|Princely State of British India|
|Imperial Gazetteer of India|
|•||1931||3,216 km2 (1,242 sq mi)|
|Density||43.7 /km2 (113.2 /sq mi)|
|Today part of||Rajasthan, India|
|This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.|
The state had an area of 3,178 km2 (1,227 sq mi). In 1901, the population of the state was 156,786, and that of the town was 23,482. Millets, the staple food of the people, was the main agricultural produce. As of the early 20th century, there were no major industries; a little weaving, dyeing, wood-turning and stone cutting constituted the notable cottage industries. Most goods, as also salt, sugar, cotton, buffaloes and bullocks, were imported; rice and goats comprised the main exports.
The predecessor state of the princely state of Karauli, the Kingdom of Mathura, was founded about 995 by Raja Bijai Pal a Rajput ruler. Historical data point to Arjun Deo as the founder of the Karauli State in 1348. The capital was successively in the towns of Mathura, Dwarika, Bayana, Timan Garh, Andher Kotla, Mandrayal, U'ntgir and Bahadurpur.
In 1535 Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged the fort of Chittor, upon which Humayun himself started to fight against him. Rani Karnawati, the widow of Rana Sanga, was ruling Chittor as regent. She also tried to be friendly with the Mughals and sent a Rakhi to Humayun, but Humayun did not arrive in time. If he would have arrived in time and helped Karnawati, perhaps it would have been Sisodias as their close allies. However, Kachwahas became the first allies of Mughals in Rajputana. Bharmal's policy towards Mughals was merely an extension of his brother's policy.
Bharmal's eldest brother Raja Puranmal died at the Battle of Mandrail in 1534, while helping Humayun to recapture the fort of Bayana. He had a son named Surajmal or Sooja. But he was not recognized as king and his younger brother Raja Bhim Singh ascended to the throne of Amber. Bhim Singh was succeeded by his son Raja Ratan Singh and Raja Bharmal succeeded him in 1548.
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During the 18th century Karauli was under the Maratha Empire until the Marathas were defeated by the British. In 1817, Karauli's ruler signed a treaty with the East India Company and became a British protectorate, the status was maintained till the independence of India in 1947.
After India's independence in 1947, the state under Maharaja Ganesh Pal Deo acceded to the Dominion of India on 7 April 1949; Karauli later merged with the Union of India and became part of the state of Rajasthan.
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- 1691 – 1734: Kanwar Pal II
- 1734 – 1757: Gopal Singh (d. 1757)
- 1757 – 24 Oct 1772: Tarsam Pal (d. 1772)
- 1772 – 1804: Manak Pal (d. 1804)
- 1804 – 1805: Amola Pal (d. 1805)
- 1805 – 1837: Herbaksh Pal (b. c. 1792 – d. 1837)
- 1837 – 1849: Pratap Pal (d. 1849)
- 1849 – 10 Jul 1852: Narsingh Pal (d. 1852)
- 4 Sep 1852 – 14 Mar 1854: Bharat Pal
- 14 Mar 1854 – 16 Aug 1869: Madan Pal (d. 1869) (from 12 Feb 1866, Sir Madan Pal)
- 1869: Lakshman Pal
- 1869 – 17 Nov 1875: Jaisingh Pal (d. 1875)
- 1869 – 1871: Vrishbhan Singh Tanwar – Regent
- Jan 1876 – 14 Aug 1886: Arjun Pal II (d. 1886)
- 14 Aug 1886 – 3 Aug 1927: Bhanwar Pal (b. 1864 – d. 1927) (from 22 Jun 1897, Sir Bhanwar Pal)
- 3 Aug 1927 – 6 Apr 1947: Bhom Pal (b. 1866 – d. 1947) (from 1 Jan 1935, Sir Bhom Pal)
- 6 Apr 1947 – 15 Aug 1947: Ganesh Pal (b. 1906 – d. 1984)
- Revenue Stamps of the Princely State of Karauli Exhibit by Jiří Černý