Karnal

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Karnal
Karnal 2.jpg
Clockwise from top right; K3C Mall, Agro Mall, Sector 12 road, Shrimad Bhagwad Gita Dwar, Super Mall, Cantonment Church Tower.
Karnal is located in Haryana
Karnal
Karnal
Location in Haryana, India
Karnal is located in India
Karnal
Karnal
Karnal (India)
Coordinates: 29°41′10″N 76°59′20″E / 29.686°N 76.989°E / 29.686; 76.989Coordinates: 29°41′10″N 76°59′20″E / 29.686°N 76.989°E / 29.686; 76.989
Country India
StateHaryana
DistrictKarnal district
RegionNorth India
Founded byRaja Karna
Named forKarna
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation Karnal
 • MayorRenu Bala Gupta
 • Member of ParliamentSanjay Bhatia
 • MLA, Chief MinisterManohar Lal Khattar
Area
 • Total87 km2 (34 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total357,334[1][2]
Languages[3][4]
 • OfficialHindi
 • Additional officialEnglish, Punjabi
 • RegionalPunjabi, Haryanvi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
132001
Area code(s)0184
Vehicle registrationHR-05
literacy rate84.60%[2]
Sex ratio996/1000 Female/Male
Websitekarnal.gov.in

Karnal (audio speaker iconpronunciation  is a city located in the state of Haryana, India and is the administrative headquarters of Karnal District. It was used by East India Company army as a refuge during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 in Delhi. The Battle of Karnal between Nader Shah of Persia and the Mughal Empire took place in this city in 1739.Sanjay Bhatia is MP of Karnal.

History[edit]

Ancient[edit]

The city associates itself with Karna and has recently set up a large statue of the Mahabharata character Karna, the great donor and a powerful warrior.[5]

A tank in the city also bears the name Karna Tal and a town gate is called Karna gate.

At the end of 6th century A.D., the area was under the rule of the Vardhanas of Thanesar.[6] The 7th century was a period of eclecticism in religion, Buddhism was declining and Hinduism was resurging in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The region was under Kanauj rule under the Pala Emperor of Bengal (770-810 A.D.). The authority of Mihira Bhoja (836-885 A.D.), the Pratihara ruler of Kanauj penetrated as far as Pehowa, including Karnal.[7]

Medieval[edit]

The Tomaras descending from Raja Jaula established themselves as rulers of this region in the middle of the 9th century.[7] About the beginning of the 10th century, as the Pratihara power began to decline, the Tomaras assumed independence. One of the Tomara rulers, Anangpal Tomar, found the city of Delhi and made it his capital, with the area of Karnal and modern-day Haryana being under his realm. The Tomaras came into conflict with the Chauhans of Shakambhari, but continued to rule the Haryana country until the middle of 12th century when they were overthrown by the Chahamana Vigraharaja IV.[8] The country between the Satluj and the Yamuna including Karnal experienced relative peace for a century and a half except the plundering invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni.

In 1526 at the First Battle of Panipat, Mughal emperor Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and captured India along with Delhi and Panipat.

Karnal is listed in the Mughal Ain-i-Akbari as a pargana under Delhi sarkar, producing a revenue of 5,678,242 dams for the imperial treasury and supplying a force of 800 infantry and 50 cavalry.[9]

Daria-i-Noor diamond was seized by Persia's Nader Shah from the Mughal dynasty following the Battle of Karnal and subsequent sack of Delhi (1739)

In A.D. 1739, Nader Shah of Persia invaded the Mughal empire and Karnal was the scene of the famed Battle of Karnal in which Nader Shah decisively defeated Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.[10] Muhammad Shah along with an enormous army occupied a strongly fortified camp at Karnal, but he yielded to the invader as his supplies were cut off from the open country by Shah and was starved into submission.[10] The tactical defeat drastically weakened the Mughal Empire, while the Persian Empire prospered and subsequently hastened the establishment of the British Empire in India.

Sikhs appeared on the scene in the 18th century. The importance of Karnal grew in the time of Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind State who after its capture in A.D. 1763 built the boundary wall and a fort and under whose rule the town increased considerably in size.[11] On 14 January 1764, Sikh Chiefs defeated and killed Zain Khan Sirhindi, the Durrani Governor, and took possession of the whole of Sirhind province as far south as Panipat including Karnal.

Modern[edit]

During the Indian independence movement, a district political conference was organized at Karnal with Lala Lajpat Rai as its chairman. Mool Chand Jain, often referred to as "Gandhi of Haryana" hailed from Karnal and was one of the prominent leaders of the Indian Independence movement.[12]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Karnal (1981–2010, extremes 1949–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.2
(88.2)
33.2
(91.8)
37.5
(99.5)
45.2
(113.4)
46.0
(114.8)
45.6
(114.1)
43.9
(111.0)
42.0
(107.6)
38.3
(100.9)
39.3
(102.7)
34.4
(93.9)
28.5
(83.3)
46.0
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
22.4
(72.3)
27.7
(81.9)
35.3
(95.5)
38.3
(100.9)
37.9
(100.2)
33.9
(93.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.5
(90.5)
31.7
(89.1)
27.4
(81.3)
21.8
(71.2)
30.1
(86.2)
Average low °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
9.4
(48.9)
13.5
(56.3)
18.8
(65.8)
23.3
(73.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.6
(78.1)
25.1
(77.2)
23.2
(73.8)
17.4
(63.3)
12.0
(53.6)
8.0
(46.4)
17.4
(63.3)
Record low °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
0.6
(33.1)
3.5
(38.3)
9.0
(48.2)
14.5
(58.1)
18.0
(64.4)
16.0
(60.8)
18.4
(65.1)
16.0
(60.8)
9.4
(48.9)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
−0.4
(31.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 26.7
(1.05)
24.8
(0.98)
17.8
(0.70)
8.4
(0.33)
24.2
(0.95)
65.7
(2.59)
171.8
(6.76)
157.5
(6.20)
115.9
(4.56)
3.5
(0.14)
1.9
(0.07)
9.0
(0.35)
627.1
(24.69)
Average rainy days 1.5 1.8 1.6 0.9 1.6 3.9 7.9 7.8 4.7 0.2 0.4 0.8 33.2
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 64 58 51 31 33 44 67 73 68 54 53 60 55
Source: India Meteorological Department[13][14]

Education[edit]

Smart city[edit]

Houses During Diwali in Karnal

Karnal was ranked 24th (1st in Haryana) among 4000+ cities in the list of the cleanest cities of India under Swachh Survekshan 2019.[19]

Karnal was selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[20]

Places of interest[edit]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Karnal City".
  2. ^ a b "Karnal (M Cl)". censusindia.gov.in. Government of India. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  3. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report (July 2014 to June 2015)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 85–86. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  4. ^ IANS (28 January 2010). "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  5. ^ King Karna returns to his land — Karnal. Mythology inspires ambitions, a larger-than-life portrayal of past events in order to add awe, plus a few nickels to the government kitty by way of tourism.
  6. ^ D. C. Ganguly (1981). "Western India in the Sixth Century A.D.". In R. C. Majumdar (ed.). A Comprehensive History of India. Vol. 3, Part I: A.D. 300-985. Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. OCLC 34008529.
  7. ^ a b H. A. Phadke (1990). Haryana, Ancient and Medieval. Harman. ISBN 978-81-85151-34-2.
  8. ^ R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore. OCLC 11038728.
  9. ^ Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak; Jarrett, Henry Sullivan (translator) (1891). The Ain-i-Akbari. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal. p. 286. Retrieved 21 January 2021. {{cite book}}: |first2= has generic name (help)
  10. ^ a b Axworthy, Michael (2009)
  11. ^ D. C. Miglani (1993). Politics and Rural Power Struggle: Emerging Trends. Deep and Deep Publications. ISBN 81-7100-578-0.
  12. ^ "Babu Mool Chand Jain Comprehensive Archives".
  13. ^ "Station: Karnal Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 395–396. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  14. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M65. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  15. ^ [1], official website.
  16. ^ Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College
  17. ^ [2], official website.
  18. ^ Maharana Pratap Horticultural University, Karnal, official website.
  19. ^ "Cleanliness survey: Karnal city needs toilets to improve rank". The Tribune. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Khattar's Karnal tops list of smart cities". Tribune. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  21. ^ "State-protected 109-year-old Karnal building awaits restoration". Tribune India. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  22. ^ archaeologyharyana. "VICTORIA MEMORIAL HALL, KARNAL" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ Pawar, Nivedita Jayaram (1 February 2020). "This hotel in Karnal, Haryana has more antiques than any museum". Architectural Digest India (in American English). Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  24. ^ "In semi-rural Karnal, Noor Mahal, a palace hotel, brings in a touch of luxury and royal living". CNBCTV18 (in American English). 25 November 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  25. ^ "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". 28 August 2015.
  26. ^ "Anish wins India's third individual gold in Jr. World Cup". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 26 March 2018.

External links[edit]