcısı): a grand equerry.
- Ghurabâ (Ottoman Turkish: غربا, Modern Turkish: guraba): a member of the lowest corps of the standing cavalry.
- Gonnullu (Ottoman Turkish: گوڭـللو, Modern Turkish: gönüllü): a volunteer soldier or sailor.
- Hekim-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: حکیم باشی, Modern Turkish: hekimbaşı): a chief physician.
- Helvaji-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: حلواجی باشی, Modern Turkish: helvacıbaşı): a chief confectioner.
- Hoja (Ottoman Turkish: خواجه, Modern Turkish: hoca): a teacher; the Sultan's adviser.
- Ikinji Kapu-oghlan (Ottoman Turkish: ایکنجی قاپی اوغلان, Modern Turkish: ikinci kapıoğlan): a white eunuch in charge of the second gate of the palace.
- Imam (Ottoman Turkish: امام, Modern Turkish: imam) the Caliph or lawful successor of Mohammed; a leader of daily prayers.
- Iskemleji (Ottoman Turkish: اسکمله جی, Modern Turkish: iskemleci): a page of high rank.
- Itch-oghlan (Ottoman Turkish: ایچ اوغلان, Modern Turkish: içoğlan): a page in one of the Sultan's palaces.
- Jebeji-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: جيب جي باشي, Modern Turkish: cebecibaşı): a chief armorer.
- Jerrah-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: جراح باشی, Modern Turkish: cerrahbaşı): a chief surgeon.
- Kâim (Ottoman Turkish: قائم, Modern Turkish: kaim): a caretaker of a mosque.
- Kanuni (Ottoman Turkish: قانونی, Modern Turkish: kanuni): legislator.
- Kapu Aghasi (Ottoman Turkish: قاپی آغاسی, Modern Turkish: kapıağası): the white eunuch in charge of the principal palace.
- Kapudan Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: کاپیتان پاشا, Modern Turkish: kaptan paşa) an admiral.
- Kapuji (Ottoman Turkish: قاپی جی, Modern Turkish: kapıcı): a gatekeeper.
- Kapuji-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: قاپی جی باشی, Modern Turkish: kapıcıbaşı): literally "head gatekeper"; master of ceremonies.
- Kapujilar-kiayasi (Ottoman Turkish: قاپی جی لر قایاسی, Modern Turkish: kapıcılar kâyası): a grand chamberlain.
- Katib (Modern Turkish: Kâtib): scribe or secretary
- Kazi or Kadi (Ottoman Turkish: قاضی, Modern Turkish: kadı): a judge.
- Kazasker (Ottoman Turkish: قاضيعسكر, Modern Turkish: kadıasker): one of the two chief judges of the Ottoman Empire, entrusted with military matters.
- Kharaji (Carzeri, Caragi), a non-Muslim who pays the kharij.
- Khatib, a leader of Friday prayers.
- Khazinehdar-bashi (Ottoman Turkish: خزانه دار باشی, Modern Turkish: hazinedarbaşı), a treasurer-in-chief.
- Khazineh-odassi (chamber of the treasury), the second chamber of pages.
- Khojagan, a chief of a treasury bureau.
- Kiaya (Cacaia, Cahaia, Caia, Checaya, Chechessi, Chiccaia, Chietcudasci, Gachaia, Ketkhuda, Quaia, Queaya) (common form of ketkhuda), a steward or lieutenant.
- Kiaya-bey, the lieutenant of the grand vizier.
- Kiaya Katibi, a private secretary of the Kiaya-bey.
- Kilerji-bashi, a chief of the sultan's pantry.
- Kizlar Aghasi (general of the girls), the black eunuch in charge of the palace of the harem.
- Kul, a slave; one of the sultan's slave-family.
- Masraf-shehriyari (imperial steward), substitute for the intendant of kitchen.
- Mektubji, a private secretary of the grand vizier.
- Mihter (Mecter), a tent-pitcher; a musician.
- Mihter-bashi, the chief tent-pitcher.
- Mir Alem, the imperial standard bearer.
- Molla, a judge of high rank.
- Mosellem, a fief holder by ancient tenure.
- Muderis, a professor in a Medresseh.
- Muezzin, one who calls Muslims to prayer.
- Mufettish, a special judge dealing with endowments.
- Mufti, a Muslim legal authority; in particular, the Sheik ul-Islam.
- Muhtesib, a lieutenant of police.
- Mujtahid, a doctor of the Sacred Law.
- Mulazim (candidate), a graduate of the higher Medressehs.
- Munejim-bashi, a chief astrologer.
- Muste emin, a resident foreigner.
- Mutbakh-emini, intendant of the kitchen.
- Muteveli, an administrator of an endowment.
- Naib, an inferior judge.
- Nakib ol-Eshraf, the Chief of the Seids or Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.
- Nazir, an inspector of an endowment.
- Nishanji, a chancellor.
- Nizam al-mulk, basis of the order of the kingdom (title of a vizier of Melek Shah).
- Oda-bashi (head of chamber), the page of highest rank; a corporal of the Janissaries.
- Papuji, a page of high rank.
- Pasha (Bascia, Bassa), a very high official.
- Peik, a member of the body-guard of halbardiers.
- Reis Effendi, or Reis ul-Khuttab, a recording secretary; a recording secretary of the Divan, later an important minister of state.
- Rekiab-Aghalari (generals of the stirrup), a group of high officers of the outside service of the palace.
- Rusnamehji, a chief book-keeper of the Treasury.
- Sakka, a water-carrier.
- Sanjak-bey, a high officer of feudal, cavalry and governor of a Sanjak.
- Sarraf, a banker.
- Segban-bashi (Seymen-bashi) (master of the hounds), the second officer of the corps of Janissaries.
- Seid, a Descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
- Seraskier, a commander-in-chief.
- Serraj, saddlers.
- Shahinji, a falconer.
- Sharabdar (Seracter) (drink-bearer), a page of high rank.
- Shehr-emini (Saremin), intendant of imperial buildings.
- Sheik, a preacher; a head of a religious community.
- Sheik ul-Islam, the Mufti of Constantinople and head of the Muslim Institution.
- Sherif, a Descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
- Silahdar (Silahtar, Selicter, Sillictar, Suiastrus, Suluphtar) (sword-bearer), a member of the second corps of standing cavalry; the page who carried the sultan's arms.
- Sofi, woolen; a dervish (an appellation of the Shah of Persia).
- Softa (Sukhta), an undergraduate in a Medresseh.
- Solak (left-handed), a janissary bowman of the sultan's personal guard.
- Spahi (Sipah, Sipahi, Spachi, Spai), a cavalry soldier; a member of the standing or feudal cavalry.
- Spahi-oghlan (Spacoillain) (cavalry youth), a member of the highest corps of the standing cavalry.
- Subashi, a captain of the feudal cavalry and governor of a town.
- Sultan (سلطان), is a word Arabic origin, originally meaning "authority" or "dominion". By the beginning of the 16th century, this title, carried by both men and women of the Ottoman dynasty, was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known (notably hatun for women and bey for men), with emperor and imperial princes (Şehzade) carrying the title before their given name, with sultan's mother, imperial princesses, and main imperial consort carrying it after.This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative.
- Tahvil Kalemi, a bureau of the Chancery.
- Terjuman, an interpreter (dragoman).
- Terjuman Divani Humayun, a chief interpreter of the sultan.
- Teshrifatji, a master of ceremonies.
- Teskereji, a master of petitions.
- Teskereji-bashi (chief of document-writers), the Nishanji.
- Timarji, the holder of a Timar.
- Ulufaji (Ouloufedgis, Allophase, Holofagi) (paid troops), a member of the third corps of the sultan's standing cavalry.
- Veznedar, an official weigher of money.
- Vizier (burden-bearer), a minister of state.
- Voivode (Slavic), an officer, a governor.
- Yaya, a fief holder by ancient tenure, owing infantry service.
- Yaziji (laxagi), a scribe or secretary.
- Zagarji-bashi (master of the harriers), a high officer of the Janissaries.
- Zanijiler (Italianized), lancers or Voinaks (?).
- Zarabkhane-emini, intendant of mints and mines.
- Ziam, the holder of a Ziamet.
Other titles include:
- Agha (or Agha): commander, a title junior to Bey and conferred on military officers on a personal basis.
- Alp: brave warrior, a title conferred during the early years of Ottoman rule.
- Amir al-Hajj: Commander of the Hajj Pilgrimage, a title for the annual commanders of the Hajj pilgrimage caravans from Damascus and Cairo
- Amir ul-Muminin: Commander of the Faithful, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
- Bey: a title junior to Pasha and conferred on civil and military officers on a personal basis; also borne as a courtesy title for the sons of a Pasha.
- Beg, an ancient Turkic administrative title (chieftain, governor etc.)
- Bey Effendi: part of the title of a husband and sons of an Imperial Princess.
- Beylerbeyi (or Beglerbegi): Lord of Lords. An office signifying rule over a great province, equivalent to Governor-General. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha.
- Beyzade: son of a Bey, a courtesy title borne by a son of a Bey Effendi.
- Binbashi: (literally head of 1000) Major (army) or Commander (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
- Chiflik Rulers:Compared to Christian feudal system the chiflik rulers controlled land holdings.These land holdings could be passed on to their sons.
- Khalif (also Caliph or Khalifa): Successor (of the Prophet).
- Khalifat Rasul Rub al-A'alimin: Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe. The highest earthly title of the Muslim world, enjoyed by the Sultans of Turkey after their conquest of Egypt in 1517.
- Damad-i-Shahriyari: Imperial son-in-law, title conferred on the husbands of Imperial Princesses.
- Effendi: master, title equivalent to Esquire; frequently used together with higher titles in order to indicate signify enhanced status. Used by the sons of Sultans from the reign of Sultan 'Abdu'l Majid I.
- Ferik: Lieutenant-General (army) or Vice-Admiral (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
- Ghazi: victorious, a title conferred on leaders who distinguish themselves in war.
- Gözde: noticed (by the Sultan). Style borne by junior ladies of the Harem when first gaining favour from the Sultan.
- Khadim ul-Haramain us-Sharifain: Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, a title awarded to Salim I by the Sherif of Mecca.
- Haji (or Hacci): honorific used for men who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca.
- Hakhan ul-Barrayun wa al-Bahrain: Lord of the Lands and Seas, one of the many titles of the Sultan.
- Hanımefendi: title borne by the official wives of Imperial Princes or imperial consort of the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, who came below the rank of Kadınefendi.
- Haseki Kadın: Lady favourite, title borne by junior ladies of the Harem, who had borne a daughter to a Sultan.
- Haseki Sultan (خاصکي سلطان): Title borne by chief consort of Sultan in 16th and 17th century.
- Hazretleri: style equivalent to Highness.
- Kadınefendi (قادين افندی): title given to main imperial consort of Ottoman sultan from 17th century. The title was a replacement of the early titles, Hatun and Haseki Sultan.
- Kaimakam: Lieutenant-Colonel (army) or Commander (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Bey.
- Katkhuda: Second in command to the Agha in the Janissary corps
- Khan (or Hân): a title signifying sovereign or ruler in Turkey, but a very junior title signifying a male noble, or even a mere name, in other parts of the Muslim world.
- Khakhan: Khan of Khans, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
- Khanum or (Hanim): female of Khan, equivalent to Lady.
- Khanum Sultana (or Hanım Sultan): Princess Lady, title borne by the daughters of Imperial Princesses.
- Begum: female of Beg, equivalent to Lady.
- Kizlar Aghasi: Chief of the Eunuchs. The office entitled the holder to the style of His Highness.
- Iqbal (or Ikhal): fortunate, title borne by the favourite Harem ladies of a Sultan.
- Kapudan Pasha: Grand Admiral or Admiral of the Fleet.The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
- Kodjabashis: local Christian notables in parts of Ottoman Greece who exercised considerable influence and held posts in the Ottoman administration.
- Lewa (or Liva): Major-General (army) or Rear-Admiral (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
- Mahd-i Ulya-i-Sultanat: crade of the great Sultan, another title for the Sultan's mother.
- Miralai: Colonel (army) or Captain (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Bey.
- Mulazim Awal: Lieutenant (army) or Sub-Lieutenant (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
- Mulazim Tani: Second Lieutenant (army) or Midshipman (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
- Mushir: Field Marshal.The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
- Naqib al-ashraf: Supervisor or head of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's Descendants (ashraf)
- Nishan (or Nichan): order of chivalry or decoration of honour.
- Padshah (or Padishah): Emperor, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
- Pasha: Lord, a title senior to that of Bey and conferred on a personal basis on senior civil officials and military officers. Awarded in several grades, signified by a whip, the highest rank being a whip of three yak or horse tails.
- Pashazada: son of a Pasha, used as an alternative courtesy title to Bey.
- Sadaf-i-Durr-i-Khilafat: shell of the pearl of the caliphate, another title for the mother of the Sultan.
- Saraskar: C-in-C.
- Shah: King, title of Persian origin.
- Shah-i-Alam Panah: King, refuge of the world, one of the titles of the Sultan.
- Shahzada (or Shahzade): son of the King, title used for the sons of Sultans from the reign of Muhammad I.
- Shahzada Hazratlari (or Shahzade Hazretleri): Imperial Highness.
- Shaikh ul-Islam: the title held by the highest ranking Muslim religious official below the Khalif. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha together the style of His Highness.
- Shalabi (or Çelebi): gracious lord, title borne by sons of the Sultan until the reign of Muhammad II.
- Silahadar: Master-General of the Ordnance.
- Sipah Salar: General of Cavalry.
- Sultan: title borne by male members of the Imperial family, particularly after then reign of Muhammad II. When it is used before the given name, together with Khan after the name, it signifies ruler. When used before the name, Imperial Prince. When used after the name, Imperial Princess.
- Sultan Khan: The Grand Sultan, the chief title borne by the ruler of Turkey and the Ottoman Empire, equivalent to Emperor.
- Sultan us-Selatin: Sultan of Sultan, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
- Sultanzade (or Sultanzada): literally "son of a Sultan", the title borne by the sons of Imperial Princesses.
- Sünnetçi: Circumciser.
- Vali: Governor. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha.
- Vali Ahad (or Veliaht): Heir Apparent or Presumptive usually translated as Crown Prince.
- Vali Ahad Zevcesi: Heir Apparent's wife, the title borne by the official wives of the Heir Apparent, equivalent to Crown Princess but not usually translated.
- Valide Hatun: The title borne by the "legal mother" of a reigning Sultan before 16th century
- Valide Sultan: The title borne by the "legal mother" of a reigning Sultan from 16th century.
- Vizier: bearer of the burden, i.e. Minister.
- Vizier-i-Azam: Grand Vizier, the title borne by the incumbent Prime Minister. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha together the style of His Highness.
- Yuzbashi (or Youzbashi): Captain (army) or Lieutenant (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
- Khedive: Governor of Egypt and Sudan, and vassal of the Ottoman Empire.
- List of Mughal titles and appellations
- List of Iranian titles and appellations
- List of Mamluk titles and appellations
- Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507673-7.
- The government of the Ottoman Empire in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent (1913) on Internet Archive
- RoyalArk-Turkey at the Wayback Machine (archived April 18, 2002)
- The government of the Ottoman empire in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent (p. 32) by Albert Howe Lybyer, in public domain
- Ottoman-Turkish conversation-grammar, a practical method of learning the Ottoman-Turkish language at the Internet Archive By V. H. Hagopian — Official Titles (p. 459)