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Karangasem Regency

Coordinates: 8°23′S 115°31′E / 8.383°S 115.517°E / -8.383; 115.517
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Karangasem Regency
Kabupaten Karangasem
ᬓᬩᬸᬧᬢᬾᬦ᭄ᬓᬭᬂᬳᬲᭂᬫ᭄
Kabupatén Karaṅgasĕm
The main temple of Besakih
The main temple of Besakih
Coat of arms of Karangasem Regency
Motto(s): 
Raksékeng Dharma Prajahita
English: "Blessing Protection of Dharma to Achieve People's Welfare"
Location within Bali
Location within Bali
Coordinates: 8°23′S 115°31′E / 8.383°S 115.517°E / -8.383; 115.517
Country Indonesia
Province Bali
CapitalAmlapura
Government
 • TypeRegency
 • RegentI Gedé Dana
Area
 • Total324.15 sq mi (839.54 km2)
Elevation
289 ft (88 m)
Highest elevation
(Mount Agung)
Formatting error: invalid input when rounding ft (Mount Agung m)
Population
 (mid 2022 estimate)[1]
 • Total511,300
 • Density1,600/sq mi (610/km2)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groupsBalinese
Bali Aga
 • ReligionHinduism (Balinese Hinduism • folk Hinduism)
 • Languages
Time zoneIndonesia Central Time
Area code(+62) 363
Vehicle registrationDK
Portrait of Gusti Bagus Djilantik, Raja and Regent of Karangasem

Karangasem Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Karangasem; Balinese: ᬓᬩᬸᬧᬢᬾᬦ᭄ᬓᬭᬂᬳᬲᭂᬫ᭄) is a regency (kabupaten) of the island and province of Bali, Indonesia. It covers the east part of Bali, has an area of 839.54 km2 and had a population of 396,487 at the 2010 Census[2] which rose to 492,402 at the 2020 Census;[3] the official estimate as at mid 2022 was 511,300.[1] Its regency seat is the town of Amlapura. Karangasem was devastated when Mount Agung erupted in 1963, killing 1,900 people. Karangasem was a kingdom (Karangasem Kingdom) before Bali was conquered by the Dutch.

History

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Origin of name

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Pura Karang Semadi Lempuyung

The name Karangasem actually comes from the words "Karang Semadi". Several notes containing the origins of the name karangasem are as expressed in the Sading C Inscription found in Geria Mandara, Munggu, Badung. It was further revealed that Mount Lempuyang in the northeast of Amlapura, was originally named Adri Karang which means Mount Coral.

In the inscription it is said that in the year 1072 Saka, the 12th of the half-bright month, Wuku Julungwangi in the month of Cetra, Bathara Guru ordered one of his sons Sri Maharaja Jayasakti or Hyang Agnijaya to descend to Bali. The task carried out as quoted in the inscription reads "...gumawyeana Dharma rikang Adri Karang maka Rahayuan ing Jagat Bangsul...", which means "coming to Adri Karang to make a temple (Dharma) to provide inner and outer safety for Bali".

Hyang Agnijaya is said to have come together with his brothers, namely Sambhu, Brahma, Indra, and Vishnu at Adri Karang (Mount Lempuyang to the northeast of Amlapura city). Mount Lempuyang was chosen by Bathara Guru as a place to spread His love for the salvation of mankind.

In historical research into the existence of the temple, Lempuyang is connected with the words lampu which means chosen, and Hyang which means God (Bathara Guru, Hyang Parameswara). It was in Adri Karang that Hyang Agnijaya made Lempuyang Luhur Temple a place for meditation (Karang Semadi). Gradually the name Karang Semadi changed to Karangasem.[4]

Establishment of the Karangasem Kingdom

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In the 16th to 17th centuries, Karangasem was under the rule of Gelgel Kingdom, with the king I Dewa Karangamla who was based in Selagumi (Balepunduk). I Dewa Karangamla married the widow of I Gusti Arya Batanjeruk, the royal governor who staged a rebellion and was killed in Bungaya Village, with the condition that after their second marriage, the widow Batanjeruk's children would be the ruler. These conditions were agreed to and then I Dewa Karangamla's family moved from Selagumi to Batuaya. I Dewa Karangamla also had a son from another wife named I Dewa Gde Batuaya. The handover of power to the son of the widow Batanjeruk marked the beginning of the founding of the Karangasem Kingdom which was held by the Batanjeruk Dynasty.

Expansion to western Bali and Lombok and Dutch conquest of Karangasem

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Leaders involved in the war in Lombok in 1894: Anak Agung Ketut Karangasem, Major General P.P.H. van Ham,[5] Major General J.A. Vetter (commander),[5] Resident M.C. Dannenbargh, and Gusti Gede Jelantik.
Gusti Gede Jelantik and his son, Gusti Bagus Jelantik, at Puri Agung Karangasem (circa 1900 -an).

After King I Gusti Anglurah Ketut Karangasem died, the government of the Karangasem Kingdom was held by I Gusti Gede Karangasem (Dewata in Tohpati) between 1801-1806. At that time, the territory of the Karangasem Kingdom was getting bigger, expanding its power to Buleleng and Jembrana. After his death, I Gusti Gede Ngurah Karangasem was succeeded by his son, I Gusti Lanang Peguyangan, who was also known as I Gusti Gede Lanang Karangasem.

The victory of the Buleleng Kingdom against the power of the Karangasem Kingdom caused the king of Karangasem, I Gusti Lanang Peguyangan, to step aside and at that time the Karangasem Kingdom was once again controlled by the king of Buleleng, I Dewa Pahang. Power was finally reclaimed by I Gusti Lanang Peguyangan. The rebellion of a royal retainer named I Gusti Bagus Karang in [1827] succeeded in overthrowing I Gusti Lanang Peguyangan so he fled to Lombok, and the throne of the Karangasem Kingdom was held by I Gusti Bagus Karang.

When I Gusti Bagus Karang died while attacking Lombok, at the same time the king of Buleleng, I Gusti Ngurah Made Karangasem, succeeded in conquering Karangasem and appointed his son-in-law I Gusti Gede Cotong as king of Karangasem. After I Gusti Gede Cotong was killed due to a power struggle, the throne of Karangasem was succeeded by the cousin of the king of Buleleng, namely I Gusti Ngurah Gede Karangasem.

Groups of Balinese nobles from the Karangasem Kingdom then began to control the western part of Lombok Island. One of them, namely the Bali-Mataram group, managed to control more than other Bali groups, and even eventually controlled the entire island in 1839.[5][6][7] Since then Balinese palace culture has also developed in Lombok.[6]

On 25 August 1891, the son of the ruler of Bali-Mataram, Anak Agung Ketut Karangasem, was sent, along with 8,000 soldiers, to quell the rebellion in Praya, which included the region of Selaparang Kingdom. On September 8 1891, a second army, under another son, Anak Agung Made Karangasem, with a strength of 3,000 men was sent as additional troops.[5] Because the royal army seemed to be in difficulty to overcome the situation, further assistance was requested the vassal ruler of Karangasem, namely Anak Agung Gede Jelantik, to send 1,200 elite troops to put down the rebellion.[5] The war raged for a long time from 1891 to 1894, and the Bali-Mataram army which had more sophisticated weapons equipped with two modern warships, Sri Mataram and Sri Cakra, succeeded in occupying many rebellious villages and surrounding the last stronghold of Sasak resistance.[5]

On 8 November 1894, the Dutch systematically fired cannons at Balinese positions in Cakranegara, destroying the palace, killing around 2,000 Balinese, while they themselves lost 166 men.[7] By the end of November 1894, the Dutch had succeeded in defeating all Balinese resistance, with thousands of Balinese being killed, surrendering, or performing puputan rituals.[6] Lombok and Karangasem later became part of the Dutch East Indies, and the government was run from Bali.[6] Gusti Gede Jelantik was appointed as Regent by the Dutch in 1894, and he ruled until 1908.[8]

Colonial period

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Dutch occupation period

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Anak Agung Agung Anglurah Ketut Karangasem when receiving a visit from Governor General Dirk Fock in 1925.
Anak Agung Agung Anglurah Ketut Karangasem with his wife. The furniture at Puri Agung Karangasem that appears in the photo was a gift from Queen Wilhelmina from The Netherlands.

After the entry of the Netherlands, it also had an influence on government bureaucracy. In 1906 in Bali there were three types of government, namely:

  • Rechtstreeks bestuurd gebied (direct government) covers Buleleng, Jembrana and Lombok
  • Zelfbestuurend landschappen (self-government) are Badung, Tabanan, Klungkung and Bangli
  • The stedehouder (representative of the Dutch government) are Gianyar and Karangasem

Thus, in the Kingdom of Karangasem, successive people who became Stedehouder (ruler) were I Gusti Gede Jelantik in 1894-1908, and Stedehouder I Gusti Bagus Jelantik who had the title Anak Agung Agung Anglurah Ketut Karangasem (Dewata in Maskerdam) in the years 1908-1950, who supervised 21 Punggawa, namely Karangasem, Seraya, Bugbug, Ababi, Abang, Culik, Kubu, Tianyar, Pesedahan, Manggis, Antiga, Ulakan, Banyakdem.[9] By Decree Governor Generals of the Dutch Indies dated 16 December 1921 No. 27 Stbl. No. 756 of 1921, starting from January 1 1922, Karangasem's Gouvernements Lanschap was abolished, transformed into an autonomous region, directly under the Government of the Dutch East Indies, forming Karangasem Raad ' which is chaired by Regent I Gusti Bagus Jelantik, while as Secretary is held by Controleur Karangasem.

Anak Agung Agung Anglurah Ketut Karangasem while at Balai Maskerdam, main building of Puri Agung Karangasem, year 1949.

As Regent, I Gusti Bagus Jelantik still uses the title Stedehouder. The number of Punggawa which previously numbered 14 was reduced again to 8, namely: Rendang, Selat, Sidemen, Uangdem, Manggis, Karangasem, Abang, Kubu. By Decree Governor General of the Dutch Indies dated 4 September 1928 No. 1, the title Stedehouder was replaced with the title Anak Agung Agung Anglurah Ketut Karangasem. By Decree Governor General of the Dutch Indies dated 30 June 1938 No. 1 starting from 1 July 1938 he was appointed as Zelfbestuur Karangasem (head of self-help). Simultaneously with the formation of Karangasem's Zelfbestuur, starting from July 1, 1938, Zelfbestuur was also formed throughout Bali, namely Klungkung, Bangli, Gianyar, Badung, Tabanan, Jembrana and Buleleng, where the rulers of the self-swapraja (Zelfbestuur) were incorporated into a federation of kings called Paruman Agung.[9]

In socio-cultural life, as a result of the influence of education obtained in the 19th century, many young intellectuals in various regions in Bali founded youth, religious and scientific associations and organizations. In 1925 in Singaraja an association was founded which was named "Suryakanta" and had a magazine which was also named "Suryakanta". Suryakanta wants the Balinese people to progress in the field of knowledge and eliminate customs that are no longer in line with current developments. Meanwhile, in Karangasem an association was born called "Satya Samudaya Baudanda Bali-Lombok" whose members consisted of civil servants and the general public with the aim of saving and collecting money for the benefit of studiefonds.

Japanese occupation period

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After several battles, the Japan army landed on Sanur Beach, Badung, on 18 and 19 February 1942. From the direction of Sanur, the Japanese army entered the city of Denpasar without experiencing any resistance. Then, from Denpasar, Japan controlled all of Bali, including Karangasem. First of all, what laid the foundations of Japanese power in Bali were the Japanese Army troops (Rikugun). Then, when the situation stabilized, control of the government was handed over to the civil government. When the Japanese entered Bali, Paruman Agung or the council of Balinese kings was changed to Sutyo Renmei.[9]

Independence period

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In 1945 after the surrender of the Japan and the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Bali became part of the Government of State of East Indonesia. The State of East Indonesia was dissolved and all of its territory was merged into the Republic of Indonesia on August 17 1950. The self-swapraja (kingdom) government in Bali was changed to the Council of Kings with its seat in Denpasar and chaired by a king. In October 1950, the Karangasem Swapraja government took the form of the Karangasem Government Council, chaired by the chairman of the Daily Government Council which was held by the Head of Swapraja (Raja) and assisted by members of the Daily Government Council.

In 1951, the term Member of the Daily Government Council was changed to Member of the Karangasem Government Council. Based on Law no. 69 of 1958 starting from December 1 1958, self-government areas in Bali were converted into Level II Regions at the level of regency, including Karangasem. [9]

Administrative districts

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The regency is divided into eight districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas and population totals at the 2010 Census[2] and the 2020 Census,[3] together with the official estimates as at mid 2022.[1] All districts share the same name as their administrative centres. The table also includes the number of administrative villages in each district (totaling 75 rural desa and 3 urban kelurahan - the latter all in Karangasem District), and its postal codes.

Kode
Wilayah
Name of
District
(kecamatan)
Area
in
km2
Pop'n
Census
2010
Pop'n
Census
2020
Pop'n
Estimate
mid 2022
No.
of
villages
Post
codes
51.07.01 Rendang 109.70 36,931 41,782 42,600 6 80863
51.07.02 Sidemen 35.15 31,617 37,045 38,000 10 80864
51.07.03 Manggis 69.83 44,041 54,608 56,700 12 80871
51.07.04 Karangasem
(district) (a)
94.23 82,606 100,036 103,300 11 (b) 80811
-80813
51.07.05 Abang 134.05 60,965 80,345 84,300 14 80852
51.07.06 Bebandem 81.51 45,160 54,941 56,800 8 80861
51.07.07 Selat 80.35 38,114 44,284 45,400 8 80862
51.07.08 Kubu 234.72 57,053 79,361 84,200 9 80853
Totals 839.54 396,487 492,402 511,300 76

Note: (a) including 6 small offshore islands. (b) including 3 kelurahan - the towns of Karangasem, Subagan and Padang Kerta.

Tourism

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Mount Agung
A jetty at Candidasa beach, Bali
Geret Pandan Rites
One of the fountains in Tirta Gangga water palace

Interesting places include:

  • The major Pura Besakih Hindu temple, sometimes called the Mother Temple of Besakih.
  • Mount Agung, the highest peak in Bali.
  • Telaga Waja River, the only rafting spot in eastern Bali.
  • Tenganan "the original Bali", a Bali Aga village whose inhabitants have kept many of their ancient traditions.
  • Amed, a beach town.
  • Tulamben, a dive site.
  • Candidasa, a starting point for visiting the east coast of Bali. East of Candidasa is the village of Bugbug, whose inhabitants celebrate the Perang Dawa (war of the gods) every other year on the full moon of the fourth month, October.
  • Prasi Beach in Prasi village, known as Pantai Pasir Putih (White Sand Beach) or Virgin Beach. This beach is mainly free of crowds, less polluted, and popular for swimming or snorkeling from April to October. [10] [11]
  • Ujung Water Palace, built by the King Anak Agung Agung Anglurah Ketut Karangasem.
  • Tirta Gangga water palace.
  • Puri Agung Karangasem, collectively several royal palaces of the Karangasem kingdom.[12]
  • Budakeling, an area where both Hindus and Muslims live. Saren Jawa village is home to 100 Muslim families, surrounded by Balinese Hindu villages following the Siwa-Buda belief system, which is a combination of Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism. The people of Saren Jawa use Balinese first names before their Muslim last names, such as Ni Nyoman Maimunah.[13]
  • Seraya Village, which keeps the Gebug Ende tradition related to scarcity of water during drought season.[14]
  • Mencol Hill, the eastern-most hill on Bali island. It is known as a sunrise viewpoint; the temple at the peak of the grassy hill has a view to the east coast and Gili Selang islet.[15]
Ujung Water Palace in 1935

See also

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References

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  1. ^ a b c Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2023, Kabupaten Karangasem Dalam Angka 2023 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.5107)
  2. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  4. ^ Dawan, Lanang (16 February 2011). "Sejarah Kerajaan Karangasem". Pemecutan-Bedulu-Majapahit. Retrieved 2024-01-14.
  5. ^ a b c d e f =PA190 Colonial collections revisited By Pieter ter Keurs p.190ff
  6. ^ a b c d =PA790 Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East ..., Volume 3 by Keat Gin Ooi p.790ff
  7. ^ a b [ http://books.google.com/books?id=3zfVsO28NsYC&pg=PA20 Priests and programmers by John Stephen Lansing p.20]
  8. ^ The rough guide to Bali & Lombok by Lesley Reader, Lucy Ridout p.298
  9. ^ a b c d .htm History of Karangasem Regency and Amlapura City
  10. ^ Wayan Suadnyana. "Bali White Sand Beach". Retrieved August 24, 2014.
  11. ^ Adji Soedibjo. "Pantai Pasir Putih: Bali's Virgin Beach". Archived from the original on July 25, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  12. ^ "Puri Agung Karangasem Royal Palace". July 20, 2018.
  13. ^ "Saren Jawa — a model of harmony". August 25, 2011.
  14. ^ "Gebug Ende or Gebug Seraya". July 20, 2018.
  15. ^ "Mencol". July 18, 2018.
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