Karenia (dinoflagellate)

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Karenia brevis.jpg
Karenia brevis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Chromalveolata
Phylum: Dinoflagellata
Class: Dinophyceae
Genus: Karenia

Karenia asterichroma
Karenia bicuneiformis
Karenia brevis
Karenia brevisulcata
Karenia concordia
Karenia cristata
Karenia digitata
Karenia longicanalis
Karenia mikimotoi
Karenia papilionacea

Karenia is a genus of 12[2] species of dinoflagellates which were formerly included in the genus Gymnodinium.[3]

A number of species cause red tides, including Karenia brevis off the coast of Florida and Karenia mikimotoi which was first described in Japan, but is now found in the Atlantic ocean as well, probably spread by ballast water.[4]


  1. ^ Turner, Jefferson; Roncalli, Vittoria; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Romano, Giovanna; Esposito, Francesco; Miralto, Antonio; Ianora, Adrianna (April 2012). "Biogeographic effects of the Gulf of Mexico red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on Mediterranean copepods". Elsevier 16: 63–73. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2012.01.006. 
  2. ^ "Karenia". Algaebase. 
  3. ^ Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø (2000). "Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates". Phycologia 39 (4): 302–317. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-39-4-302.1. 
  4. ^ "Karenia mikimotoi". Algaebase. 

Further reading[edit]

Mulholland, M.R. (September 2014). "Contribution of diazotrophy to nitrogen inputs supporting Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico". Science Direct 38: 20–29. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2014.04.004.