Karabakh carpet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A Karabakh carpet of Malibayli sub-group. Malibayli village of Shusha, 1813)

The Karabakh carpet is one of four major regional groups of carpets made in Azerbaijan[1] named after the Karabakh region. Karabakh carpet making were added to UNESCO’s Representative Masterpiece of Intangible Heritage as part of Azerbaijani Carpets.[2]

History[edit]

Carpet-weaving was historically a traditional profession for the female population of Karabakh. The oldest carpet at the Azerbaijan Carpet Museum is the 17th-Century, Karabakh carpet called “Ajdahali” (or “The Dragon”). It was bequeathed to the museum by the US collector, Grover Schiltz, in 2013.[3]

Carpet-weaving in Karabakh especially developed in the second half of the nineteenth century, when the population of many areas in Karabakh was engaged in carpet-weaving, mainly for commercial sale purposes. At this time Shusha became the center of the Karabakh carpet-weaving.

Types[edit]

Besides usual carpets, carpet bags and coverlets of different types were widely spread. These included pileless məfrəş (translit. mafrash, a trunk); xurcun (translit. khurdjun, a doubled travel bag); heybə (translit. heiba, travelling bag); çuval (transli. chuval, sacks for holding loose products); çul (chul, all kinds of coverlets); yəhər üstü (translit. yahar ustu, saddle cover) and other objects.

Armenian[edit]

Art historian Hravard Hakobyan notes that "Artsakh carpets occupy a special place in the history of Armenian carpet-making."[4] Common themes and patterns found on Armenian carpets were the depiction of dragons and eagles. They were diverse in style, rich in color and ornamental motifs, and were even separated in categories depending on what sort of animals were depicted on them, such as artsvagorgs (eagle-carpets), vishapagorgs (dragon-carpets) and otsagorgs (serpent-carpets).[4] The rug mentioned in the Kaptavan inscription is composed of three arches, "covered with vegatative ornaments", and bears an artistic resemblance to the illuminated manuscripts produced in Artsakh.[4]

That the art of carpet weaving was intimately tied to the making of curtains is indicated in a passage by Kirakos Gandzaketsi, a thirteenth-century Armenian historian from Artsakh, who praised Arzu-Khatun, the wife of regional prince Vakhtang Khachenatsi, and her daughters for their expertise and skill in weaving.[5]

Azerbaijan[edit]

Azerbaijan carpets are traditionally divided into four types, so-called “carpet schools”, all of which have distinct characteristics. These carpet schools are: 1) Guba-Shirvan with manufacturing centers in Guba, Shirvan region and Baku; 2) Ganje-Kazakh, with centers in Ganje town and Kazakh region; 3) Karabakh (with major centers in Shusha, surrounding villages; and 4) Tabriz with centers in Tabriz and Ardebil in South (Iranian) Azerbaijan.The carpets from various regional types differ by three features: ornaments, manufacturing technique and the kind of article in question. Karabakh carpets comprise 33 different compositions in total. Some of them were partly borrowed from the Tabriz and Iranian carpet schools, some are completely original.[6]

The Karabakh or Qarabagh carpet school developed in two areas: in lowland and mountainous parts of Karabakh. The last one often and the most renowned one is often called “the Shusha carpet group”. Besides Shusha, the surrounding villages of Dashbulag, Dovshanly, Girov, Terniviz, Malibayli, Chanakcha, Tun, Tuglar, Hadrut, Muradkhanly, Gasimushagi, Gubatly, Gozag, Mirseid, Bagirbeyli, Khanlig, Tutmas were also known for their rugs. Each village developed original design and ornaments and had specific characterization which distinguished them from one village to another . In lowlands carpet manufacturing was based in Jabrayil, Horadiz, Barda and Agdam (most notably, Lambaran village).[7] [8]

Karabakh was famous for its pileless carpets,starting with traditional Turkic Kilim it slowly evolved into different more elaborate types of ornaments such as shadda, zili, verni and palas products. High artistic taste is typical also for Karabakh jejims from the Lambaran village (near present-day Agdam). Jejims were a popular decoration material for house interiors and were used in Karabakh for producing pillows and pillowcases, tablecloths, curtains, coverlets. Besides usual carpets, carpet bags and coverlets of different types were widely spread. These included pileless mafrash (a trunk); khurdjun (a doubled travel bag); heiba (travelling bag); chuval (sacks for holding loose products); chul (all kinds of coverlets); yahar ustu (saddle cover) and other objects.

Carpet-weaving in Karabakh especially developed beginning from the second half of the 19th century, when the population of many areas in Karabakh was engaged in carpet-weaving, mainly for commercial sale purposes. At this time Shusha became the center of the Karabakh carpet-weaving.Karabakh and Shusha carpets have greatly influenced the Nakhchivan and Zangezur schools of carpets. Some experts actually consider these schools to be sub-categories of the Karabakh carpet school.Shusha‘s carpet-weavers, Meshedi Bayram Gurban-oglu, Djabbar Haji Akber-oglu, Fatima Aga Sherif-gizi, Ahmed Dashdamir-oglu participated and were awarded prizes in an international show in Paris in 1867. Shusha carpets also received awards in 1872 in Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition.[9] [10] [11]

Museums[edit]

Some of the famous Karabakh carpets are presently kept in various museums of the world. A Karabakh silk carpet (zili) of the 16th or 17th century made in Barda is currently kept in Berlin in the Museum of Arts. The Boston Museum of Fine Arts holds a Shusha carpet of the 18th century. US Museum of Textiles possesses a Shusha carpet of the 18th century, called "Afshan", and the Metropolitan museum in New York has in its collection a Karabakh carpet of "Verni" group. A unique collection of Shusha and Karabakh carpets is currently kept in the State Museum of Carpet in Baku, Azerbaijan. Most of the collection in this museum was originally kept in Shusha Carpet Museum. In 1992 not long before the town’s occupation by the Armenian military forces, the Shusha museum’s director, arranged for 600 carpets to be evacuated from the town in army vehicles. Today the carpets can be found at the Baku museum in an exhibition titled “Burnt Culture.”

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Editors, The. "Karabagh rug". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  2. ^ "Traditional art of Azerbaijani carpet weaving in the Republic of Azerbaijan - intangible heritage - Culture Sector". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  3. ^ Editors, The. "The Glorious Carpets of the Azerbaijan Carpet Museum". Chelseacleaning.co.za. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
  4. ^ a b c Hakobyan. Medieval Art of Artsakh, p. 84.
  5. ^ (in Armenian) Kirakos Gandzaketsi. Պատմություն Հայոց [History of Armenia]. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1961, p. 216, as cited in Hakobyan. Medieval Art of Artsakh, p. 84, note 18.
  6. ^ "Karabakh carpets". Virtualkarabakh.az. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  7. ^ "Rugs & Carpets from the Caucasus: The Russian Collections - Liatif Kerimov - Google Books". Books.google.com.qa. 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  8. ^ "كتب Google". Books.google.com.qa. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
  10. ^ http://irs-az.com/new/pdf/201301/1358757045846114775.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.spongobongo.com/cauc5.htm