Kingdom of Qocho

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Kara-Khoja Kingdom
Kingdom

856–1335
[[File:East-Hem 900ad.jpg|250px|center|alt=|Location of Kara-Khoja Kingdom]]
Capital Gaochang, Beshbalik
Languages Old Uyghur language
Religion Buddhism, Manichaeism, Church of the East (Nestorianism)
Government Monarchy
History
 -  Established 856
 -  Disestablished 1335
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Avar Khaganate 564–804
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
  Volga Bulgaria
Kangar union 659–750
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek Khanate
743–1035
Cumania
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khilji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [1][2][3] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty

The Kingdom of Qocho, (traditional Chinese: 畏兀兒; simplified Chinese: 畏兀儿 ; pinyin: wèiwùér) (Mongolian ᠦᠶᠭᠦᠷ Uihur) also called the Idiqut state ("Holy Wealth, Glory"), was an Uyghur Turkic state created during AD 856–866, based in the cities of Qocho (also called Kara-Khoja) near Turpan, Beshbalik, Kumul, and Kucha. Qocho serves as the winter capital with Beshbalik its summer capital. It was also called Uyghuristan or Uyghurstan in its later period.

The kingdom was a Buddhist state, with state-sponsored Buddhism and Manichaeism, and it can be considered the center of Uyghur culture. The Uyghurs sponsored the construction of many of the temple caves in nearby Bezeklik. They abandoned their old alphabet and adopted and modified the script of the Sogdians, which later came to be known as the Uyghur script.[4] The Idiquts (title of the Karakhoja rulers) ruled independently until they become a vassal state of the Kara-Khitans. In 1209, the Kara-Khoja ruler Idiqut Barchuq declared his allegiance to the Mongols under Genghis Khan, and the kingdom existed as a vassal state until 1335. After submitting to the Mongols, the Uyghurs went into the service of the Mongol rulers as bureaucrats, providing the expertise that the initially illiterate nomads lacked.[5] Qocho continued exist as a vassal to the Mongols of the Yuan dynasty, and were allied to the Yuan against the Chagatai Khanate. Qocho was finally conquered by Khizr Khoja of the Chagatai Khanate around the 1390s.

Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs as physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons.[6]

After being converted to Islam, the descendants of the previously Buddhist Uyghurs in Turfan failed to retain memory of their ancestral legacy and falsely believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) were the ones who built Buddhist monuments in their area.[7][8]

Uygur Khan Successor (8th and 9th century wall painting)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364. 
  2. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280. 
  3. ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162. 
  4. ^ Svatopluk Soucek (2000). "Chapter 4 - The Uighur Kingdom of Qocho". A history of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65704-0. 
  5. ^ Svatopluk Soucek (2000). "Chapter 7 - The Conquering Mongols". A history of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65704-0. 
  6. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0231139241. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  7. ^ Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb; Bernard Lewis; Johannes Hendrik Kramers; Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht (1998). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 677. 
  8. ^ [1][2][3]