||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (March 2010)|
Karaikal Ammaiyar (Tamil: காரைக்கால் அம்மையார், which means "the revered mother from Karaikkal"), one of the three women amongst the sixty three Nayanmars, is one of the greatest figures of early Tamil literature. She was born at Karaikkal, South India, and probably lived during the 6th century. She was a great devotee of Lord Shiva.
Karaikal is a maritime trading city in Chola Nadu. Ammaiyar was born to Dhanathathanar, a merchant. From childhood, Ammaiyar grew up with great love in god.In her childhood ammaiyaar built shivalinga using sand. Ammaiyaar chanted the five letter mantra Namasivaya and attended to the needs of Shaiva devotees.Even in her very young age, Ammaiyaar cared the shaiva devotees like a mother.
Ammaiyaar was wedded to Paramathathan, the son of a rich merchant in Nagapattinam. Shaiva devotees who visited her home were lavishly fed and were given clothes and jewels.
One day Ammaiyar's husband, Paramathathan, had sent two mangoes to be kept for him. That day a hungry Shaiva devotee came to her residence. As the luncheon was not yet ready, Ammaiyaar didn't wait for the cooking to complete. Ammaiyaar gave the devotee, curd rice and one of the two mangoes which her husband gave earlier. Later, when Ammaiyar's husband came home, Ammaiyar served him the other mango. The mango was very delicious, and her husband requested that the other mango be served. Ammaiyaar went inside kitchen, and Ammaiyar didn't know what to do since the Mango is already served to the adiyaar[siva's devotee]. With Lord Siva's grace a Divine Mango appeared in her palm. Ammaiyaar was very happy and Ammaiyar served the Mango to her husband.
As this fruit was divinely sweet and was infinitely delicious compared to the previous one, her husband inquired as to how Ammaiyar obtained this mango. Since her husband was not a proper devotee, Ammaiyaar was afraid of revealing the God's grace. The rule is that God's grace should not be revealed to non-devotees. But there is one more rule that when a husband is asking something,the wife has to truthfully answer his questions. Subsequently,Ammaiyar worshiped Lord's feet and revealed the truth to her husband. Her husband didn't believe it. He asked her to produce another mango with divine help. Ammaiyar prayed to Lord Shiva for another mango and said to her Lord that if He didn't give her another Mango, his name will get affected. Immediately Lord gave her a similar mango,which she gave it to her husband. The mango then disappeared, and Paramathathan realised the divine nature of his wife. Paramathathan understood that Ammaiyar was worthy of worship and Ammaiyar cannot be treated as his wife. He then deserted Ammaiyar, becoming a trader and married the daughter of a merchant who then gave birth to their child. Paramathathan named the child with the real name of Ammaiyar. When word reached ammaiyar's family, they decided that they must take her to him. When he saw his former wife, Paramathathan addressed her reverentially, saying that he realised Ammaiyar was no ordinary human being. He worshipped Ammaiyaar with his wife and child. Ammaiyar prayed to Shiva asking for a boon - that Ammaiyar may worship Lord Shiva as a disembodied wraith. Ammaiyar received the boon, and leaving all her beauty and her body behind. Then Ammaiyar graciously sang, "Arpudha Thiruvandhaadhi" and "Thiru Irattai Mani Maalai". Ammaiyar traveled to Mount Kailas, climbing it upside down on her head. There Goddess parvathi, wife of shiva, asked about ammaiyar. Lord Shiva told, Ammaiyar is the mother who is taking care of ourselves. Ammaiyar worshiped shiva. shiva greeted her with calling her "Ammaiye"(means, 'my mother!'), and Ammaiyar replied "Appa"(father to all). Lord asked her wish to which Ammaiyar replied, "I want endless and delightful love with you. I don't want to be born again. Even if I have any birth, I should not forget you. When you perform your holy dance, I want to be beneath in your feet and I want to sing your praise in joy." The Lord granted the boon and asked Ammaiyar to come to Thiruvalangadu, where He is performing one of the holy dances (oordhuva thandava). Ammaiyar visited Thiruvalangadu, walking on her holy head. Ammaiyar sang 'Thiruaalangaatu Mootha Thirupathigam 1' and 'Thiruaalangaatu Mootha Thirupathigam 2'. Ammaiyar blissfully sings under the feet of Dancing Lord
In 1954, A.L. Basham published a photograph in his The Wonder that was India depicting an ascetic or demonic female figure that he called “Kali as Demoness playing Cymbals”, and in 1955, Heinrich Zimmer called this female character “Kali". One year later, this type of figure was identified as the Tamil Nayanar Karaikkal Ammaiyar by Jean Filliozat in Kârâvêlane’s Kâreikkâlammeiyâr: œvres éditées et traduites. In 1956, Kârâvêlane and Jean Filliozat presented a publication that included the first French translation of the verses ascribed to the Tamil saint-poet Karaikkal Ammaiyar, which probably dated to the 6th or 7th century. Karaikkal Ammaiyar was depicted in South Indian art from the 11th century onwards. The publication included several plates depicting the female Nayanar, in bronze, stone, or as being a part of a temple structure. A dancing Shiva on the south wall of the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram (c. AD 1025) shows, on Shiva Nataraja’s right side, an emaciated female figure playing the cymbals and displaying ascetic or demonic features. The Statue has wild uncombed hair, pointed shrivelled breasts, and a fierce facial expression. Filliozat identified this figure as Karaikkal Ammaiyar.
This depiction of the squatting female figure was published by Hermann Kulke in 1970 in his analysis of the religious and historical background of Cidambaram in Tamil Nadu based on the Cidambaramahatmya. He also calls the figure Karaikkal Ammaiyar, and states that this emaciated figure strongly resembles the Mother Goddess Chamunda (Kulke 1970:123). In 1976 Mireille Bénisti published an article in which she states that the figure of Karaikkal Ammaiyar is depicted in Khmer art, especially in Cambodia. On a lintel from Vat Baset in Cambodia she found a figure that she interpreted as the emaciated Tamil Nayanar Karaikkal Ammaiyar. However, the study of Peter de Bruijn published in 2007 pointed out that similar emaciated female figures are to be found in Southeast Asia, but cannot be identified as Karaikkal Ammaiyar.
- Dallapiccola, Anna. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1)
- Karavelane (in French). Kareikkalammeiyar, oeuvres editees et traduites, institut francais d'indologie, Pondicherry (1956)
- Jagadeesan, N. The Life and Mission of Karaikkal Ammaiyar Bhattacharya, N.N. [ed] Medieval Bhakti Movements in India Munishiram Manoharlal, New Delhi (1989), pages 149–161
- Schouten, Jan Peter (in Dutch). Goddelijke vergezichten – mystiek uit India voor westerse lezers, Ten Have b.v., Baarn, the Netherlands (1996), ISBN 90-259-4644-5
- de Bruijn, Peter. Kāraikkālammaiyār: Part 1: An iconographical and textual study; Part 2: Poems for Siva (ISBN 978-90-811564-1-7) 2007. 147 pp. colour, B/W plates.
- Craddock, Elaine Śiva's Demon Devotee: Kāraikkāl Ammaiyār, SUNY Press, Albany (2010), ISBN 978-1-4384-3087-4
- McGlashan, Alastair The History of The Holy Servants of the Lord Siva, page 161 Trafford (2006), ISBN 978-1-4120-7914-3
- Das, Sisir Kumar (2005). A History of Indian Literature, 500-1399: From Courtly to the Popular 6. Sahitya Akademi. p. 31. ISBN 9788126021710.