Kapnobatai, meaning "those who walk on/in smoke/clouds", were ancient shamans and descendants of the Scythians as well as the Thracians and Dacians who burned cannabis flowers to induce a state of trance. It is believed that as cannabis slowly spread westward, these peoples were introduced to it by the ancient Aryans, of whom in turn were introduced to it by the ancient Assyrians, and them by the ancient Hindus. These past cultures were some of the very first to smoke cannabis for recreational and spiritual purposes.
- Chris Bennet. "The Scythians".
- Martin Booth (2005). Cannabis: A History. Macmillan Publishers & Random House, Inc. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-312-42494-7.