Koch (second from right), between 1933 and 1937
|Born||2 August 1897|
|Died||5 April 1945 (aged 47)|
Buchenwald concentration camp, Germany
|Years of service||1916–1945|
|Commands held||Esterwegen concentration camp|
Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
Majdanek concentration camp
Ilse Köhler (m. 1936)
|Children||4 (3 by Ilse Koch)|
Karl-Otto Koch (German: [kɔx]; 2 August 1897 – 5 April 1945) was a mid-ranking commander in the SS of Nazi Germany who was the first commandant of the Nazi concentration camps at Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen. From September 1941 until August 1942, he served as the first commandant of the Majdanek concentration camp in occupied Poland, stealing vast amounts of valuables and money from murdered Jews. His wife, Ilse Koch, also took part in the notorious crimes at Buchenwald and Majdanek.
Koch was born in Darmstadt, Grand Duchy of Hesse on August 2, 1897. His father worked in local registrar's office and died when Karl was only eight years old. After completing elementary school in 1912, Koch attended Mittelschule and completed a commercial apprenticeship.
In 1916, he volunteered to join the army and fought on the Western Front until he was later captured by the British. Koch spent the rest of the war as a POW and returned to Germany in 1919. As a soldier, he conducted himself well and was awarded the Iron Cross Second Class, the Observer's Badge and the Wound Badge in Black. Following World War I, Koch worked as a commercial manager, an authorised signatory and insurance agent and became unemployed in 1932 (he had served a prison sentence in 1930 for embezzlement and forgery). In 1931, Karl-Otto Koch joined the NSDAP and the Schutzstaffel.
Service with the SS
Koch served with several SS-Standarten (Thirty fifth SS Regiment Kassel, SS Special Detachment Saxony). In 1934 he took command of the Sachsenburg Concentration Camp. Briefly after he was the officer in charge of the Esterwegen Concentration Camp guard unit, officer in charge of the preventive custody camp in the Lichtenburg Concentration Camp, and the adjutant at Dachau Concentration Camp. In 13 June 1935, when he became commander of the Columbia concentration camp in Berlin-Tempelhof. In April 1936 he was assigned to the concentration camp at Esterwegen. Four months later he was moved to Sachsenhausen. Within a few years (September 1937) he advanced to SS-Standartenführer (colonel)..
On 1 August 1937, he was given command of the new concentration camp at Buchenwald. He remained at Buchenwald until September 1941, when he was transferred to the Majdanek concentration camp for POWs near Lublin, Poland. That was largely due to an investigation based on allegations of his improper conduct at Buchenwald, which included corruption, fraud, embezzlement, drunkenness, sexual offences and a murder. Koch commanded the Majdanek camp for only one year; he was relieved from his duties after 86 Soviet POWs escaped from the camp in August 1942. Koch was charged with criminal negligence and transferred to Berlin, where he worked at the SS Personalhauptamt and as a liaison between the SS and the German Post-Office.
Prosecution and death
Koch's actions at Buchenwald first caught the attention of SS-Obergruppenführer Josias, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont in 1941. In glancing over the death list of Buchenwald, Josias had stumbled across the name of Dr Walter Krämer, a head hospital orderly at Buchenwald, which he recognized because Krämer had successfully treated him in the past. Josias investigated the case and found out that Koch, in a position as the Camp Commandant, had ordered Krämer and Karl Peixof, a hospital attendant, killed as "political prisoners" because they had treated him for syphilis and he feared it might be discovered. Waldeck also received reports that a certain prisoner had been shot while attempting to escape.
By that time, Koch had been transferred to the Majdanek concentration camp in Poland, but his wife, Ilse, was still living at the Commandant's house in Buchenwald. Waldeck ordered a full-scale investigation of the camp by Dr Georg Konrad Morgen, an SS officer who was an SS-judge in the SS Court Main Office. Throughout the investigation, more of Koch's orders to kill prisoners at the camp were revealed, as well as embezzlement of property stolen from prisoners.
A charge of incitement to murder was lodged by Prince Waldeck and Dr Morgen against Koch, to which were later added charges of embezzlement. Other camp officials were charged, including Koch's wife. The trial resulted in Koch being sentenced to death for disgracing both himself and the SS. Koch was executed by firing squad on 5 April 1945, one week before American allied troops arrived to liberate the camp.
Koch first married in 1924 and had one son; however, his marriage ended in divorce 1931, due to his infidelity. On May 25, 1936 Koch married Ilse Koch (née Margarete Ilse Köhler), with whom he had a son and two daughters. Ilse later became known as "The Witch of Buchenwald" (Die Hexe von Buchenwald), usually rendered more alliteratively in English as "The Bitch of Buchenwald." When Koch was transferred to Buchenwald, Ilse was appointed an Oberaufseherin (overseer) by the SS and thus had an active, official role in the atrocities committed there. She was known for extreme cruelty towards prisoners.
Notes and references
- Chris Webb, Carmelo Lisciotto (2007). "Majdanek Concentration Camp (a.k.a. KL Lublin)". H.E.A.R.T, Holocaust Research Project.org. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Gedenkstätte Buchenwald: Buchenwald Concentration Camp, 1937-1945: A Guide to the Permanent Historical Exhibition, Wallstein Verlag, 2004 p 41-43
- Whitlock Flint: Buchenwaldské bestie: Karl a Ilse Kochovi a lampy se stínítkem z lidské kůže, Grada Publishing, a.s., Sep 29, 2015 p. 326-327
- Rescue and Resistance: Portraits of the Holocaust, Macmillan Library Reference USA, Jan 1, 1999 p. 311
- Hackett, David A. (1995), The Buchenwald Report, Westview Press, p. 341
- "Schutzstaffel: The SS". Germania International. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- Mark Jacobson: The Lampshade: A Holocaust Detective Story from Buchenwald to New Orleans, Simon and Schuster, Sep 14, 2010 p. 15
- William L. Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 885.
- Benoît Cazenave, L’exemplarité du commandant SS Karl Otto Koch, Revue de la Fondation Auschwitz, Bruxelles, 2005.
SS-Oberführer Alexander Reiner
| Commandant of Columbia-Haus concentration camp
13 June 1935 – 1 April 1936
SS-Oberführer Heinrich Deubel
SS-Oberführer Hans Loritz
| Commandant of Esterwegen concentration camp
20 April 1936 – August 1936
absorbed into Sachsenhausen K.L.
SS-Obersturmbannführer Michael Lippert
| Commandant of Sachsenhausen concentration camp
October 1936 – 1 August 1937
SS-Oberführer Hans Helwig
| Commandant of Buchenwald concentration camp
1 August 1937 – July 1941
SS-Standartenführer Hermann Pister
| Commandant of Majdanek concentration camp
July 1941 – 24 August 1942
SS-Sturmbannführer Max Koegel