Karaikudi

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Karaikudi
காரைக்குடி
town
Karaikudi is located in Tamil Nadu
Karaikudi
Karaikudi
Coordinates: 10°04′N 78°47′E / 10.07°N 78.78°E / 10.07; 78.78Coordinates: 10°04′N 78°47′E / 10.07°N 78.78°E / 10.07; 78.78
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
District Sivaganga
Government
 • Type Special Grade Municipality
 • Body Karaikudi Municipality
Area
 • Total 33.75 km2 (13.03 sq mi)
Elevation 82 m (269 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 206,714
 • Density 6,100/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 630001
STD code 04565
Vehicle registration TN-63
Website www.municipality.tn.gov.in/karaikudi

Karaikudi is a municipality in Sivaganga district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is part of the area commonly referred to as "Chettinad". Karaikudi is declared a heritage town by the Government of Tamil Nadu,[1] on account of the palatial houses built with limestone called karai veedu.

Karaikudi comes under the Karaikudi assembly constituency, which elects a member to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years, and it is a part of the Sivaganga (Lok Sabha constituency), which elects its member of parliament (MP) once in five years. The city is administered by the special grade Karaikudi municipality, which covers an area of 33.75 km2 (13.03 sq mi). As of 2011, the city had a population of 106,714. Roadways are the major mode of transportation to Karaikudi and the nearest airport is Madurai Airport, located 80 kilometres (50 mi) away from the city.

History[edit]

The interior of Chettinad Palace in Karaikudi

The town derives its name from thorny plant Karai referred in ancient literature as Kareekudi, which in modern times became Karaikudi. The town was established in the 19th century, and the oldest known structure is the Koppudaiya Nayagi Amman Temple.[2] Mahatma Gandhi delivered two speeches in Karaikudi in 1927[3][4] and Bharathiyar visited Karaikudi in 1919 to participate in a function.[5] Post independence, the town registered significant growth in the industrial sector.[2] Karaikudi and surrounding areas are generally referred as "Chettinad".[6][7] The town is home to Nagarathar, a business community and Chettiars, financiers and trade facilitators.[2][8]

Demographics[edit]

According to 2011 census, Karaikkudi had a population of 106,714 with a sex-ratio of 1,000 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[9] A total of 10,619 were under the age of six, constituting 5,405 males and 5,214 females.The average literacy of the town was 81.48%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[9] The town had a total of 27504 households. There were a total of 40,069 workers, comprising 244 cultivators, 314 main agricultural labourers, 1,303 in house hold industries, 30,836 other workers, 7,372 marginal workers, 62 marginal cultivators, 496 marginal agricultural labourers, 345 marginal workers in household industries and 6,469 other marginal workers.[10]

Geography[edit]

Karaikudi is located in Sivagangai district of Tamil Nadu State. The TrichyRameswaram Highway passes through Karaikudi. The Thennar River flows through South Karaikudi. Karaikudi is located at 10°04′N 78°47′E / 10.07°N 78.78°E / 10.07; 78.78. It has an average elevation of 82 metres (269 ft). The terrain of Karaikudi is predominantly flat. Rocky areas are found in the surrounding areas of Karaikudi town and intensity of rocks is more towards western side of the town. The soil is hard red lateritic type and is not suitable for cultivation.[11] The water table in the area is generally at depths of 3 to 6 ft (0.91 to 1.83 m) and rises to nearly 1 m (3 ft 3 in) below the ground level during rainy seasons. Since the 1970s, the water supply for the Karaikudi residents has been dependent on the deeper aquifers.[11] The average maximum temperature is about 34 °C (93 °F), and average minimum temperature is about 24 °C (75 °F). The annual average rainfall in Karaikudi is about 920 millimetres (36 inches).

Administration and politics[edit]

Municipality officials
Chairman Karpagam Ilango[12]
Commissioner P.Mariappan[13]
Vice-Chairman S.Meyappan[14]
Elected members
Member of Legislative Assembly K.R.Ramasamy[15]
Member of Parliament Senthilnathan[16]

Karaikudi was constituted as a municipality in 1928 and was upgraded to Grade II Municipality in 1973, to Selection Grade in 1988 and special grade in 2013. The area of municipality is about 13.75 km2, comprising the revenue villages of Kalanivasal, Sekkalai kottai, Elappakudi Area, Ariyakudi Area and Senjai.[17] The Karaikudi municipality has 36 wards and there is an elected councillor for each of those wards.[18] The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: general administration/personnel, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, city planning and Information Technology (IT). All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the executive head.[19] The legislative powers are vested in a body of 36 members, one each from the 36 wards.[20] The legislative body is headed by an elected Chairperson assisted by a Deputy Chairperson.[21]

Karaikudi is a part of the Karaikudi assembly constituency and it elects a member to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years.[22] From the 1977 elections, All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) won the assembly seat four times (in 1977, 1984, 1991 and 2009 elections), two times by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK, 1980 and 1989), once by Tamil Maanila Congress (TMC, 1996) and twice by Indian National Congress (INC) won during 2006, 2016 elections. The current member of the constituency is K. R. Ramasamy from the Congress party.[15][23] Karaikudi is a part of the Sivaganga Lok Sabha constituency. The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is P. R. Senthilnathan from the AIADMK. From 1967, the Sivangang parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress for eight times (during 1980, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1999, 2004 and 2009 elections), ADMK once (during 1977 elections), Tamil Maanila Congress twice (during 1996 and 1998 elections) and Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam twice (during the 1967 and 1971 elections).[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]

Law and order in the city in maintained by the Sivaganga sub division of the Tamil Nadu Police headed by a Deputy Superintendent. There are three police stations in the town, one of them being an all-women police station. There are special units like prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and special branch that operate at the district level police division headed by a Superintendent of Police.[37]

Culture[edit]

Chettinad Cuisine originated in the areas around Karaikudi

Kundrakudi Shanmuganathan Temple, located 8 km (5.0 mi) away, Ariyakudi Thiruvengamudayan Temple located 3 km (1.9 mi) away, Pillayarpatti Karpagavinayagar temple located 10 km (6.2 mi) away, Thirumayam Permual Temple located 35 km (22 mi) away from Karaikudi are the prominent temples around the town. Kannadasan Mandapam, Kamban Manimandapam, Thousand windows house and Chettinad Raja Palace are other visitor attractions in Karaikudi.[38] The first Temple for Mother Tamil is located in Karaikudi and was established in 1993.[39] Chettinad cuisine originated in the areas around Karaikudi.

Economy[edit]

Karaikudi is a developing urban center in Sivaganga district in Tamil Nadu.[40][41] UNESCO has offered to set up a Chettinad Heritage Museum in Sivaganga district recognizing the unique style of architecture in the region.[42] Chettinad Kottan are Palm leaf baskets woven by the women of the region. Chettinad Kottan has been noted for its unique style and colors and was granted a Geographical Indication tag in 2013.[43][44] Chettinadu Kandangi sarees are a popular type of sarees produced in the region.[45] Athangudi tiles are basically cement tiles like mosaic used for building the palatial houses in the town and in modern times, is a source for handicraft industry.[46] Indian Overseas Bank was founded on 10 February 1937 in Karaikudi by M. Ct. M. Chidambaram Chettyar.[47]

Transport[edit]

The town has two bus terminals namely "Old Bus-stand" and "New Bus-stand". Buses that connect the nearby villages and smaller towns terminate at the Old bus-stand. The State Transport Corporation run moffusil buses terminate at the New bus-stand. Karaikudi Junction railway station is the major railhead serving the town.[48] Nearby airports include Tiruchirapalli International Airport (95 kilometres (59 mi)) and Madurai International Airport (100 kilometres (62 mi)).

Education and utility services[edit]

As of 2011, there were 18 government and private schools in Karaikudi and five colleges in the town.[49] Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology is the oldest college and was established in 1953.[50] Electricity supply to Karaikudi is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). The town along with its suburbs forms the Sivaganga Electricity Distribution Circle.[51] Water supply is provided by the Karaikudi Municipality from seven borewells is located at Sambai Oothu.[52] As per the municipal data for 2011, about 45 metric tonnes of solid waste were collected. There is no underground drainage system in the town and the sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks, open drains and public conveniences.[53] The municipality maintained a total of 46.55 km (28.92 mi) of storm water drains in 2011.[54] As of 2011, there was one government hospital and 13 private hospitals in the town.[55][56] The municipality operates two markets, namely the Anna Daily Market and Uzhavar Santhai that cater to the needs of the town and the rural areas around it.[57]

References[edit]

  1. ^ anonymous. "Government Order on Heritage Towns" (PDF). Directorate of Town and Country Planning, Government of Tamil Nadu, India. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Historical Moments". Karaikudi Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  3. ^ Anonymous. "Mahatma Gandhis Message on Khadi". Bombay Sarvodaya Mandal / Gandhi Book Centre, 299, Tardeo Road, Nana Chowk, Bombay 400007 India. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  4. ^ Pushpa Joshi (2002) GANDHI ON WOMEN: Collection of Mahatma Gandhi's Writings and Speeches on Women, Navajivan Publishing House, ISBN 8172293143
  5. ^ Malarmannan article on Madhabhimana Sangam in Thinnai e-zine, 17 Jan 2011, [1]
  6. ^ Government of Burma 1930a, Report of the Burma Provincial Banking Enquiry Committee, 1929-30, Volume I: Banking and Credit in Burma, Rangoon. Superintendent of Government Printing. 1930. 
  7. ^ P., Siegleman (1962). Colonial Development and the Chettyar: A Study in the Ecology of Modern Burma, 1850-1941, unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Minnesota. 
  8. ^ "The Chettiar" (PDF). 
  9. ^ a b "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  10. ^ "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Karaikkudi". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Karaikudi Municipality, Commissioner. "Karaikudi Municipal Council". General info on the KMC. Department Of Municipal Administration And Water Supply. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  12. ^ "Chairman of municipality". Karaikudi municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  13. ^ "Commissioner of municipality". Karaikudi municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  14. ^ "Vice Chairman of municipality". Karaikudi municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  15. ^ a b "MLA of Karaikudi". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-29. 
  16. ^ "General Elections to Lok Sabha, 2009, name and address of the elected members of parliamentary constituencies in Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  17. ^ Karaikudi Municipality, Commissioner. "Karaikudi Municipal Council". Department Of Municipal Administration And Water Supply. Retrieved 31 Dec 2012. 
  18. ^ "About the municipality". Karaikudi municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  19. ^ "Commissionerate of Municipal Administration". Commissionerate of Municipal Administration. 2006. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  20. ^ "Councillors of municipality". Karaikudi municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  21. ^ "Economic and political weekly, Volume 30". Sameeksha Trust. 1995: 2396. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  22. ^ "List of Assembly Constituencies". Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu state government. 2010. Retrieved 2012-12-28. 
  23. ^ "Partywise Comparison Since 1977". Election Commission of India. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  24. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 17. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  25. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 49. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  26. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 67. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  27. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 71. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  28. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 80. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  29. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 79. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  30. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 73. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  31. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 81. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  32. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 51. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  33. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 86. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  34. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  35. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  36. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 94. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  37. ^ "Karaikudi Police". Karaikudi municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  38. ^ "Places of interest in Karaikudi". Karaikudi Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  39. ^ Anonymous. "Dinamalar Jan 14, 2012". Dinamalar. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  40. ^ Rangarajan, R.S. "Heritage Tourism-BL Print Edition 2/2/2006". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  41. ^ Anonymous. "Architectural Heritage Safeguard". World Monuments Fund, 350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2412, New York, NY. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  42. ^ Anonymous. "District Administration supports heritage museum". Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  43. ^ Government of India 2011, Geographical Indications Journal No. 38, Geographical Indications Registry, Intellectual Property Rights Building, GST Road, Guindy, Chennai 600032, India
  44. ^ Sivaraman, R. "GI tag". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  45. ^ Ananymuos. "Kandangi Saree weavers". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  46. ^ Varanashi, Sathya Prakash. "Legacy of Athangudi tile". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  47. ^ Anonymous. "IOB". Indian Overseas Bank, 763 Anna Salai, Chennai - 600002. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  48. ^ "Karaikkudi Railway". 
  49. ^ "Educational Institutions". Karaikudi municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  50. ^ Anonymous. "ACCET,Karaikudi". Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  51. ^ "Important Address" (PDF). Indian Wind Power Association. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  52. ^ "Water Supply Details". Karaikudi Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  53. ^ "Waste management programme". Karaikudi Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  54. ^ "Storm water drains". Karaikudi Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  55. ^ "Hospitals in Karaikudi". Karaikudi Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  56. ^ "Karaikudi street lights". Karaikudi Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  57. ^ "Karaikudi markets". Karaikudi Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 

External links[edit]