Kariya Station opened on September 1, 1888, when the section of the Japanese Government Railways (JGR) connecting Hamamatsu Station with Ōbu Station was completed. This line was named the Tōkaidō Line in 1895 and the Tōkaidō Main Line in 1909. On February 5, 1914, the privately owned Mikawa Railway built a station for the Mikawa Line adjacent to this station, and named it Kariya-shin Station (刈谷新駅?). The two stations were merged on February 10, 1927. The Mikawa Railway became part of Meitetsu in 1941, and the JGR became the Japanese National Railways (JNR) after World War II. All freight operations were shifted to the nearby Kariya Container Center in 1986. With the privatization and dissolution of the JNR on April 1, 1987, the station came under the control of JR Central.