|Born||4 July 1795
Jelgava (German: Mitau), present-day Latvia
|Died||10 November 1876
St. Petersburg, Russia
Karl Eduard von Eichwald (4 July 1795, in Mitau, Courland Governorate – 10 November 1876, in Saint Petersburg; Russian: Эдуард Иванович Эйхвальд, Eduard Ivanovich Eykhval'd) was a Baltic German geologist, physician, and naturalist, who worked in Russia.
Eichwald was a Baltic German born at Mitau in Courland Governorate. He became doctor of medicine and professor of zoology in Kazan in 1823; four years later professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Vilnius; in 1838 professor of zoology, mineralogy and medicine at St. Petersburg; and finally professor of palaeontology in the institute of mines in that city.
He travelled much in the Russian empire, and was a keen observer of its natural history and geology. He died at St. Petersburg.
His published works include Reise auf dem Caspischen Meere und in den Caucasus, 2 vols. (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1834-1838); Die Urwelt Russlands (St Petersburg, 1840-1845); Le Lethaea Rossica, ou Paléontologie de la Russie, 3 vols. (Stuttgart, 1852-1868), with Atlases.
His work is not devoid of serious shortcomings, dependent in part on the nature of the compiler. In old age, few self-confident scientists are willing to admit their mistakes. Part of the errors were because of low-quality material, which had been gathered for him by often inexperienced or illiterate people. Therefore, the conclusions are not always trustworthy.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Eichwald, Karl Eduard von". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.