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- Sürmene, ancient Hyssos
- "DRIVE TURKS ALONG COAST.; Russians Reach the Kara Dere, 20 Miles from Trebizond". The New York Times. 1916-04-08.
- Lynne Williams; Anthony Bryer (1997). "Survey in Trabzon and Gümüşhane Vilayets, Turkey, 1992-1994". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 51: 283–289. doi:10.2307/1291767. JSTOR 1291767.
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