Karl Arnold

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Karl Arnold
Karl Arnold Briefmarke Detail.jpg
Acting head of state of Germany
(West Germany)
According to Article 57 of the Basic Law
In office
7 September 1949 – 12 September 1949
Succeeded by Theodor Heuss
Minister President of the North Rhine-Westphalia
In office
17 June 1947 – 20 February 1956
Preceded by Rudolf Amelunxen
Succeeded by Fritz Steinhoff
President of the German Bundesrat
In office
1949–1950
Preceded by office created
Succeeded by Hans Ehard
Personal details
Born (1901-03-21)21 March 1901
Herrlishöfen, Württemberg
Died 29 June 1958(1958-06-29) (aged 57)
Düsseldorf
Political party CDU, previously Centre Party
Spouse(s) Liesel Joeres
Religion Roman Catholic

Karl Arnold (21 March 1901 – 29 June 1958) was a German politician. He was Minister President of North Rhine-Westphalia from 1947 to 1956. From 7 September 1949 until 8 September 1950 he was President of the Bundesrat and ex officio deputy to the President of Germany. Because of that and because the first President Theodor Heuss was elected on 13 September 1949 he was acting head of state of Germany from 7 September to 13 September 1949, which makes him the shortest serving head of state in German history. He is, together with Jens Böhrnsen (in 2010) and Horst Seehofer (in 2012), one of the three Presidents of the Bundesrat who have acted as head of state during a vacancy of the office of President, according to Article 57 of the Basic Law.

Early life and education[edit]

Arnold was born in Herrlishöfen in Württemberg on 21 March 1901.[1] He was trained as shoemaker[1] and later (1920/21) studied at the Soziale Hochschule Leohaus, Munich.

From 1920 onwards, Arnold worked as functionary of the movement of Christian workers. In 1924, he became secretary of the Christian workers union for the Düsseldorf region. He was elected in the town council of Düsseldorf for the Centre Party in 1929.

In 1933, Arnold was co-owner of a sanitary installation shop in Düsseldorf. The Gestapo observed and hunted him in the following years because of his political activities. In 1944, he was jailed by the Gestapo.

Career[edit]

After World War II, Arnold became politically active again. In 1945, he was co-founder of the local Christian-Democratic Party in Düsseldorf, which became part of the CDU later in 1945. Also in 1945, the Düsseldorf chapter of the united workers union was founded, presided by Arnold. On 29 January 1946 Arnold was named mayor of Düsseldorf and later elected in the first free elections (26 October 1946).

In December, 1946, Arnold became deputy minister president of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and in 1947 he was elected minister president. Until 1950 he presided over a coalition of CDU, Centre Party, SPD and (shortly) the Communist Party. He considered himself a "christian socialist". The only in-parliament-party he did not let enter the government was the FDP, whose North-Rhine Westphalian branch had a particular nationalist bent.

On 7 September 1949, he was elected as the first president of the federal Bundesrat of Germany.

From 1950 to 1956, Arnold was elected minister president for North Rhine-Westphalia twice again, governing with the help of conservative parties and the Free Democrats. Important acts of his government were the foundation of the North Rhine-Westphalian broadcasting system (today: Westdeutscher Rundfunk) and the German system of workers union influence in steel and coal industries.

On 20 February 1956, the FDP switched coalition affiliation to the SPD, ending the Arnold government in North Rhine-Westphalia.

In 1957, he was elected into the German Bundestag (with a 72% majority in his constituency). He was member of the Bundestag until 29 June 1958, when he died of a heart attack.[1]

Personal life[edit]

In 1928, Arnold married Liesel Joeres.

Arnold was a Roman Catholic and a member of the German branch of the lay Catholic organization Catholic Action.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Dennis Kavanagh (1998). "Arnold, Karl". A Dictionary of Political Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 20. Retrieved 31 August 2013.  – via Questia (subscription required)

Further reading[edit]

Preceded by
Rudolf Amelunxen
Minister President of North Rhine-Westphalia
1947–1956
Succeeded by
Fritz Steinhoff